All you need to know about football?
There are a lot of technical rules to football, but you can ignore them if you don't care why the officials called a penalty. There is also a lot of strategy to the game, and learning about that can be very rewarding, but it isn't necessary.
In order to simply be able to follow the action on the field, this is what you absolutely need to know. It may seem like a lot. Just start by understanding touchdowns, and refer to the rest of the list as situations come up during the game.
Downs, Punts and Field Goals:
Kicking and Kickoffs:
Passes and Turnovers:
Stopping the Clock:
In order to simply be able to follow the action on the field, this is what you absolutely need to know. It may seem like a lot. Just start by understanding touchdowns, and refer to the rest of the list as situations come up during the game.
- There are ENDZONES at each end of the field. You have one behind you and one in front of you. You start somewhere between them and try to get to the endzone in front of you. If you get there, this is called a TOUCHDOWN. It is worth 6 points.
- After a touchdown, you can try to add 1 or 2 points to your score. (Teams usually go for 1 point and almost always get it, so touchdowns are generally presumed to be worth 7 points.)
- You don't have to get a touchdown all in one shot. You can work your way down the field. Each time you move the ball, it's called a PLAY. The ball usually stays where it is at the end of each play.
- Before each play, the ball is placed on the ground. It may or may not be on a line on the field. If it is not, imagine one -- this is called the LINE OF SCRIMMAGE or simply the line. This is what matters; how far the ball moves sideways does not make any difference except for going out of bounds (see next).
- A play starts when the ball is snapped (hiked) and ends when the ball is dead. This happens with an incomplete pass (see Passes and Turnovers), when the ball goes out of bounds (see Miscellaneous), or when the person with the ball falls to the ground. Kicks have special rules about when the play ends.
Downs, Punts and Field Goals:
- When you get the ball, you start with 4 tries to move the ball at least 10 yards. (The first try is called 1st DOWN, the second is 2nd down, and so on.) If you succeed in going 10 yards, you get four more downs. If you fail, the other team gets the ball. If you go backwards, you still have to get the ball to the original 10-yard spot, even if it is now much farther than 10 yards.
- (Wait a minute -- I thought you said you moved the ball on a PLAY, and now you're calling it a DOWN. Which is it? A down is when you have the ball; a play is what you do with the ball. So you run a play on a down.)
- On each down, the offense has less than a minute to start a play. If they take too long, they are penalized.
- You'll probably want to kick the ball away on 4th down. Kicking the ball to the other team is called a PUNT. (You would do this if you think the other team will get the ball anyway and you want to make sure it is farther away from the goal.) If you are close enough to the endzone, you can try to kick the ball through the goal posts for a FIELD GOAL (worth 3 points).
Kicking and Kickoffs:
- When a team kicks the ball, the other team can always try to catch it and run with it.
- A kick that is dead in the endzone (or goes out of the endzone) is called a TOUCHBACK. The ball is placed at the nearest 20-yard line.
- The game begins with a KICKOFF. You also kickoff to start the 3rd quarter (and usually overtime), and you kickoff after a score. You usually kick it as far as you can, but sometimes you may want to kick it short and try to grab it before the other team can. This is called an ON-SIDE KICK. This is very risky, so you usually only do it if you're desperate.
Passes and Turnovers:
- The ball can be thrown FORWARD or BACKWARD. A backward pass is considered the same as handing the ball off to a runner, even if no one catches it (see "fumble" below). There are no special rules regarding backward passes.
- A forward pass that is caught in bounds is considered completed. If the defense catches it, it is called an INTERCEPTION, and the defense keeps the ball. Anything else is an INCOMPLETE pass. An incomplete pass is dead, and the ball goes back to where it was before the play.
- The offense can only throw the ball forward once per play.
- The offense is not allowed to throw the ball forward once it has passed the line of scrimmage (see "Plays").
- Only certain players on the offense are allowed to catch (or even touch) forward passes.
- If you drop the ball it is called a FUMBLE. A fumble is live and anyone can recover it.
- The border line around the field is the out-of-bounds line (called the sideline or the endline). If a player steps on or over this line, he is out of bounds.
- If you have the ball in your own endzone (the one behind you) and you are tackled or you go out of bounds, the defense gets 2 points. This is called a SAFETY.
- If you break the rules, the officials will throw a yellow FLAG and call a PENALTY. The other team may accept or DECLINE the penalty, depending on whichever is to their advantage. The ball is usually moved after a penalty is accepted.
- The game is divided into four QUARTERS. After the first quarter the teams switch directions and keep playing. (The ball is placed at the same spot on the other half of the field.) After the 2nd quarter, you have halftime. The game essentially starts over after halftime except the score stays the same. After the 3rd quarter, the teams switch directions again.
Stopping the Clock:
- Timeouts can be called by either team but only between plays.
- The clock stops on an incomplete pass, when the ball goes out of bounds, when you score, or when the other team gets the ball. The clock only stops at the end of a play, never during one.
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I used to play high school football and normally you don't need help the trick is to put your shirt on your pads first
Well, first you need to make sure you have protection if you want it. Then when your ready, for the girls make sure that your vagina smells good just incas he wants to Put his mouth on it. Then let the man put it in there and you Will have fun. :)
here is a list of what you need to do to have a hermit crab as a pet: 1. when you go to buy a hermit crab look for one that is active 2. I suggest getting more than 1 (they will live longer with friends) 3. For 1 crab (or 2 small ones) you will need at least a 10 gallon fish tank. Those mini …homes that they sell in stores are not good for your hermie. They need room to roam, play, and sleep. 4. The things that are needed in a hermit crab cage. - a fresh water dish & a salt water dish (DO NOT use table salt it will kill him. You need to get it from the pet stores!) -a food dish -a coconut hut or other hiding house -things for him to climb on - sand (LOTS AND LOTS of sand) -a humidifier (they need at least 70% humidity to survive) 5. Food. Commercial brand food is ok, but they need a variety. So, feed them: grapes, cantaloupe, sunflower seeds, and other human foods. (search the internet for other safe foods) 6. You HAVE to spray your hermie with fresh water at least once a day. 7. hermies don't eat much so dont worry when you dont see much of his food gone. Hermit Crabs aren't as easy to take care of as it seems. If you have anymore questions i suggest asking you local pet store employees. (MORE)
Answer . God considers dabbling in occult topics an abomination, something he hates very much. The reason for this is he is a holy God, meaning set apart, as we are supposed to be as Christians. The second reason is that He is a jealous God, which means that He wants us to rely on Him and His wis…dom, not on Satan for the answers for our lives. Satan is out to kill and destroy us, so why would you want to go to him with your curiosity? It is because a person is curious and dissatisfied with what God has revealed for their lives that makes them to turn to astrology etc. in the occult world. It is a trap of the enemy, but the world and a lot of Christians don't want to hear this. Scripture is very clear about this. God loves you and doesn't want you to fall into the traps of the enemy. He has what you need for your life, much better than anything Satan has for you. If you are supposed to know something in your life, God will show you. Don't distrust God and fall into the trap of the enemy. Trust God and Him alone. Spiritual death awaits those who dabble in the occult, an eternal separation from God, wtih no chance of reconciliation ever after you die. See Hebrews 9:27 in the Bible. (MORE)
The healing process hurts. Don't do it yourself or you could possibly die from blood lose in about 5 minutes. It's actually really entertaining. The initial piercing doesn't hurt at all. It feels really weird right after you get it pierced. Your going to be in hell the morning after. Your tongue swe…lls insanely and you sound like a total retard when you talk for like a day or two. It can mess up the enamel on your teeth but as long as you go to the dentist regularly and they tell you, your okay then you don't have to worry about it. Mine didn't bleed but my brother got it done the same time I did and his bleed a tiny bit. Body Piercing Guidelines or "I want a piercing, now what" . All Body Piercing studios are regulated and work under regional and local health and city licensing regulations. What you may want may not be legal in your area so call and check with your local studios. . Age limits can vary from city to city and state/province to state/province, contact your local body piercing studios (under the yellow pages "Body Piercing" ) they will tell you what the age limits are for your area. . Identification is aways needed (Birth certificate, Student card, Drivers license) Parental consent is consent from the legal parents (Mother or Father). Grand parents, Sister, Brother, Second Cousin twice removed doesn't cut it sorry. Unless they are your legal guardians assigned by the courts and have documented proof or this, it just won't work. . Prices for piercings vary from shop to shop and city to city. Be sure you phone and ask them what the total price is including any *aftercare solutions they may try to sell you (* Professional body piercing studios won't try to sell you aftercare solution, they will recommend cleansers and soaps but that's it if you want it they will sell it but they will not force you to buy it.) . Do your research , check these places out and find a studio that you are comfortable with, talk to the piercer and discuss you wishes. If at any time you feel like you are being ignored or rushed leave, find somewhere else. Good shops will be busy, but they will also want you to book your appointment, this way they have their full attention on you not everyone else who is asking questions (that's a good thing). (MORE)
22 players. 11 a side. A Ball. A Goal and a few extra people for some referreing
The Dewey classification system is a way of organizing books basedon subject and author. This system used to be of the utmostimportance for librarians. Now, however, most library storagesystems use computers, so the Dewey system no longer has to bememorized.
what puzzle are you having problems with! don't read these unless you want to know EXACTLY how to solve each of the puzzles Puzzle 1build a fire. Drag one villager to the pile of wood.. they will place the wood in the pit... then take the villager over to the dry grass....it is behind the cocon…ut trees... they will gather the grass and place it in the pit. Once they have placed the dry grass drag the villager back to the fire pit and they will light it.... the fire is good for 9 hours... when it starts to run low ...I replace the wood when I have only 2 hours left .... drag a villager back to the wood and they will replinish the wood and keep the fire going 2) construction of a dam it will divert water from the stream to an area used for farming. you must have Level 2 of Engineering drag a villager to the rocks that are in the middle of the lower portion of the stream. You will see a message, "He/she could probably build a dam here." 3) scarecrow... adept farmer can construct to protect the crops from the birds. Drag an adept farmer to the twisted pieces of wood and vines that are located in the northern portion of the village. scarecrow requires 2 trips to finish, so make sure that you finish the construction, or your crops will not be protected. 4 special cutting tools that will be needed to cut away vegetation in some parts of the village. Level 2 of Exploration Tech, drag a master scientist to the northern part of the village where he will see something among the rocks near the twisted pieces of wood and vines. Your scientist will need to make a second trip to finish the tools, so take him to the twisted wood and vines to get the necessary materials. Note: You use this same tool to cut away the vines in from of the gong and from the vines by the pond.... 5 villagers learn mastery of six special plants located in various parts of the village. Drag a villager to each of them and watch for the message that each has been mastered. The plants are (beginning in the northwest part of the village and moving clockwise): the odd-looking plant immediately to the left of the very dry grass, the blue flower between the thorns and the rocks, the small lavender flower at the northern edge of the graveyard, the black flowers near the waterfall, the bright reddish flowers south of the dam site, and the large orange-red flower at the south edge of the village. 6 Esteemed Elder is completed when you have sufficiently trained a villager to become master in three skills. That villager will become an Elder , and a totem will be created to commemorate their new status in the village. Note: you don't need and old person for this any age to is master of 3 is an elder! 7 Getting rid of the algae in the ocean After purchasing Level 3 of Farming Tech, take a master farmer where they will collect algae-eating fish..they are yellow... Once sufficient fish have been caught.... I think its 10 ... the algae will be gone and the villagers will have unrestricted fishing. 8 removal of the vines that cover the wall on the east side of the village. After you purchase Level 3 of Culture Tech and have the special cutting tool drag a villager/builder to the vine-covered wall and they will begin cutting away the vines. 9 STEW you will need to have purchased Level 2 of Exploration Tech, retrieved the cauldron from the wood pile, mastered at least one of the special plants, and started a fire in the fire pit. The steps to make a stew are: 1) Drop a villager on the cauldron to put the cauldron on the fire 2) Drop a villager on the cauldron again, and he or she will go get water for the stew 3) Drop a villager on any of the mastered plants, and the villager will gather herbs for the stew. Each stew requires a total of 3 herbs, in any combination. 4) Drop a villager on the cauldron again, and he or she will go get food to add to the stew. When the stew is complete, the villager will move the cauldron off the fire. Some stews are good, some are bad, and some make your villagers do interesting things. 10 requires Level 3 of both Engineering Tech and Exploration Tech. Drag a villager to the ancient covered floor in the southeast part of the village and they will begin uncovering the site. 11 Hospital. After you purchase both Level 3 of Engineering Tech and Medicine Tech, a foundation will appear that your villagers can work on. 12 Sewing hut, which will allow you to change the clothing that your villagers are wearing. After you purchase Level 2 of Culture Tech, a foundation will appear that your villagers can work on. NOTE: it will cost you tech points to change cloths... you need to build the sewing hut to get all puzzles done but you really don't need to use it to finish the game! 13-16 are the pieces of the Gong of Wonder Piece 1 ) After purchasing Level 2 of Exploration, your villagers can clear the thorns blocking access to the gong encasement, which will also reveal a piece of the gong. Piece 2) 3 Master Builders open the crate on the beach, where one of the pieces has been hidden Piece 3)magic stew that will allow one of your villagers to dive for the sunken gong piece in the pond. The herbs needed for that magic stew are: 1 of the black flower near the waterfall and 2 of the red-orange flower on the south side of the village.Have one of your villagers eat the stew put them in the pond and they will then go to the top and dive in and get the gong piece. IF others eat the stew it will be find as long as you don't put them in the pond. Piece 4) finishing Puzzles 6 and 10, drop a totem in the center of the uncovered mosaic to reveal a piece of the gong. Once the gong is assembled You can bang the gong once every 24 hours sit back and watch the effects that it has on your village. NOTES: IF one of your villagers dies ....place one of your villages over the bones and they will drag it to the barial grounds... up by the top of the pond....once you have one in the ground you will not have to place a villager over the bones.... a villager will do it on their own.... if you need any other help let me know (MORE)
You need 11 defense guys and 11 offense guys at a time. Have extraguys in case someone gets injured or paralyzed or went to bed latelast night. You need shoulder and leg pads and a nice shiny helmet.You need a football too.
This is not EVERYTHING you need to know about cats but this IS SOMETHING.There are 36 different species of cats.ok this is a LONG answer!!here are all the types of cats: Abyssinian American bobtail American shorthair American wirehair Angora Asian shorthair Asian semi-longhair Balinese Bengal Birman… Bombay British Angora British shorthair Burmese Burmilla California spangled cat Chantilly/Tiffany Chartreax Chausie Chervbim Colorpoint Longhair Coloroint shorthair Cornisn Cymric Devon Ray Egyptian Mau Exotic shorthair Havana Brown Himbayan Honey bear Japenese bobtail Javanese Korat Laperm Longhair Maine coon Malayan Manx Munankin Nebelung norwegian forest cat Ojicat Ojos azules Oriental Longhair Oriental Shorthair Persian Pixie bob Ragamuffin Ragdoll Russian Blue Scottish Fold Selkirk Rex Siamese Siberian Singapura Snowshoe Somal Sphynx Sterling Tiffanie Tiffany Tonkinese Traditional [apple head] Siamese Turkish Angora Turkish van York chocolate your cat should drink water, not milk.it should get clean water everyday.you should scan different kinds of catfood [dry or wet] to see what kind is best.you cat shoul have checkups while being small and should get rabee shots occanisionally.Before adopting a cat, ask the owner of the cat about it like if it is best living alone, if it needs special care or food, if it prefers living iside or out, and if the cat uses a litterbox,ect.:=] This is not EVERYTHING you need to know about cats but this IS SOMETHING.There are 36 different species of cats.ok this is a LONG answer!!here are all the types of cats: Abyssinian American bobtail American shorthair American wirehair Angora Asian shorthair Asian semi-longhair Balinese Bengal Birman Bombay British Angora British shorthair Burmese Burmilla California spangled cat Chantilly/Tiffany Chartreax Chausie Chervbim Colorpoint Longhair Coloroint shorthair Cornisn Cymric Devon Ray Egyptian Mau Exotic shorthair Havana Brown Himbayan Honey bear Japenese bobtail Javanese Korat Laperm Longhair Maine coon Malayan Manx Munankin Nebelung norwegian forest cat Ojicat Ojos azules Oriental Longhair Oriental Shorthair Persian Pixie bob Ragamuffin Ragdoll Russian Blue Scottish Fold Selkirk Rex Siamese Siberian Singapura Snowshoe Somal Sphynx Sterling Tiffanie Tiffany Tonkinese Traditional [apple head] Siamese Turkish Angora Turkish van York chocolate your cat should drink water, not milk.it should get clean water everyday.you should scan different kinds of catfood [dry or wet] to see what kind is best.you cat shoul have checkups while being small and should get rabee shots occanisionally.Before adopting a cat, ask the owner of the cat about it like if it is best living alone, if it needs special care or food, if it prefers living iside or out, and if the cat uses a litterbox,ect.:=] This is not EVERYTHING you need to know about cats but this IS SOMETHING.There are 36 different species of cats.ok this is a LONG answer!!here are all the types of cats: Abyssinian American bobtail American shorthair American wirehair Angora Asian shorthair Asian semi-longhair Balinese Bengal Birman Bombay British Angora British shorthair Burmese Burmilla California spangled cat Chantilly/Tiffany Chartreax Chausie Chervbim Colorpoint Longhair Coloroint shorthair Cornisn Cymric Devon Ray Egyptian Mau Exotic shorthair Havana Brown Himbayan Honey bear Japenese bobtail Javanese Korat Laperm Longhair Maine coon Malayan Manx Munankin Nebelung norwegian forest cat Ojicat Ojos azules Oriental Longhair Oriental Shorthair Persian Pixie bob Ragamuffin Ragdoll Russian Blue Scottish Fold Selkirk Rex Siamese Siberian Singapura Snowshoe Somal Sphynx Sterling Tiffanie Tiffany Tonkinese Traditional [apple head] Siamese Turkish Angora Turkish van York chocolate your cat should drink water, not milk.it should get clean water everyday.you should scan different kinds of catfood [dry or wet] to see what kind is best.you cat shoul have checkups while being small and should get rabee shots occanisionally.Before adopting a cat, ask the owner of the cat about it like if it is best living alone, if it needs special care or food, if it prefers living iside or out, and if the cat uses a litterbox,ect.:=] (MORE)
Facts about football include its creator Walter Camp in 1876. Thebiggest televised event in the world is the Super Bowl.
Well i could tell you right on here but it'd end up being a page or 2. Find someone who has had a lot of experience with horses, like a trainer. One that I can recommend is.... Tom Mimms he lives in tennessee, and he is an amazing trainer.... ask for more info about him. If you ask a more specifi…c question like what do horses eat or what do horses need in their stall orhow do yoyu groom a horse... be more specific please. (MORE)
11. Battleship row had contained seven ships these 7 ships were in the battleship row.Before dawn on 7 December 1941, the American strategic center of gravity in the Pacific reposed in the seven battleships then moored along "Battleship Row", the six pairs of interrupted quays located along Ford Isl…and's eastern side. Quay F-2, the southernmost, which usually hosted an aircraft carrier, was empty. Northeastward, Battle Force flagship California was next, moored at F-3. Then came two pairs, moored side by side: Maryland with outboard Oklahoma , and Tennessee with West Virigina outboard. Astern of Tennessee lay Arizona, which had the repair ship Vestal alongside. Last in line was USS Nevada, by herself at quay F-8. These seven battleships, ranging in age from eighteen to twenty-five years, represented all but two of those available to the Pacific Fleet. The Fleet flagship, Pennsylvania, was also in Pearl Harbor, drydocked at the nearby Navy Yard. The ninth, USS Colorado, was undergoing overhaul on the west coast.. The USS Arizona is the final resting place for many of the ship's 1,177 crewmen who lost their lives on December 7, 1941. The 184-foot-long Memorial structure spanning the mid-portion of the sunken battleship consists of three main sections: the entry and assembly rooms; a central area designed for ceremonies and general observation; and the shrine room, where the names of those killed on the Arizona are engraved on the marble wall. . The USS Arizona Memorial grew out of wartime desire to establish some sort of memorial at Pearl Harbor to honor those who died in the attack. Suggestions for such a memorial began in 1943, but it wasn't until 1949, when the Territory of Hawaii established the Pacific War Memorial Commission, that the first real steps were taken to bring it about. . Initial recognition came in 1950 when Admiral Arthur Radford, Commander in Chief, Pacific (CINCPAC), ordered that a flagpole be erected over the sunken battleship. On the ninth anniversary of the attack, a commemorative plaque was placed at the base of the flagpole. . President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who helped achieve Allied victory in Europe during World War II, approved the creation of the Memorial in 1958. Its construction was completed in 1961 with public funds appropriated by Congress and private donations. The Memorial was dedicated in 1962. . According to its architect, Alfred Preis, the design of the Memorial, "Wherein the structure sags in the center but stands strong and vigorous at the ends, expresses initial defeat and ultimate victory....The overall effect is one of serenity. Overtones of sadness have been omitted to permit the individual to contemplate his own personal responses...his innermost feelings." (MORE)
you need to know almost every subject to play pro football. u need math to get the right angle to score or cross, you need language arts to communicate wwith your players. you need physical education to stay fit, and you need art to show your creativeness on the field
The Patron saint is saint Andrew the capital is Edinburgh the biggest city is Glasgow the flag colours are blue and white national languages - English and Gaelic its all I'm going to say
i am a professional.. what you need to know about a sniper is that most snipers are going to be spring powered, unless you get a dragonuv or something else that is electric or gas which i do not recommend.. spring powered is the best for snipers, electric for assucalt rifles, and gas for pistols..… on spring sniper rifles, it is going to be a bolt action gun, with a very high fps (feet per second) if you get a good company and a gun with a high price. there are no sniper rifles that are good, that are under $150.00.. you want a gun from the companies: CA (Classic Army), TM (Tokyo Marui), ICS, and many more. if the gun comes in a package of the gun and the scope its okay. but if it comes with 2 magazines, bi-pod, scope, rail, and like a million more stuff then its crappy.. sniper guns should be at least 400 fps or higher.. here are some sites:. www.airsoftgi.com. www.kapowwe.com. www.trinityairsoft.com. www.echo1usa.com. have fun airsofting. :] (MORE)
The first thing you need to do is to make a house and a yard sale. The way to do that is by going to my place and it will say that you don't have a house yet do you want one. Then click the highlighted blue. Then go to pete petersons in downtown to make a yard.First you will need 2,500 millsbucks. T…hen click add a room on the top then add a yard. Then go to my stuff and at the top it will show you something about a yard sale click the highlighted blue and you are on your way to being the richest person on millsberry!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! no that's not it look if ure a newbe just do wut she said and go to the dojo and get your karate belts and you will win 1000 for every time u win another belt!! (MORE)
You need to know things like:. The teams in the league . The division breakdowns . The conference breakdowns . The positions on the field . What each position is responsible for on the field . A basic understanding of the rules . A basic understanding of what the Referee's signals are
Football players should be well rounded in all the core subjects such as Math, English, and Science.
It's a good idea to have read it and understood it prior to graduation from vet school, as you will be taking the oath when you are given your degree in the United States.
I do not know...depends on what your working with. There are some things in this world that are well worth knowing. However algebra is not one of them lol
She has a obligation to educate you on this subject so you will understand when something happens that you didn't know about.
I want to get my ears pierced but know only a little about getting ears pierced i need to know all about it can you tell me about it all about it?
\n. \n. \nLOL! I am laughing not because of your question, but not 2 weeks ago I was crazy searching the web to see if it hurt. It was crazy! People kept saying 'Depends on your pain tolerance'. Heck, How was I supposed to know my pain tolerance? First before I tell you if it hurt, I'll tell you w…hat I went through. First, they let me pick out some earrings. They put some markings on my ears and let me see if that was OK. Loaded the cartridge, and SHOOT. \n. \nLet's get to the hurt-\nRating of 1-10\n. \n---99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999\n. \nI AM THE BIGGEST WIMP, TOO SO TRUST ME! (MORE)
That could be entertaining! Go for it! ANSWER: STOP, you will be making a huge mistakes. Yes it will help some but if you will rebuild your marriage, with your spouse it's not going to be easy. This affair that he or she did will stay with you for a long time. Your mind will always be in that …place and it will hunt you. It will not stop because your heart is still broken and you don't have the trust. Let God solve the pain that your spouse gave you. Always remember sooner or later what goes around, comes around. Think about it and all you can do is tell your spouse your feeling, your pain, and let time heal it for you.. (MORE)
Its a sport with the main objective of kicking a football into the goal of your opponents team.
Hummingbirds heart beats at thousand two hundred-sixty baets a minute. They usally drink pollen from a flower. The average life span of a(n) hummingbirds is 3 to 4 years.. More info:. Add your own info if you want: . Hummingbird . (Redirected from Hummingbirds ). Jump to: navigation , sear…ch For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation) . . Hummingbird . Female Black-chinned Hummingbird. Scientific classification . Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Subclass: Neornithes Infraclass: Neognathae (unranked): Cypselomorphae Order: Apodiformes . Subfamilies . Phaethornithinae Trochilinae . Hummingbirds are birds in the family Trochilidae , and are native to the Americas . They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12-90 times per second (depending on the species). They can also fly backwards, and are the only group of birds able to do so. Their English name derives from the characteristic hum made by their rapid wing beats. They can fly at speeds exceeding 15 m/s (54 km/h; 34 mph).. Feeding . Green Violetear at a flower.. Hummingbirds feed on the nectar of plants and are important pollinators , especially of deep-throated, tubular flowers. Like bees, they are able to assess the amount of sugar in the nectar they eat; they reject flower types that produce nectar which is less than 10% sugar and prefer those whose sugar content is stronger. Nectar is a poor source of nutrients , so hummingbirds meet their needs for protein , amino acids , vitamins , minerals , etc. by preying on insects and spiders , especially when feeding young.. Most hummingbirds have bills that are long and straight or nearly so, but in some species the bill shape is adapted for specialized feeding. Thornbills have short, sharp bills adapted for feeding from flowers with short corollas and piercing the bases of longer ones. The Sicklebills' extremely decurved bills are adapted to extracting nectar from the curved corollas of flowers in the family Gesneriaceae . The bill of the Fiery-tailed Awlbill has an upturned tip, as in the Avocets . The male Tooth-billed Hummingbird has barracuda-like spikes at the tip of its long, straight bill.. The two halves of a hummingbird's bill have a pronounced overlap, with the lower half ( mandible ) fitting tightly inside the upper half ( maxilla ). When hummingbirds feed on nectar, the bill is usually only opened slightly, allowing the tongue to dart out and into the interior of flowers.. Like the similar nectar-feeding sunbirds and unlike other birds, hummingbirds drink by using protrusible grooved or trough-like tongues.. Hummingbirds do not spend all day flying, as the energy cost would be prohibitive; the majority of their activity consists simply of sitting or perching. Hummingbirds feed in many small meals, consuming many small invertebrates and up to five times their own body weight in nectar each day. They spend an average of 10-15% of their time feeding and 75-80% sitting and digesting.. Co-evolution with ornithophilous flowers . A color plate illustration from Ernst Haeckel 's Kunstformen der Natur ( 1899 ), showing a variety of hummingbirds.. Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores (Stiles, 1981) and are tied to the ornithophilous flowers they feed upon. Some species, especially those with unusual bill shapes such as the Sword-billed Hummingbird and the sicklebills, are coevolved with a small number of flower species.. Many plants pollinated by hummingbirds produce flowers in shades of red , orange , and bright pink , though the birds will take nectar from flowers of many colors. Hummingbirds can see wavelengths into the near-ultraviolet , but their flowers do not reflect these wavelengths as many insect-pollinated flowers do. This narrow color spectrum may render hummingbird-pollinated flowers relatively inconspicuous to most insects, thereby reducing nectar robbing . Hummingbird-pollinated flowers also produce relatively weak nectar (averaging 25% sugars w/w) containing high concentrations of sucrose , whereas insect-pollinated flowers typically produce more concentrated nectars dominated by fructose and glucose .. Aerodynamics of flight . A trail of wake vortices generated by a hummingbird's flight. Discovered after training a bird to fly through a cloud of neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles and recording airflows in the wake with stereo photography .. Hummingbird flight has been studied intensively from an aerodynamic perspective using wind tunnels and high-speed video cameras .. Writing in Nature , the biomechanist Douglas Warrick and coworkers studied the Rufous Hummingbird , Selasphorus rufus , in a wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry techniques and investigated the lift generated on the bird's upstroke and downstroke. They concluded that their subjects produced 75% of their weight support during the down-stroke and 25% during the up-stroke. Many earlier studies had assumed (implicitly or explicitly) that lift was generated equally during the two phases of the wingbeat cycle, as is the case of insects of a similar size. This finding shows that hummingbirds' hovering is similar to, but distinct from, that of hovering insects such as the hawk moths .. The Giant Hummingbird's wings beat at 8-10 beats per second, the wings of medium-sized hummingbirds beat about 20-25 beats per second and the smallest beat 70 beats per second.. Metabolism . Anna's Hummingbird , Calypte anna performs personal grooming . With the exception of insects, hummingbirds while in flight have the highest metabolism of all animals, a necessity in order to support the rapid beating of their wings. Their heart rate can reach as high as 1,260 beats per minute, a rate once measured in a Blue-throated Hummingbird . They also consume more than their own weight in nectar each day, and to do so they must visit hundreds of flowers daily. Hummingbirds are continuously hours away from starving to death, and are able to store just enough energy to survive overnight.. Hummingbirds are capable of slowing down their metabolism at night, or any other time food is not readily available. They enter a hibernation -like state known as torpor . During torpor, the heart rate and rate of breathing are both slowed dramatically (the heart rate to roughly 50-180 beats per minute), reducing the need for food.. The dynamic range of metabolic rates in hummingbirds (Suarez and Gass 2002) requires a corresponding dynamic range in kidney function (Bakken et al. 2004). The glomerulus is a cluster of capillaries in the nephrons of the kidney which removes certain substances from the blood, like a filtration mechanism. The rate at which food is metabolized is called the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Most often these fluids are reabsorbed by the kidneys. During torpor, to prevent dehydration, the GFR slows, preserving necessities for the body such as glucose, water and salts. GFR also slows when a bird is undergoing water deprivation. The interruption of GFR is a survival and physiological mechanism unique to hummingbirds (Bakken et al. 2004).. Studies of hummingbirds' metabolisms are highly relevant to the question of why a migrating Ruby-throated Hummingbird can cross 800 km (500 mi) of the Gulf of Mexico on a nonstop flight, as field observations suggest it does. This hummingbird, like other birds preparing to migrate, stores up fat to serve as fuel, thereby augmenting its weight by as much as 100 percent and hence increasing the bird's potential flying time.. Lifespan . Hummingbirds, like most organisms with very rapid metabolisms, have short life-spans and many die during their first year. Those that do survive their first year have an average life span of 3 to 4 years. The longest recorded life span is from a female Broad-tailed Hummingbird that was tagged then recaptured 12 years later, making her at least 12 years old. The oldest known Rufous Hummingbird is a banded bird that was 8 years and 1 month old.. Range . Hummingbirds are found only in the Americas , from southern Alaska to Tierra del Fuego , including the Caribbean . The majority of species occur in tropical Central and South America , but several species also breed in temperate areas. Only the migratory Ruby-throated Hummingbird breeds in continental North America east of the Mississippi River and Great Lakes . The Black-chinned Hummingbird , its close relative and another migrant, is the most widespread and common species in the western United States , while the Rufous Hummingbird is the most widespread species in western Canada .  . Most hummingbirds of the U.S. and Canada migrate south in fall to spend the northern winter in Mexico or Central America. A few southern South American species also move to the tropics in the southern winter. A few species are year-round residents in the warmer coastal and interior desert regions. Among these is Anna's Hummingbird , a common resident from southern California inland to southern Arizona and north to southwestern British Columbia .. The Rufous Hummingbird is one of several species that breed in western North America and are wintering in increasing numbers in the southeastern United States, rather than in tropical Mexico. Thanks in part to artificial feeders and winter-blooming gardens, hummingbirds formerly considered doomed by faulty navigational instincts are surviving northern winters and even returning to the same gardens year after year. Individuals that survive winters in the north, however, may have altered internal navigation instincts that could be passed on to their offspring. The Rufous Hummingbird nests farther north than any other species and must tolerate temperatures below freezing on its breeding grounds. This cold hardiness enables it to survive temperatures well below freezing, provided that adequate shelter and feeders are available.. Reproduction . Hummingbird nest with two chicks in Santa Monica, California . Calliope Hummingbird feeding two chicks in Grand Teton National Park . As far as is known, male hummingbirds do not take part in nesting. Most species make a cup-shaped nest on the branch of a tree or shrub. Two white eggs are laid which, despite being the smallest of all bird eggs, are in fact large relative to the hummingbird's adult size. Incubation typically lasts 18 or 19 days. The nest varies in size relative to species, from smaller than half of a walnut shell to several centimeters in diameter. Many hummingbird species gather spiderwebs to wrap around the exterior of their nests. This unique design allows the normally minuscule nest to stretch and expand with the growing young.. Systematics and evolution . Hummingbird feather. Traditionally, hummingbirds are placed in the order Apodiformes , which also contains the swifts , though some taxonomists have separated them into their own order, Trochiliformes . Hummingbirds' wings are hollow and fragile, making fossilization difficult and leaving their evolutionary history a mystery. Some scientists believe that the hummingbird evolved relatively recently. Scientists also theorize that hummingbirds originated in South America, where there is the greatest species diversity; Brazil, Peru and Ecuador contain over half of the known species. The ancestors of extant hummingbirds may have lived in parts of Europe to what is southern Russia today [ citation needed ] .. There are between 325 and 340 species of hummingbird, depending on taxonomic viewpoint, historically divided into two subfamilies, the hermits (subfamily Phaethornithinae , 34 species in six genera), and the typical hummingbirds (subfamily Trochilinae , all the others). However, recent phylogenetic analyses by McGuire et al. (2007) suggest that this division is slightly inaccurate, and that there are nine major clades of hummingbirds: the Topazes, the Hermits, the Mangoes, the Coquettes, the Brilliants, the Giant Hummingbird ( Patagona gigas ), the Mountain Gems, the Bees, and the Emeralds. The Topazes ( Topaza pella and Florisuga mellivora ) have the oldest split with the rest of the hummingbirds. The hummingbirds are the second most diverse bird family on earth (after the tyrant flycatchers ).. Fossil hummingbirds are known from the Pleistocene of Brazil and the Bahamas -though neither has yet been scientifically described-and there are fossils and subfossils of a few extant species known; until recently, older fossils had not been securely identifiable as hummingbirds.. In 2004, Dr. Gerald Mayr of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main identified two 30-million-year-old hummingbird fossils and published his results in Nature . The fossils of this primitive hummingbird species, named Eurotrochilus inexpectatus ("unexpected European hummingbird"), had been sitting in a museum drawer in Stuttgart ; they had been unearthed in a clay pit at Wiesloch -Frauenweiler, south of Heidelberg , Germany and, because it was assumed that hummingbirds never occurred outside the Americas, were not recognized to be hummingbirds until Mayr took a closer look at them.. Fossils of birds not clearly assignable to either hummingbirds or a related, extinct family, the Jungornithidae , have been found at the Messel pit and in the Caucasus , dating from 40-35 mya ; this indicates that the split between these two lineages indeed occurred at that date. The areas where these early fossils have been found had a climate quite similar to the northern Caribbean or southernmost China during that time. The biggest remaining mystery at the present time is what happened to hummingbirds in the roughly 25 million years between the primitive Eurotrochilus and the modern fossils. The astounding morphological adaptations, the decrease in size, and the dispersal to the Americas and extinction in Eurasia all occurred during this timespan. DNA-DNA hybridization results suggest that the main radiation of South American hummingbirds at least partly took place in the Miocene , some 12-13 mya, during the uplifting of the northern Andes .. Lists of species and genera . Alphabetical list, sortable by common or binomial name . List of hummingbirds in taxonomic order . Feeders and artificial nectar . Hummingbirds will also take sugar water from artificial feeders . Such feeders allow people to observe and enjoy hummingbirds up close while providing the birds with a reliable source of energy, especially when flower blossoms are less abundant.. Hummingbirds will either hover or perch to feed; red feeders are preferred, but colored liquid is not necessary and may be hazardous to their health.. Hummingbird hovering to feed at a red feeder with yellow "flowers". Only white granulated sugar is proven safe to use in hummingbird feeders. A ratio of 1 cup sugar to 4 cups water is a common recipe. ] Boiling and then cooling this mixture before use has been recommended to help deter the growth of bacteria and yeasts. Powdered sugars contain corn starch as an anti-caking agent; this additive can contribute to premature fermentation of the solution. Brown, turbinado, and "raw" sugars contain iron, which can be deadly to hummingbirds if consumed over long periods. [ Honey is made by bees from the nectar of flowers, but it contains sugars that are less palatable to hummingbirds and promotes the growth of microorganisms that may be dangerous to their health.. Red food dye is often added to homemade solutions. Commercial products sold as "instant nectar" or "hummingbird food" may also contain preservatives and/or artificial flavors as well as dyes. The long-term effects of these additives on hummingbirds have not been studied, but studies on laboratory animals indicate the potential to cause disease and premature mortality at high consumption rates. Although some commercial products contain small amounts of nutritional additives, hummingbirds obtain all necessary nutrients from the insects they eat. This renders the added nutrients unnecessary.. Other animals are also attracted to hummingbird feeders. Bees and wasps are attracted to the nectar and may crawl into the feeder, where they may become trapped. Ants are also attracted to the nectar. Orioles , woodpeckers, bananaquits, and other animals are known to drink from hummingbird feeders, sometimes tipping them and draining the liquid. Sometimes a large hummingbird drives its smaller brethren away from a feeder.. To lure flying insects away from feeders, hang several, and provide one feeder with a 3 to 1 mix. The insects will be attracted to the sweeter solution and it won't hurt the hummers to sample it.. In myth and culture . Aztecs wore hummingbird talismans, the talismans being representations as well as actual hummingbird fetishes formed from parts of real hummingbirds: emblematic for their vigor, energy and propensity to do work along with their sharp beaks that mimic instruments of weaponry, bloodletting, penetration and intimacy. Hummingbird talismans were prized as drawing sexual potency, energy, vigor and skill at arms and warfare to the wearer.  . The Aztec god Huitzilopochtli is often depicted as a hummingbird. The Nahuatl word huitzil (hummingbird) is an onomatopoeic word derived from the sounds of the hummingbird's wing-beats and zooming flight. . (MORE)
dude no-one b4 me may not have answered cuz they mtie not get the question...
christaniy is to follow God. That is it. I suggest... finding a church near by, praying before bed (thanking him, or asking him for things, or just talking to him about your day) depending on your age you could find a bible study or youthgroup to join buy a bible
Look up Jimi Hendricks, the Beatles, the Eagles, Molly Hatchet, and Pink Floyd if you want to know all about the foundations of rock or you just want to broaden your horizons with some of the classics. If you want to get more into the modern rock scene i would suggest Papa Roach, the Offspring, Cold…play, and Velvet Revolver. If you want to broaden your horizons even more look up Apocalyptica. They are a great group of four cellists who put a classic spin on a few great rock songs. (MORE)
No, there is no way one person could known everything there is to know about modern medicine. Some Doctors specialize in a specific area of medicine, while others are general practitioners who deal with more common ailments and refer more complicated cases to specialists.
Restore your system using system restore to a previous date when your system worked perfectly or restore registry settings.
many people are tempted to bring a cute baby iguana home without research. These little lizards grow longer than 4 feet. Their bite is painful and sometimes needs stitches. Though they are easy to feed their plant diet, unless you know what you are doing I and many other pet store owners recommend… not to buy one of the most abused animal animal in the U.S. (MORE)
I asked the question and I'm answering the question. Why? Because I want to help all of you who are stuck on the Magna Carta and what it is. WHAT IS THE MAGNA CARTA? The Magna Carta was also called the Magna Carta Libertatum or the Great Charter. The Magna Carta was written in Latin and the wo…rds "Magna Carta Libertatum" means the Great Charter of Freedom". As you can guess, that is why some people also call it the Great Charter. HOW WAS KING JOHN OF ENGLAND INVOLVED WITH THE MAGNA CARTA? After a lot of pressure(John was not an extremely nice man)John's Barons and Bishops created a document which they called Magna Carta(or Magna Carta Libertatum). They wanted John to sign it because it would be like signing a contract-that they would get their rights after John died. John didn't exactly agree with it but what could he do? So in June 1215, he sealed the document. For those of younger people reading this, it was kind of like a will. ...AND WHAT HAPPENED TO IT AFTER THAT? Well, before, as I told you, John was not the most decent man you could find so he abandoned the Magna Carta(I can hear some of you gasp back there!) and the Barons got extremely angry. In fact, a war broke out which led to John's death. He was killed on 19 October 1216. I LOOKED THIS UP ON WIKI AND IT SAID THERE WHERE SOME COPIES! Yeah...I didn't finish. Shortly after John's death, Henry III took over. He didn't like the ways of his father, thus reissued the Magna Carta in 1225. After that...who knows? GRRR!! YOU STILL HAVEN'T ANSWERED MY QUESTION! Which is...? WHAT ABOUT THE COPIES? WHERE THERE ANY COPIES?! Umm...well...yeah. I think so. HOW MANY!!? Hey, Mister "Bold-Writing-with-the-Caps-Lock-on"! I'm not exactly sure(actually I think there might be 3 around today but I'm not to sure). ...SO WHAT DID THE GREAT CHARTER SAY? Hey! I don't know everything! But I know the answer to this. The Magna Carta said: John, by the Grace of God King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitine and... WHAT? I've just thought up an idea! Type this into your address bar: www.bl.UK./treasures/magnacarta/index.HTML# WELL...THANKS.. Hope this helped! (MORE)
What are all the reasons you would need a babysitter and what all do you need to know to be a babysitter?
Top 10 Things to Know About Babysitting: 1: How to feed a child or baby 2: How to change a baby's diaper without throwing up 3: How to get a kid to eat their veggies 4: How to give a baby a bath 5: How to put clothing on a squirming kid 6: The person's number in case of an emergency 7: How to get t…o a hospital in case of injury 8: How to drive 9: How to walk longer than 3 miles 10: How toopen any thing and every thing (MORE)
a cubiod is a 3-d shape and it has 5 faces 8 vertices and 12 edges
well if your Wayne Rooney you don't need a mass salary just a rope and a tyre
GIR is one of the main characters from the animated television series Invader Zim. He is Zim's robot sidekick, a "modified" S.I.R. (Standard-issue Information Retrieval) unit, who occasionally dresses like a dog to disguise the fact that he's an alien robot. GIR is voiced by Rosearik Rikki Simons. G…IR is Zim's moronic, unfocused robot slave, easily influenced and impossible to fully control. He is incapable of focusing attention on important things for long periods of time and often speaks in non sequitur, making him almost completely useless, or even disastrous. unlike Zim, Gir is Very Kind and Sweet to humans and Zim. Occasionally he reverts to normal S.I.R. behavior, during which time his cyan components (sometimes only his eyes) become red and voice becomes much deeper, but these periods are normally short-lived. As a robot, GIR technically has no gender, but he is usually referred to as being male, mostly by Zim. Zim (While under the Santa Suit's control) called GIR "little fellow", suggesting GIR is, indeed, male. GIR's normal disguise is a shoddy green dog suit with a visible zipper down the front, though he occasionally forgets to wear it in front of humans. He is infatuated with Gaz, the sister of Zim's enemy, Dib(further proving he is male). but their are a couple times were tries too destroy Dib and Gaz. He also doesn't mind getting involved with typical Earth culture (MORE)
åã¯ããããç¥ããªããã°ãããªã (kimi ha sore shita shiranakereba ikemanai) would mean "That's all you need to know". Literally, this sentence has the meaning "Only that is what you must know". You can also express this sentiment as å…ã¯ããããç¥ããªãã¦ã¯ãªããªã (kimi ha sore shita shiranakute ha naranai). In general, you can use ãã (shita) + negative to mean "only" and negative ba-form + ãããªã (ikenai),ããªããªã (naranai), or ã ãã (dame da) to say that you must do something. Literally translated, when you say you must do something in Japanese, you are saying that it is unacceptable to not do so. (MORE)
so that they know if they have enough water to take out the fire that is going on
Why do you need to know all of the factors to a number to know if it is a prime or composite number?
You don't. If you know just one factor, other than 1 and the number itself, you will know that the number is composite. A prime has only two factors: 1 and itself. So all the factors is no big deal.
Normally, I choose the NFL Website, which has subcategories of allthe teams and even a shop.Or, there is also ESPN, and if you wantto watch live college games, go to the ESPN360 Website.
No, if a number has even one additional factor besides itself and the number one, then you automatically know it's composite.
To know that a number is prime you need to know that it has no factors other than 1 and the number itself. To know that a number is composite you only need to know one factor other than the number itself or 1.
How do you get the haunted helmet in reach i know you need all the helmets do you need all the attachment's also or is there a certain rank you need to get to i am a general what do i do?
i think you have to be noble which is highest rank that's what my friend said and he has it
If you're thinking of getting a rabbit, you need to learn about: . What is healthy for rabbits to eat and what isn't healthy . What makes a safe and fun habitat for a bunny . What kinds of toys and play structures bunnies like . How rabbits communicate, and what a rabbit's natural behaviours a…re . How you can tell if a rabbit is sick or injured . What sort of grooming, first aid, and health care rabbits need at home . What sort of vet care rabbits need . How rabbits are with other rabbits, other animals, and children . How much rabbits cost . Where you can turn to when you have questions and concerns See the related questions below for details and helpful links! (MORE)
It depends on what postition you want to play. In all, football comes down to throwing, catching, running, blocking, and tackling
No. I play piano and, well, I do know all of the major chords but you don't need to. All you need is to know how to read music, or you can finger pick (which is what I do lol but I can play pretty good finger picking ^_^).
It is important for all engineers to have at least a basic understanding of math. Most very specialized engineers need to have a very good understanding of math in order to do their jobs well and safely.
It's unavoidable since you learn things by just living and can'tsurvive without knowing absolutely nothing, except possibly as avegetable.
One good way to be aggressive for football is to remember why youplay the game. You play to win so do whatever you have to in orderto make that happen.