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Si Cayetano Arellano, ang kauna-unahang Chief Justice ng Korte Suprema ng Pilipinas sa ilalim ng pamahalaang sibil ng Estados Unidos, ay ipinanganak nuong Ika-2 ng Marso 1847 …sa Orion, Bataan. Nag-aral siya sa University of Sto. Tomas kung saan natapos niya ang kursong Philosophy. Sa panahon ng Espanyol, siya'y hinirang na Magistrado Suplente ng Audiencia Tribunal ng Maynila. Siya'y namatay nuong Ika-23 ng Disyembre 1920. (MORE)
Fernando Amorsolo ay ipinanganak sa Mayo 30, 1892 sa Paco kapitbahayan, kapag Manila ay pa rin sa ilalim ng Espanyol soberanya, sa Pedro Amorsolo, isang tagabantay ng libro, a…t Bonifacia ng Amorsolo née Cueto. Amorsolo ginugol ang kanyang pagkabata sa Daet, Camarines Norte, kung saan siya-aral sa isang pampublikong paaralan at tutored sa bahay sa wikang Espanyol pagbabasa at pagsusulat. Pagkatapos ng kamatayan ng kanyang ama, Amorsolo at ang kanyang pamilya ay inilipat sa Manila upang manirahan sa Don Fabian de la Rosa, pinsan ng kanyang ina at Philippine pintor. Sa edad na 13, Amorsolo ay naging isang baguhan sa De la Rosa, na kalaunan maging tagapagtaguyod at gabay sa pagpipinta karera Amorsolo. Sa panahong ito, Amorsolo ng ina burdado upang kumita ng pera, habang Amorsolo nakatulong sa pamamagitan ng pagbebenta ng tubig postkard kulay sa isang lokal na tindahan ng libro para sa sampung centavos bawat. Amorsolo ng kapatid na lalaki, Pablo Amorsolo, ay din ng isang pintor. Unang tagumpay ng Amorsolo bilang isang batang pintor ay dumating noong 1908, kapag ang kanyang pagpipinta Leyendo el periódico kinuha pangalawang lugar sa Bazar Escolta, isang paligsahan na inorganisa ng Asociacion Internacional de Artistas. Sa pagitan ng 1909 at 1914, Amorsolo nakatala sa Art School ng Liceo de Manila, kung saan siya Nagkamit ng mga parangal para sa kanyang mga kuwadro na gawa at guhit. Pagkatapos ng pagtatapos mula sa Liceo, siya pumasok sa University of sa Pilipinas School of Fine Arts, kung saan De la Rosa nagtrabaho sa oras. Sa panahon ng kolehiyo, ang mga pangunahing impluwensya ng Fernando Amorsolo ang mga Espanyol na tao hukuman painterDiego Velazquez, John Singer Sargent, Anders Zorn, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, ngunit karamihan sa kanyang mga kontemporaryong Espanyol Masters Joaquín Sorolla Bastida at Ignacio Zuloaga. Pinaka-memorable work Amorsolo bilang isang mag-aaral sa Liceo kanyang painting ng isang batang lalaki at isang batang babae sa isang hardin, na won sa kanya ang unang premyo sa exhibition art paaralan sa panahon ng kanyang pagtatapos year.To gumawa ng pera sa panahon ng paaralan, Amorsolo sumali kumpetisyon at ginawa guhit para sa iba't ibang mga Philippine publication, kabilang ang unang nobelang Severino Reyes 'sa Tagalog wika, Parusa Ng Diyos ("parusa ng Diyos"), Iñigo Ed. Regalado ng Madaling Araw ("Dawn"), pati na rin ng mga guhit para sa mga edisyon ng thePasion. Amorsolo ay nagtapos na may Medalya mula sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas noong 1914. Pagkatapos ng pagtatapos mula sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas, nagtrabaho Amorsolo bilang ng delinyante para sa Bureau ng Public Works, bilang isang punong artist sa Pacific Commercial Company, at bilang isang part-time na magtuturo sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas (kung saan siya para sa 38 taon). Matapos ang tatlong taon bilang isang tagapagturo at commercial artist, Amorsolo ay ibinigay ng grant upang mag-aral sa akademya de San Fernando sa Madrid, Espanya sa pamamagitan ng negosyante ng Pilipino Enrique Zobel de Ayala. Sa kanyang pitong buwan sa Espanya, Amorsolo sketched sa mga museo at sa kahabaan ng kalye ng Madrid, ang eksperimento sa paggamit ng liwanag at color.Through De Ayala bigyan, Amorsolo ay ring bisitahin ang New York City, kung saan siya nakatagpo ng pagkatapos ng digmaan impresyonismo at kubismo, na magiging pangunahing impluwensya sa kanyang trabaho. Amorsolo set up ang kanyang sariling studio sa kanyang bumalik sa Manila at pininturahan prodigiously sa panahon ng 1920s at ang mga 1930s. Kanyang "Planting sa Rice" (1922), na lumitaw sa mga poster at mga polyeto ng turista, naging isa ng ang pinaka-popular na mga imahe ng Commonwealth ng Pilipinas. Simula sa 1930s, gawa ni Amorsolo ay exhibited malawak parehong sa Pilipinas at sa ibang bansa. Kanyang maliwanag na, maasahin sa mabuti, pastoral larawan itakda ang tono para sa Philippine painting bago ang World War II. Maliban para sa kanyang mas madidilim World War II-panahon na mga kuwadro na gawa, Amorsolo ipininta tahimik at payapang mga eksena sa buong kanyang karera. Amorsolo ay hinahangad pagkatapos ng maimpluwensyang Pilipino kabilang ang Luis Araneta, Antonio Araneta at Jorge B. Vargas. Amorsolo din naging paboritong artist Philippine ng mga opisyal ng Estados Unidos at mga bisita sa bansa. Dahil sa kanyang katanyagan, Amorsolo ay resort sa photographing ang kanyang mga gawa at ilagay at mount ito sa isang album. Prospective mga parokyano ay maaaring pagkatapos pumili mula sa catalog ng kanyang mga gawa. Amorsolo ay hindi lumikha ng eksaktong replika ng kanyang mga tema ng trademark; recreated siya sa mga kuwadro na gawa sa pamamagitan ng pag-iiba-iba ng ilang mga elemento. Ang kanyang mga gawa sa ibang pagkakataon lumitaw sa takip at mga pahina ng mga bata mga aklat-aralin, sa mga nobelang, sa commercial disenyo, sa mga cartoons at mga guhit para sa Philippine publication tulad Ang Independent, Philippine Magazine, Telembang, El Renacimiento Filipino, at Excelsior. Siya ay ang director ng University of Philippine College of Fine Arts 1938-1952. Sa panahon ng 1950s hanggang sa kanyang kamatayan sa 1972, Amorsolo average sa pagtatapos ng 10 kuwadro na gawa sa isang buwan. Gayunpaman, sa panahon ng kanyang mga taon sa ibang pagkakataon, diyabetis, cataracts, rayuma, ulo, pagkahilo at ang pagkamatay ng dalawang anak apektado sa pagpapatupad ng kanyang mga gawa. Amorsolo underwent isang katarata operasyon kapag siya ay 70 taon gulang, isang pagtitistis na ay hindi makahadlang sa kanya mula sa pagguhit at pagpinta. Dalawang buwan matapos na nakakulong sa ang St. Luke Hospital sa Maynila, Amorsolo namatay ng pagpalya ng puso sa edad na 79 noong Abril 24, 1972. Apat na araw pagkatapos ng kanyang kamatayan, Amorsolo ay pinarangalan bilang ang unang National Artist sa Painting sa Cultural Center ng Pilipinas sa pamamagitan ng pagkatapos President Ferdinand Marcos. Amorsolo ay isang malapit na kaibigan ng Philippine iskultor Guillermo Tolentino, ang lumikha ng Caloocan City monumento sa bayani Andres Bonifacio. (MORE)
ALEXANDER THE GREAT (ALEXANDER THE THIRD)Si Alexander III o mas kilala sa tawag na Alexander the great ay isang hari ng sinaunang griyego ng Macedonia. Ipinanganak siya noong …356 B.C. sa Pella, na siyang punong lungsod ng Macedonia. Sinundan niya ang yapak ng kanyang ama na si haring Philip II pagkatapos ng asasinasyon nito noong 336 B.C.. Siya ay namatay sa Babylonia noong 323 B.C. sa edad na 32 anyos. Noong nanunungkulan si haring Philip II sa Macedonia ay napagpasyahan niya na pagkasunduin ang mga taga Macedonia at ang mga griyego, na siyang lalong nagpalaki ng nasasakupan ng Macedonia, at si Alexander ang nagsilbing kapitan-heneral nito na ang unang layunin ay sakupin ang Asya minor, dahil sa matagal na giyerahan ng griyego at persiano. (Busephalus ang pangalan ng kanyang paboring kabayo at Haring Phillip II naman ang kanyang yumaong ama) Ang kanyang batang isipan at kawalan ng karanasan ang siyang naghimok sa ibang pangkat ng Asya na pumanig sa kanya, pero hindi sumang ayon dito ang mga griyego kaya nagpakita siya ng agarang aksyon at disiplinang militar upang humanga ang mga griyego upang sumang ayon ang mga ito. Nagplano siya na magsagawa ng maikli ngunit matagumpay na kampanya sa mga kalapit-bayan ng Macedonia upang mapalawak lalo ang nasasakupan nito hanggang sa hilaga ng Danube. Habang wala siya doon, naisipang magpatiwakal ng dalawang heneral niya na sina Athens at Thebes. Pero dahil sa agarang pagkilos ni Alexander, napigilan niya ang pag aaklas nila na siyang nagpanatili ng kapayapaan sa imperyong griyego. Nang maayos na ang mga problema sa imperyong griyego ay natungo ang atensyon ni Alexander sa Silangang Asya at sa mga Persiano. Dahil sa sunud sunod na kampanya ni Alexander sa ibang bahagi ng asya sa loob ng sampung taon, nakalikom na siya ng sapat na bilang ng mandirigma upang lumaban sa mga Persiano. Marami nang ulit na natalo ng Macedonia ang mga Persiano sa giyera nila, hanggang sa mapabagsak nila si haring Darius III na naghirap, ginawang bihag at pinanatay ni Bessus ang hari ng Bactria noon. Natagpuan na lamang ang bangkay ni haring Darius III ng isa sa mga mandirigma ng Macedonia sa isang karwahe, at tinakpan ni Alexander ang bangkay nito ng kanyang kapa. Pagkatapos nilang masakop ang buong Asya at Persia, tumungo naman sila ng timog upang sakupin ang India at ang mga baybayin nito. Mahirap ang pinagdaanan nila dito dahil malawak ang nasasakupan ng India at malalakas pa ang mga sandata nito tulad ng elepante imbis na kabayo ang gamitin. Sa labanang ito natamaan si Alexander sa kaliwang dibdib na muntik na niyang ikamatay, ang kanyang alagang kabayo naman na si Bucephalus ay sinawing palad na mamatay dahil sa tumagos na sibat at dahil na rin sa katandaan nito (30 anyos na ang kabayo noong mamatay). Dahil dito, nagpagawa ng rebulto si Alexander at pinangalanan ang isang siyudad ng Bucephala, alang lang sa dangal nito. Nasakop niya ang India at ang mga baybayin nito ngunit ang mga Indiano ay nagisip ng masama sa kanya at dahil na rin sa kayabangan ng hukbo ni Alexander ay umaklas sa kanyang hukbo ang mga ito. Sinasabing namatay si Alexander sa dahilan ng pagkakasakit ng malaria, typhoid fever at encephalitis. Ang iba naman ay nagsasabing nilason sa Alak si Alexander ng mga kumakalaban sa kanya. Nakapag asawa siya ng dalawang prinsesa sa magkaibang bayan; Si prinsesa Roxana ng Bactria, at si prinsesa Stateira ng Persia(anak ni haring Darius III). Bagaman wala siyang anak na tagapagmana noong siya ay mamatay, kinuha ng mga heneral ni Alexander ang isang marangal na lalaki na kapangalan ni Alexander, Alexander IV ang pangngalan niya. Walang relasyon si Alexander III kay Alexander IV, kinuha lang ng mga heneral si Alexander IV bilang pag alala sa dakilang si Alexander III. Ang pangngalan ni Alexander ay tumatak sa Kasaysayan ng Pandirigma, una dahil sa malawakang pagsakop nito sa iba't ibang mga lugar sa daigdig, at pangalawa na hindi siya natalo sa kahit anong digmaang kinaharap niya. Siya ay ginawang isang makasaysayang bayani ng buong Macedonia noong mamatay siya sa pamamaraan na tradisyon ni Achilles. at ng dahil sa kanila naging imperyo ang India... by : cuty gellie 19 ! (MORE)
Puerto Rico is a magnificently beautiful island located just south of the Southeastern United States. It has become a hot tourist destination for those looking for a beach get… away since the nation was annexed by the U.S. as a territory. More specifically, Puerto Rico's capital city, San Juan, has become a vacation destination. This article will tell you a little bit about San Juan and hopefully give you some knowledge you can take with you on your next tropical vacation.The city of San Juan is located in Puerto Rico and is its capital. It is the most populous city in the territory and is the 46th-largest city under the control of the U.S. San Juan lies on the Atlantic coast on the northern side of the island. More than 80 percent of the country's population is comprised of native Puerto Ricans. The territory is still mostly a Spanish-speaking and -influenced nation.There are many hotels and resorts in the city of San Juan; the trick is finding what will fit your budget and need. There is plenty of variety in places to stay the night. The La Concha resort is a high-end resort where you can reside next to the beaches, while chain hotels are located further inland. Some of the better resorts include El San Juan Resort and Casino, the Conrad San Juan Candado Plaza, and many others along the beach. The Trip Adviser website at http://www.tripadvisor.com lets you see hotels and resorts near San Juan or on the rest of the island. Because the territory of Puerto Rico has a large, tourism-based economy, most hotels you will find will have great accommodations.There are many different tours that you can take of the tropical island, as well as some that utilize more interesting forms of transportation like helicopters. Also, because it is on the ocean, there are plenty of beaches to sun tan, scuba dive, surf, and enjoy other water activities. While you are there you may also want to check out the beautiful cathedrals that are scattered throughout the city. Checking out a show at the Luis A. Ferre Performing Arts Center also can be a good idea. There is plenty to do in Puerto Rico and you will most definitely want to do your best to experience it all.Most of the local food is similar to that of Cuba or Mexico, but Puerto Rico does have its own cuisine as well. Puerto Rican meals tend to start off with a soup; black bean and chicken soup with rice are two of the more popular. Chicken and fish are very popular among the people of Puerto Rico. These are often used in the main dishes. A lot of Puerto Rican cuisine involves ingredients such as papaya, plantains, cacao, coriander, and yampee. If trying new foods is your thing, then be sure to try this tropical island food.Puerto Rico is known for a lot of things, as well as being known for the famed San Juan port itself. At first all the settlers knew about the island was that it was in a great location and had some great ports that would get a lot of use. During its early history after exploration by the Europeans, the island was embroiled in various imperial disputes. Pirates infested the waters at various times. Today, San Juan is simply known for its tourism and ports, having calmed down some from the time of high-seas derring-do. There are many historical landmarks still in San Juan that preserve the history of the island.All of these things make Puerto Rico, and especially San Juan, unique as an island and vacation spot. With so much to do and so many new things to try, it is hard to resist the pull to the islands. You can enjoy luxurious hotels and travel to historical sites. Holding the second-largest cruise port in the entire western hemisphere, San Juan is a great spot to spend your next getaway.Of all the rum sold in the U.S., a whopping 70 percent comes from Puerto Rico. Bacardi and Don Q brands of rum have become the most popular. Rum is used to create mixed drinks and to flavor recipes. It is made from distilled sugarcane products like molasses and is aged in oak casks. (MORE)
As with any U.S. travel destination, you do not have to change currency or show a passport when boarding the plane. However, you will feel as though you are a world away from …the country when you step foot in San Juan. There are many historical sights, from El Morro to the entire city of Old San Juan. The most useful way to get around the city is by walking, as streets are small and narrow and there can be a lot of traffic.If you are looking for a historical place to visit, take a look at this 465-year-old neighborhood, which is also referred to as Old San Juan. This part of the city was initially built as a military stronghold, and it has the remaining structures to prove it. As you walk through the city, you will be greeted by several restored colonial buildings from the 16th and 17th centuries. Walking is the most practical way to explore the area, as the streets are narrow and tend to be very crowded. There are plenty of activities to do in Old San Juan, whether you want to grab a bite to eat in one of the restaurants or take advantage of the nightlife.Coffee drinkers will find this hour-long class to be highly informative and entertaining. The temperate climate and fertile soils of Puerto Rico provide an optimal place to grow quality coffee. Flavors of San Juan, a store located in the old city, allows visitors to sample different grades of coffee and to learn what goes into making a delicious cup of coffee. There are at least three different specialty coffees for participants to taste and critique. All aspects of the coffee-making process are discussed, from how to identify differences in dry coffee to the correct way to deeply sniff the beverage.This majestic castle is often simply referred to as "El Morro." It was attacked by U.S. Navy ships during the Spanish-American War in 1898, which damaged the lighthouse. However, the lighthouse and the structure itself have both been restored, and the historic site is open to visitors throughout the year. When you reach the castle, be sure to take a look at your surroundings, as you will be treated to a panoramic view of San Juan. If you want more information, you can join a ranger talk for free, which provides a general overview of the fortifications in the city.The museum was originally built as a market in the year 1855. However, it was restored in 1979 as a cultural center, and is now home to Puerto Rican music and art, along with concerts and festivals. There is a wide collection of art, including both contemporary and historical pieces. The center of the museum is filled with a stunning array of paintings and sculptures. For more information on the history of the museum and the city, take a look at the documentary film that is shown every hour.If you don't have time to go elsewhere for scuba diving, this is a good compromise. The interesting underwater topography, including caves and swim-through tunnels, provides a variety of unique sights for your dive. Those who want to dive directly off the shore should try the beaches in the Condado district. There are both day and night dives available, whether you want to dive in from the shore or off a boat. When you are under water, be sure to look for schools of snapper and batfish, along with other animals such as crabs, seahorses, and octopi.If you are planning a trip to San Juan, there are many activities to keep you busy. There are both new and old sections of this city, which is the oldest in Puerto Rico. From historic castles to modern art museums, there is a generous mix of attractions all over the city. This is a unique departure from the traditional U.S. travel sites, with plenty of warm water and sunny skies to ensure you get enough time outdoors during your visit.Travelers with flexible dates may want to consider visiting this city in the off season. Hotels and streets are generally more crowded during the height of tourist season, which ranges from mid-December to mid-April. However, the spring and fall seasons can be a good time to visit, as there are less crowds and more discounts and packages available. (MORE)
Most Eastern Caribbean cruises include a day in the U.S. tropical island of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Known for its miles of white, sugar-sand beaches and El Yunque, the only tro…pical rain forest in the U.S. National Forest System, San Juan offers a wide range of activities for everyone. (MORE)
Puerto Rico is an exotic U.S. travel to the Caribbean. A protectorate of the U.S., you don't need a passport to travel there. The money's the same, cable TV has all your favor…ite channels, and the weather is just about perfect for outdoor fun all year round. Here are six hotel options for you in the Condado area of San Juan, the island's capital.Big and bold, the Marriott sits at the east end of Ashford Avenue, the main thoroughfare of the Condado. With 513 guest rooms and 12 suites, there's plenty of room for travelers. The Stellaris Casino is San Juan's largest, offering 24/7 gaming access. The beachside Marriott has La Isla Beach Bar, a Coffee Merchant, and Bake Shop in the lobby for the morning pick-me-up, and the Wan Chai Noodle Bar as part of its dining options. The hotel has a smoke-free policy and offers 50MB wireless Internet access in all rooms.On the west end of Ashford Avenue, at the Condado Lagoon entrance, sits the Condado Plaza. Part of the Hilton Honors chain, the Condado Plaza has beachside and city-view rooms offering a wide range of options. The casino is known for hosting celebrities, and the two restaurants, Wilo Benet and Pikayo, are amongst the island's Top 10 eateries. The nearby lagoon beach, known as "La Playita," is a virtual extension of the Condado Plaza's ambiance and service, making it a hot spot for those who want to enjoy the sun and sea. Water sports are available as part of reservation packages, including kayaking, pedal boats, and windsurfing.In the center of the Condado area is La Concha Hotel, famed for its dramatic shell-shaped architecture. The shell fronts the ocean and nestles the hotel's premiere restaurant, naturally called "Perla" (pearl). Though originally built in 1958, the current La Concha is a redesign led by Puerto Rican architects Osvaldo Toro and Miguel Ferrer, with the restaurant's design created by Mario Salvatori. The interiors flow seamlessly with cross-ventilation and plenty of natural lighting. The hotel's service is considered amongst the best in Puerto Rico. Along with the casino, La Concha also offers other amenities, including La Voga Italian Grill and Komakai Sushi Bar.For those who seek simplicity with style, the San Juan Beach Hotel should be on your list. The 96-room boutique hotel features crystal-clear views of the Atlantic Ocean or the Condado Lagoon. With four meeting rooms and 24-hour valet parking, the San Juan Beach Hotel is an excellent choice for business travelers. For a different dining experience, try Perrurican, the hotel's restaurant fusing Peruvian and Puerto Rican cuisines. And for unique clothing and accessories, visit Garbo, the hotel's trendy boutique.If chain hotels and large resorts aren't on your agenda, guest houses are wonderful alternatives. Casa Condado is a 24-room guest house aimed at being simple and comfortable. A maximum of two guests per room keeps the hotel from being crowded and the service is top-notch. A sun deck gives you a break in your day, a perfect area to have your complimentary continental breakfast. The Casa Condado owners also own four restaurants near their guest house, and the first floor features an Asian cuisine eatery, so your dining options are well-served.The oldest guest house in the Condado, El Canario Boutique Hotel also has a second property, El Canario by the Lagoon. Both are cozy, slightly-quirky hotels with excellent staffs. The boutique hotel is steps away from the beach, while the lagoon Canario has a deck that floats above the water. Complimentary breakfast is included in the stay rates. Located in the center of the Condado area, everything is within walking distance, from restaurants and cafes to shopping and the Museum of Art. For personal service that makes you feel like family, El Canario is your destination.The Condado is busy by day and glitzy by night. It combines the natural beauty of sand and sea with well-executed architectural elements. You can walk from one end of Asford Avenue to the other in 20 minutes, or get side-tracked for hours. On your next trip to San Juan, spend a night or two in this enchanting section of the island.The first resort hotel opened in Puerto Rico was the Caribe Hilton, in 1952. Just northwest of the Condado area, the Caribe Hilton also features the small fort called San Ger?o;nemo, part of San Juan's defenses for over 300 years. A notorious battle pitting English and French forces against Spanish troops was waged between the fort, the Dos Hermanos Bridge, and the Condado in the 18th century. (MORE)
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Kota Kinabalu, often referred to as KK, is the capital of the Malaysian state of Sabah on the northwest coast of Borneo. See the suggestions below for some restaurants that se…rve great food at more than reasonable prices. (MORE)
Rechargeable batteries have been a part of society for quite some time, and the benefits of using them are many. However, understanding how the most common type of rechargeabl…e battery, the nickel-cadmium battery, works can be difficult. Additionally, the introduction of alternative options to this type of battery to the commercial market has made some consumers wonder if the traditional rechargeable battery is still the leader and the most beneficial. To clear up the confusion, a brief explanation of the battery and a comparison to other types of rechargeable batteries is in order.The nickel-cadmium, or NiCd, battery is a type of rechargeable battery. It was first created in Sweden by Waldemar Jungner in 1899. It utilizes a chemical solution to transform chemical energy into electrical energy and back again. Because this cycle can be repeated many times, the battery lasts longer and, thus, can continue to power the device in which it is placed for quite some time. The basic construction of a NiCd battery resembles sheets, or layers, rolled into the recognizable tube shape of most batteries. The outer layer is a metal casing, which also acts as a negative terminal and separator between electrodes, one positive and one negative. The positive electrode is the innermost electrode layer, and the negative electrode, which consists of a metal grid, is connected to the metal casing. By transforming chemical properties and transferring energy in a repetitive process, the NiCd battery can be re-used over a long period of time to power a variety of devices.Nickel-cadmium batteries work off of the anode and cathode principles on which most rechargeable batteries are based. The cathode, or positive electrode, utilizes nickel oxide and the anode, or negative electrode, utilizes cadmium. All rechargeable batteries need to have an electrolyte solution, and the NiCd battery uses potassium hydroxide solution for this purpose. The battery works by a reversible chemical reaction. In short, a NiCd battery works by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy during discharge, or while being used, and electrical energy back into chemical energy when the battery is being recharged. The electrolyte, or potassium hydroxide solution, facilitates this process by providing a medium through which electrons can easily flow, much like a conductor.While NiCd batteries have been the primary rechargeable battery on the market for quite some time, Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries and lithium-ion batteries have become viable alternatives as well. However, these three types of rechargeable batteries work in slightly different ways. The NiMH battery is very close to a NiCd battery in that the positive electrode composition is identical. The anode, on the other hand, uses a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. Essentially, the NiMH battery is just the chemistry of a NiCd battery practically applied to create a rechargeable battery with higher energy capacity. A lithium-ion battery (LIB) simply transfers lithium ions back and forth between the positive and negative electrodes to discharge and recharge. Using this technology results in the LIB having a higher energy density than the NiCd.Differences and improvements aside, the NiCd battery still has significant advantages over the other types of rechargeable batteries. These benefits include, but are not limited to, higher durability, as the metal casing is far more difficult to damage than the casing of an LIB, longer life thanks to its efficient and enduring rechargeability, and lower discharge rate. A good illustration of the energy retention of a NiCd battery is that it can be stored and sold fully charged, while an LIB could never be stored in that manner because it would essentially ruin the battery.A little known fact about the NiCd battery is its tendency to develop "memory." While this is obviously not a true memory, the term "memory effect" is very descriptive of the condition that can arise when NiCd batteries are not fully discharged. Oftentimes, those who use NiCd batteries, or any rechargeable battery, will allow the battery to discharge to a certain point, maybe halfway or so, and then recharge the battery. The idea is usually that by letting the battery drain only so far, more efficient use will result, since the user will not have to wait as long to recharge it. However, this is exactly the manner in which the memory effect results. Over time, the battery seems to "remember" the charge level at which it is always recharged, and will subsequently begin to drain at a rapid rate at that specified level. For example, if a consumer is using his or her laptop with a NiCd battery and a 4-hour battery life, and continually recharges the battery at 2 hours of battery life, the battery will start to "remember" that it is always recharged at 2 hours of life left. Over time, the battery will begin to lose charge very quickly around the 2-hour mark. This can result in a far less efficient battery, since it will likely provide only 2.5 to 3 hours of battery life instead of 4 hours. By ensuring that the battery is drained completely and then recharged, a consumer can ensure that his or her device will perform more efficiently and for the intended period of time.If the NiCd battery has a drawback, it is the use of cadmium itself. Cadmium is highly toxic, and once a battery begins to degrade, that material will eventually leach out into the environment. For this reason, a NiCd battery cannot be disposed of in a regular trash can, as this can expose the environment to harm. Fortunately, these batteries can be recycled, and several resources are available for this purpose. Local waste management services often have NiCd recycling policies and procedures in place, and many can pick up these batteries, which should be marked and put in a separate container, when picking up the regular trash. Additionally, some electronic stores offer battery recycling, and some may even offer consumer credit in exchange for the batteries. Contacting local recycling centers is also an option, as most recycling centers have methods in place to dispose of NiCd batteries, as well.While the NiCd battery is facing new competition in the NiMH battery and LIB, its benefits are still relevant. Offering higher storage capacity, a longer lifespan, and higher durability, the NiCd is still a prominent player in the rechargeable battery industry. As long as these types of batteries are disposed of in a proper manner, and not with regular trash and waste, the batteries are relatively safe to use and have very minimal health risks. Entirely depleting the battery before recharging it can result in a more efficient battery that holds its intended battery life for a longer period of time, as recharging it prematurely can result in the memory effect. Utilizing this knowledge will ensure the best experience with the NiCd battery.If the NiCd battery has a drawback, it is the use of cadmium itself. Cadmium is highly toxic, and once a battery begins to degrade, that material will eventually leach out into the environment. For this reason, a NiCd battery cannot be disposed of in a regular trash can, as this can expose the environment to harm. (MORE)
Si Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay o Ramon "Monching" Magsaysay (Agosto 31, 1907 - Marso 17, 1957) ang ikatlong pangulo ng Ikatlong Republika ng Pilipinas mula Disyembre 30, 1953 h…anggang sa kanyang kamatayan. Si Magsaysay ay isinilang sa Iba, Zambales noong Agosto 31, 1907 kina Exequiel Magsaysay at Perfecta del Fierro. Nag-aral sa Pamantasan ng Pilipinas at Jose Rizal College. Naglingkod siya bilang tagapamahala ng Try-Tran Motors bago magkadigma. Nang bumagsak ang Bataan inorganisa niya ang "Pwersang Gerilya sa Kanlurang Luzon" at Pinalaya ng pwersang Amerikano at Pilipino ang Zambales noong Enero 26, 1945. Noong 1950, bilang kalihim ng Pagtatanggol kaniyang binuwag ang pamunuan ng mga Hukbalahap. Pinigil niya ang panganib na lilikhain ng pulahang Komunista at naging napakatanyag sa mamamayan. Noong eleksyon ng 1953, tinalo niya si Quirino at naging ikatlong pangulo ng republika.Ang kanyang pangalawang pangulo ay si Carlos P. Garcia. Iniligtas ni Pangulong Magsaysay ang demokrasya sa Pilipinas. Ito ang kanyang pinakamahalagang nagawa. Pinigil niya ang paghihimagsik ng Huk o ng komunista. Si Luis Taruc, Supremo ng Huk o ang pinakamataas na lider ng komunista, ay sumuko sa kanya. Kaya si Magsaysay ay tinawag na "Tagapagligtas ng Demokrasya". Siya ang pinakamamahal na Pangulo ng Pilipinas dahil ibinalik niya ang tiwala ng pamahalaan. Subalit nagwakas ito ng mamatay siya dahil sa isang pagbagsak ng eroplano sa isang bundok sa Manunggal, Cebu noong Marso 17, 1957. (MORE)
Si Emilio Jacinto ay isang rebolusyonaryong Pilipino noong panahon ng Himagsikan (1896) na naging isa sa mga magagaling na lider ng Katipunan. Ang kanyang katalinuhan ay napak…inabangan noong panahon ng rebolusyon. Siya ang tinaguriang "Utak ng Katipunan". Siya ang nagsulat ng Kartilya ng Katipunan at nag-edit ng Kalayaan--ang dyaryo na ginamit ng Katipunan sa pagpapamahagi ng impormasyon. Siya ay isinilang noong Disyembre 15, 1875 sa Trozo, Maynila. Ang kanyang mga magulang ay sina Mariano Jacinto at Josefa Dizon. Solong itinaguyod ng ina ni Emilio bilang isang kumadrona ang buhay nila mula nang mamatay ang kanyang ama. Dahil sa kahirapan, si Emilio ay tumira sa kanyang tiyuhin. Si Emilio ay nag-aral sa Colegio de San Juan de Letran at kumuha ng abogasya sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomassubalit ito ay natigil nang siya ay sumapi sa Katipunan noong 1896. Sa edad na 19, siya ay naging isa sa mga pinuno ng Katipunan at naging tagapayo, kalihim at piskal ni Andres Bonifacio. Nang mamatay si Bonifacio, ipinagpatuloy ni Jacinto ang paglaban sa mga Kastila bagamat hindi siya sumali sa puwersa ni Emilio Aguinaldo. Sa isang sagupaan sa Majayjay, Laguna, si Jacinto ay lubhang nasugatan at binawian ng buhay sa sakit na malaria noong ika-16 ng Abril, 1899 sa edad na 23. (MORE)
Si Pope Alexander VI ang naghati ng mga bansang pwedeng sakupin ng 2 bansana Portugal at Espanya na naglalaban. Ang sa Portugal ay ang Silangan habangang Espanya ay sa Kanlura…n. Ginawa nya ito upang matigil ang pag-aaway. (MORE)