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Anu-ano ang mga 13 tribo ng Muslim sa Mindanao?

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!3 Muslim tribes: -yakan -tausug -badjao -ilanun (iranun) -Jama Mapun -Kalagan -Kalibugan Maguindanao -maranao -molbog -palawani -sama -sangil The thirteen (13) tribes as described constitute the original aborigine of the Island. They were all the inhabitants of the Uranen Kingdom. They were subdivide into tribes during the arrival of the Shariffs. They identified and called according to their place of origin and culture.
Description of the tribes enumerated above
The Sangil (Sangir in Iranun version) was the original inhabitant of Sangil Island. They subject to sultanate through marraige affinity. Sultan Muhammad Barahaman (Abdulrahman in Arab version) married the Sangir Princess named Karani Basing. Therefrom Sangir tribe subject and join the Moro as a nation.
The Sama (Samar in Iranun version) was the people who accompanied Shariff Kabunsuan on his voyage from Sultanate of Johore to Mindanaw. They were caught by a strong storm in their voyage going Mindanaw direction. Some of them were perished, some of them docked at the present province of Tawi-tawi. They become a part of the Moro nation. Sama or Samar is divided into two: Samar Balangingi, and Samar Lawan.
Palawani was a group of people from the Iranun Bay who migrated going west direction. They found Palawan Island and inhabited the southern part of the Island. They called the Island Palawan because of its mountainous topography. The name of their tribe Palawani derived from the word Palaw (mountain).
Mranaw refers to the group of people from Iranun Bay who adventured the Island going north direction. They found and inhabited the Unayan (Butig). Mranaw was derived from word Ranaw which means lake. Mranaw means people of the lake.
Maguindanaon refers to the group of people from Iranun Bay who inhabited the marshy portion of the present site of Cotabato. Magauindanaon was derived from the two word maginged and danaw which means people of the marshy.
Iranun by origin was one of the oldest existing nations of the world. It was the nationality of the people of the Uranen Kingdom of the ancient past. It was dismantled and distroyed by colonization. Thus it becomes a mother of all moro tribes in the Philippines including Tiduray, Subanen, Kalagan, Blaan, Manobo, and other highlander tribes. Iranun occupies and inhabited the coastal areas which stretched from Tagalook Bay to Sibugay Bay (Moro Gulf of the Modern time). Thus Iranun means people of the sea coast. Some called people of the sea. Shariff Kabunsuan married Princess Angintabu, an Iranun Princess.
Kalagan refers to the group of people who inhabited the present site of Davaw. They were original Tagalook people who move north direction. They found the wide plain land of Davaw suited for agriculture and fishing inductries. They derived their name Kalagan from a word kalag which means wide. In the later centiries, they intermarraige with the Sangir people. They are the first inhabitants of Davaw region.
Yakan refers to the people who migrated from Sultanate of Johore who accompanied Shariff Kabunsuan with Sama people. They inhabited Basilan Island. They become the first inhabitants of Basilan.
Badjao refers to the group of people who accompanied Shariff Kabunsuan from Sultanate of Johore to Mindanaw. After reaching the present Island of Tawi-tawi they had been separated with the Shariff due to strong storm. Therefrom they dwells the inter coastal areas of the Islands in West Mindanaw. They had been seasoned to live in the sea with their their boats.
Kalbugan (Kulibugan in some version) refers to trhe group people inhabited the seacoast of Sabala Ragat sa Sedepan (Zamboanga Norte). Their dialect or language use id composed of three and more dialects. (Tausug, Sama, Tagalog, Palawani, Yakan, Iranun and even Mranaw). Out of these composition of dialects used, they called themselves Kalbuganen or Ikulebuganen. Its name Kalbugan (Kulibugan) was derived from this concept.
Jama Mapun refers to the group of people who migrated from Celebes and be able to found and inhabited Cagayan de Tawi-tawi. They are the smallest number among Muslim Moro. Their origin was one of the Polynesian nations.
Malbog refers to a name of place somewhere in Masbate. They called Imalboganen. They leaved their place due to volcano eruption. Imalboganen was one of the descendants of Datu Sumakwel of Panay. They are sporadically found in the Province of Palawan, Sulu Peninsula, and Zamboanga Peninsula.
Tausog refers to the group of people who inhabited the Island of Sulu. Their origin was of one of the Polynesian nations who migrated and established villages in the Island. They were intermarriage with the Buranen people of the Island. They were Islamized during the arrival of the first Muslim missionary named Tuan Mashaikha was refornced by the series of comings of the other Muslim missionries. Tausog as word was derived from two words tao and suog which literally means brave or strong man. Tausog is one of the most civilized Muslim group in the Philippines.
p>!3 Muslim tribes: -yakan -tausug -badjao -ilanun (iranun) -Jama Mapun -Kalagan -Kalibugan Maguindanao -maranao -molbog -palawani -sama -sangil The thirteen (13) tribes as described constitute the original aborigine of the Island. They were all the inhabitants of the Uranen Kingdom. They were subdivide into tribes during the arrival of the Shariffs. They identified and called according to their place of origin and culture.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Description of the tribes enumerated above</font></p>
<p>The <font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Sangil</font> (Sangir in Iranun version) was the original inhabitant of Sangil Island. They subject to sultanate through marraige affinity. Sultan Muhammad Barahaman (Abdulrahman in Arab version) married the Sangir Princess named Karani Basing. Therefrom Sangir tribe subject and join the Moro as a nation.</p>
<p>The <font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Sama</font> (Samar in Iranun version) was the people who accompanied Shariff Kabunsuan on his voyage from Sultanate of Johore to Mindanaw. They were caught by a strong storm in their voyage going Mindanaw direction. Some of them were perished, some of them docked at the present province of Tawi-tawi. They become a part of the Moro nation. Sama or Samar is divided into two: Samar Balangingi, and Samar Lawan.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Palawani</font> was a group of people from the Iranun Bay who migrated going west direction. They found Palawan Island and inhabited the southern part of the Island. They called the Island Palawan because of its mountainous topography. The name of their tribe Palawani derived from the word Palaw (mountain).</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Mranaw</font> refers to the group of people from Iranun Bay who adventured the Island going north direction. They found and inhabited the Unayan (Butig). Mranaw was derived from word Ranaw which means lake. Mranaw means people of the lake.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Maguindanaon</font> refers to the group of people from Iranun Bay who inhabited the marshy portion of the present site of Cotabato. Magauindanaon was derived from the two word maginged and danaw which means people of the marshy.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Iranun</font> by origin was one of the oldest existing nations of the world. It was the nationality of the people of the Uranen Kingdom of the ancient past. It was dismantled and distroyed by colonization. Thus it becomes a mother of all moro tribes in the Philippines including Tiduray, Subanen, Kalagan, Blaan, Manobo, and other highlander tribes. Iranun occupies and inhabited the coastal areas which stretched from Tagalook Bay to Sibugay Bay (Moro Gulf of the Modern time). Thus Iranun means people of the sea coast. Some called people of the sea. Shariff Kabunsuan married Princess Angintabu, an Iranun Princess.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Kalagan</font> refers to the group of people who inhabited the present site of Davaw. They were original Tagalook people who move north direction. They found the wide plain land of Davaw suited for agriculture and fishing inductries. They derived their name Kalagan from a word kalag which means wide. In the later centiries, they intermarraige with the Sangir people. They are the first inhabitants of Davaw region.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Yakan</font> refers to the people who migrated from Sultanate of Johore who accompanied Shariff Kabunsuan with Sama people. They inhabited Basilan Island. They become the first inhabitants of Basilan.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Badjao</font> refers to the group of people who accompanied Shariff Kabunsuan from Sultanate of Johore to Mindanaw. After reaching the present Island of Tawi-tawi they had been separated with the Shariff due to strong storm. Therefrom they dwells the inter coastal areas of the Islands in West Mindanaw. They had been seasoned to live in the sea with their their boats.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Kalbugan (</font>Kulibugan in some version) refers to trhe group people inhabited the seacoast of Sabala Ragat sa Sedepan (Zamboanga Norte). Their dialect or language use id composed of three and more dialects. (Tausug, Sama, Tagalog, Palawani, Yakan, Iranun and even Mranaw). Out of these composition of dialects used, they called themselves Kalbuganen or Ikulebuganen. Its name Kalbugan (Kulibugan) was derived from this concept.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Jama Mapun</font> refers to the group of people who migrated from Celebes and be able to found and inhabited Cagayan de Tawi-tawi. They are the smallest number among Muslim Moro. Their origin was one of the Polynesian nations.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Malbog</font> refers to a name of place somewhere in Masbate. They called Imalboganen. They leaved their place due to volcano eruption. Imalboganen was one of the descendants of Datu Sumakwel of Panay. They are sporadically found in the Province of Palawan, Sulu Peninsula, and Zamboanga Peninsula.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Tausog</font> refers to the group of people who inhabited the Island of Sulu. Their origin was of one of the Polynesian nations who migrated and established villages in the Island. They were intermarriage with the Buranen people of the Island. They were Islamized during the arrival of the first Muslim missionary named Tuan Mashaikha was refornced by the series of comings of the other Muslim missionries. Tausog as word was derived from two words tao and suog which literally means brave or strong man. Tausog is one of the most civilized Muslim group in the Philippines.</p>
<p>Mranaw, Maguindanaon or Islanganen, Kalagan, Tiduray, and Subanen were originally belonged to Iranun (Moro) nation. Other tribes which belonged to the Iranun (Moro) nation are: Tboli, Blaan, Manobo, Bagobo, Davawnon, Cagayanon, and Hiligaynon. Generally, all tribes or nation which were existing and enjoying self-rule before the coming of the Spaniards are called Iranun. The Muslim groups in the Philippines was originally belonged to two groups: Taga Lupa Suog, and Iranun. Iranun in later centuries splited into many groupd of tribes. The biggest is Maranaw among the Iranun nation.</p>
<p>Other traditions among Iranuns said that Sama, Yakan, and Badjao sprang these nationality. They only separated through the agers of time and civilization. They were all the companions of Shariff Kabunsuan who migrated from Johore to Mindanaw and Sulu.</p>
<center><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Brief Historical Facts (Iranun Premier)</font></center>
<p>How the term Moro derived? The term Moro was derived from the word Moores. They were the group of people whom the Spaniards encountered in field combat during the heights of their colonization campaign. When the Spaniards extended their colonial campaign going east of the globe, they found out a group of people who have the same ability in field combat with that of the Moores. Later, it was adopted describing the native inhabitants of the Island. Therefore the origin of the term Moro was a foreign word.</p>
<p>What was the original nationality of the Moores (Moro)?</p>
<p>Historical facts and records shows that Iranun was the original nationality of the native inhabitants. Tarsila tells that Shariff Aulia, the first Muslim missionry who arrived in the Island married Rinalaut, an Iranun lady. They begot Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol. In the following generation, Shariff Kabunsuan arrived. He married an Iranun named Princess Angintabu, a daughter of Makaapen.</p>
<p>Where the Iranun civilization started or originated?</p>
<p>According to the Iranun tarsila, Iranun as nation was one of the oldest existing nations in the world. It sprang from Karingke-Karibang Line of Descent. The Karingke and Karibang offspring was intermarraige with the people of Malay in origin, probably from the Sri Vishaya Empire. Out of this breed line of descent, a group of people sprang into existence. Their leader was Rajah Urangguwan. Later this generation become and developed into a nation and state called Uranen Kingdom. The nationality of its people called Iranun. Modern authorities in history traced back the date in 1190.</p>
<p>Why they were Iranun?</p>
<p>Long time before (prehistoric period), the present coastal areas of the the present Iranun Bay (Illana Bay) within the Moro Gulf had no flat land surface. The constant flow of rivers and creeks from the mountains to the coastal areas, and volcanic eruptions little-by-little a flat land surface developed. There was a gradual formation of flat land surface as seen today (the present topograhy). Modern science described and illustrated as a result of sedimentary formation and residual remains forms the low and flat land surface in the coastal areas. The vernacular called it IRA which means remains. The suffix nun means people. Thus it forms a word or term IRANUN which means people living the residual remains in the coastal areas.</p>
<p>In its socio-political meaning and interpretation, Iranun means people who inhabited along the coastal areas from Tagalook Bay to Sibugay Bay. The first seat of government of the Uranen Kingdom was in Tbok, a barangay of Malabang, Lanao del sur along coastal area of the municipality.</p>
<p>Who were the heirs of the Uranen Kingdom?</p>
<p>After the death of the Rajah Urangguwan, the founder of the Kingdom, his heirs named: Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol divided and established their own political unit. Makaapen had stayed foot and remained in the seat of government at Tbok. The area of responsibility of Tbok starts from Malabang River to Zamboanga Peninsula and and all in land places embraces thereof. Tbok was his seat of government. Dungklang moved going east direction. He established his political unit at Magulaling, Balabagan, Lanao del Sur in now a days. He extended his political sovereignty up to Ranaw region including the Tagoloan (now Cagayan and Misamis Oriental). Magulaling was his seat of government. Maraguia moved going south direction. He established his political unit in Slangan (now Cotabato City). The area of responsibility of Slangan embraces generally the present Cotabato City, some part of Maguindanao, and Sultan Kudarat provinces. Slangan was his seat of government. Budtol moved going upper stream through Slangan. He established his political unit at Buayan. He extended his political sovereignty up to Davao region including Agusan Provinces, and part of North Cotabato Province. These four ancient political divisions last until the arrival of Shariff kabunsuan in the succeding decades (1475).</p>
<p>What was the relation of Uranen Kingdom with other ancient Kingdoms?</p>
<p>Relation has many interpretations and connotations. The inquiry is perhaps inviting the respondent to socio-cultural and political relations of Uranen Kingdom to other ancient kingdoms. Uranen Kingdom has four social classes of people. They were: Pendatu (Noble and Ruling Class), Dumato (Commoners), Endatuan (followers), and Uripin (Slaves). This social class was common to all ancient Kingdoms and Sovereigns. Uranen Kingdom had its diplomats with other ancient Kingdoms. They had been confederated to each other( Aninipay Kingdom, Maktan Kingdom, Sugbu Kingdom, and Batangan Kingdom). They shared the same cultrure and tradition, and practiced the same source livelihood and economy.</p>
<p>What was the nationality of the ancient neigboring kingdoms?</p>
<p>Uranen Kingdom and its neigboring Kingdoms as enumerated has the same nationality. They shared the same and common nationality. Their inhabitants and people were all Iranuns.</p>
<p><font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">Characteristics of the Iranun</font></p>
<p>Iranun as people was very friendly, courteous, helpful, humble, kind, loyal, courageous and brave. It is a promise-fulfilling nation. They considered promise as sacred statement which should be fulfilled. Western writers have wrong description. Iranun was not and never be a bandits and pirates people. The truth was that when colonization and aggression of the Spaniards and other foreign ancient super powers, Iranun had strongly and vehemently repulsed and defended their sovereignty as an independent state and nation. The established and adopted a counter strategy against the invaders. They launched a heavy counter-offensive. War had been declared to all aggressors, colonizers and invaders regardless of nationality or origin. It was a fact and normal in time war that there was a spoil of war (prisoners of war), and collateral damages. Normally, the victorious groups would brought back to their place of the origin all spoils of (prisoners of war). Therefore, the description of the western writers and historians were not true.</p>
<p>Tradition of the Iranun</p>
<p>The tradition of the Iranun started from the ancient times. Iranun considered tradition as a guide of all humanistic and political undrtakings. Tradition is something established and inherited. Hereditary Political leader in Iranun tradition is inherited. After the father death or disability, the eldest son assumed the authority. In some cases, a daughter of the deceased datu assumes the authority (the deceased datu has no son). Kapagidala In time the present ruling family has no qualified successor, the authority to rule shall be transfered to other ruling family with the same decendancy ( saka lukes in Iranun version). The application of this practice shall be applied again-and-again on succession issue. The Prince Apparent class among the ruling group shall assume the authority in time of no qualified in the Sultan or King or Rajah Clan.</p>
<p>Qualification or Criteria in Choosing the Ruler</p>
<p>There are four major areas, namely: Bansawan (ruling and noble class), Nunawan Knowledgeable), Artawan (Brave, Strong, and Courageous)and Rupawan (wealth). Eldest Council Iranun has its Council of Elders to resolve issues especially on politics (succession of leader). Its names varies from principality to principality. Its name is peculiar to a certain principality. In the case of the Slangan Principality, its Council of Elders was: Datu Sa Kaludan, Maharaja Edenda, Ambaharaja, and Maharajalaila. In Subpangan Principality, its Council of Elders was: Maharajalaila, Kastiri, Ambaharaja, and Matuaharaja. In Balabagan Principality, its Council of Elders was: Iramangen (Ampawa Clan), Imagulalingen (Ambaharaja Clan), Ibungabungen (Imragaten Clan), and Ibaroyen (Amidumpaw Clan).</p>
<p>Justices</p>
<p>Iranun has its own justice system. Datu Kali is the chief justice. The Datu Kali is asssisted by Kali a Datu, and Tuan a Datu. The major source of rendering decision was taken from the Holy Qur-an, Hadeeth, Qiyas, the Tradional Sources called Radawan and Ghalib ko Enged.</p>
<p>Enthronement Ceremony</p>
<p>The sultan or raja or king shall be enthroned with the presence of the Council of Elders. The ceremony is usually held in the Royal Court or Turugan in vernacular dialect. The in-coming sultan shall step foot to the white soil, a symbol of confirment. The Chairman of the Council of Elders shall announce and proclaim the in-coming sultan. The cannons and other forms of guns shall be blown, an honor-sign (Hudyat ng parangal). Fiest shall follow.</p>
<p>What is white soil or earth?</p>
<p>White soil or earth-soil is just an expression connoting sign of royalty. The soil which has been refered was a soil which was carried over by the Shariffs. The tradition among Iranuns say that every enthronement ceremony, the in-coming sultan should step foot as one of the symbols of true line of descent. In Maguindanao Sultanate, the Tabunaway Clan is the authorized clan to get the white soil from the Tantawan Cave. Tradition says that the white soil is being guarded by a big snake. Only representative from Tabunaway Clan whome the snake vows its head. In Balabagan Sultanate, the Amidumpaw Clan is the authorized clan to get the white soil from Magulaling Cave.</p>
<p>The wiki has posted twenty (20) questions which are all fucosed on Mindanaw. These questions contribute much to the issue Moro Nation.</p>
<p>What is Mindanaw? Mindanaw is the second largest island in the Philippines of now a days. Historically, Mindanaw is one of the historical Islands in Asia. Mindanaw was included in the ancient map of the world. This connotes that Mindanaw was once upon a time a civilized state with distinguished inhabitants. Modern authorities in history called Mindanaw a Land of Promise of the Orient Seas.</p>
<p>What was the original name of Mindanaw? Mindanaw is composed of two words which has different meanings. It were joined together to connotes a place. Min is an Arabic term which means <font style="FONT-WEIGHT: bold">from (one of the eight parts of speech (preposition).</font> Danaw is an Iranun term which means shallow water which flown from water system. Some linguistic authorities translated as marsh. The two terms formed a single word which traditionally and culturally defined or described as a place whom tradition and culture among Iranuns (Moro) were structured; and later on it flown to different neigboring nations and states.</p>
<p>What is the difference between Maguindanaw and Mindanaw? The two words are used interchangeably. Some says Maguindanaw is also Mindanaw. They have the same connotation. Some says that they have different connotation. Let us examine which of the two comes first. Traditional leaders among Iranuns used the term Maguindanaw to described the political territory(s) under controlled and influenced of Sultan Kudarat. It was a sovereign state and nation. On the other hand, Mindanaw came to existence during the early years of the Americal regime in the Philippines (1902). They corruptly used the word Maguindanaw to mean the entire Mindanaw Island of now a days. Therefore, the difference is that Maguindanaw is the ancient name of Mindanaw; and Mindanaw of now a days is a colonized term of ancient in origin. They connote the same place.</p>
<p>Where was the original place called Mindanaw? Iranun tradition says that the present site of Cotabato City was the original Mindanaw as called by the westerners where development was gradually spread over the entire Island. Iranun tradition says that Mindanaw and Slangan are identical.</p>
<p>What is lumad in Mindanaw? Historically and politically, lumad refers to the native inhabitants of the Island who were existing as a nation long period of time before the coming of the Spaniards. The Spaniards called the natives as Moores. Later on Moores was corruptly used as Moro as an identity of the natives. Historically and culturally, Moro and lumad are one or single or identical to each other.</p>
<p>What is Panitikan in Mindanaw? Panitikan is a tagalog or Filipino term for literature. Mindanaw is one of the most richest state of the world in terms of literature. Mindanaw literature is described as one of the oldest literature in the world. Darangan was one of the most ascribed literatures among the Iranuns (Moro). Darangan was identified as the most civilized generation or stage of development of the Uranen Kingdom. Benbaran was the seat of government. It was ruled by Tuminaman sa Rugong A Pasandalan A Murog. Bantugen, the hero and over-all command of the federal district, Daranda, chief, Sangkarayar Miniken; Mabaning, advocate general; Lumuday sa Barat, chief, Bakuludan sa Waki; Sumilalaw Sulog, chief, Saglayan ko Regen; Batara Managda, chief, Da Madiar sa Linog; Mapalala Magaug, chief, Saulaya sa Seleg; Pindulunan sa Ragat, chief, Batara si Tundugen; Sadurog ko Marandang, chief, Rinawraw Tubpaan; , Madaramba Kalinan, chief, Ayuon Ka Lumbatan; and Princess Lawanen was most adored princess of their time. Bugabong a Kumara was another state of the Darangen Period. Benbaran and Bungbong a Kumara were competing states of their time. Princess Gandingan was the lady ruler. Sarbaka Kilaten was one of the districts of Bugabong A Kumara; and the same time its capital, and Baklayan Puregen as its summer capital.</p>
<p>How tribe had come to its use and existence? Long time before the coming of the Spaniards to the East Nations, Mindanaw was a sovereign state. It has people, government, and laws. Iranun was its nationality. Sometimes in 1190 Shariff Aulia arrived. Shariff Kabunsuan followed in 1475. Those who did not accept and embrace the religious mission of the Shariffs went far away from their original villages where they exercised their sovereignty. Among the identified were the Tiduray of the Kutawato Region, Subanen of the Samboangan-Sibugay Peninsula, and Kalagan of the Tagalook (Dabaw) Region. These three group of natives became the mother and origin of all highlanders. Those who accepted and embraced the religious mission of the Shariffs stayed foot in their villages. They are the present native Muslims. The term tribe was unknown during the early history of the Island. In 1521, Magellan came, arrived and started invading the Islands of the Philippines of now a days. They started introducing some concepts which caused disunity among the natives. In 1898, the Americans took over, they continue colonizing the natives. Many words and concepts were introduced and later on amplified to destroyed the original culture, tradition, beliefs and others. It was the start of using the term tribe. Iranun, the original nationality of the natives was fragmented and chopped into many subgroups. Thus, the birth of the tribes in Mindanaw.</p>
<p>How tribes had been baptized or named? Tribes had been called or baptized on the following manner: (a) according to the topography of the place (b) according to the culture or belief of the group (c) according to their complexion (d) adoption (e) named in honor and memory of a certain personality (f) according to its location (g) according to its founder ( h) according to climate or weather condition (i) according to other form of creations like birds, animals, trees, rivers, lakes, marsh and others.</p>
<p>What are the tribes in Mindanaw? Originally and by tradition, there is only one or single tribe in Mindanaw. It is Moro as popularly known and used in the present days. The colonizers (Spaniards and Americans) were the archetics of the birth of the term tribe as we know today. Iranun auithorities in tarsila classified tribes in Mindanaw into two; namely: Muslim Moro and Non Muslim Moro. The identified Muslim Moro are: Iranun, the original tribe (nation), Mranaw, Maguindanawon, Tausog (Sulog), Sama, Jama Mapun, Yakan, Badjaw, Kalagan, Kalibugan or Kulibugan, Malbog, Palawani, and Sangil (Sangir in Iranun version). The non Muslim Moro are: Tiduray, Subanen, Blaan (Biran in some version), Tboli, Bagobo, Manobo, other tribes are affiliated with major non Muslim Moro tribes. However, many of the non Miuslims Moro have embraced and accepted Islam as an ideology way back 1960 up to the present. According to survey, more or less ten (10) non Muslims Moro who are embracing Islam everyday throughout Mindanaw.</p>
<p>Who were the datus of Mindanaw? The term datu is a general term which means and connotes traditional leadership. It is inherited. Royal titles such as sultan (surutan in other version), rajah, emperor, king, and other titles which connotes royalty are termed and called datu. Royal titles are peculiar. States and nations vary on the royal title being used or adopted. In Mindanaw Ragat or Pagilidan, Ranaw), and Sulo; sultan is usually used to identified the leader. Traditionally, datu has multifunctions and authority. The datu is an executive, legislator, and judicial. He is also the commander- in-chief of the armed forces of his state. The datus in Mindanaw claim their royal descendancy from Shariff-Iranun Core of Descent Line. Authorities in tarsila narrated that datus a traditional leader officially started from Sultan Mohammad Dipatuan Kudarat. By succession and descending order the following were officially enthroned: Kudarat, Dundang, Barahaman, Kuda, Malinog, Batua, Manamir, Bunglo, Kibad, Kawasa, Makakua, Untong, Pablo, Mastura, Ismael, and Guiwan.</p>
<p>What is the difference from dumato and datu? Dumato and datu are sometimes used interchangeably. However, the two are different in category and descent of origin. The former was descendent from Shariff-Iranun Core of Descent Line. The latter was descended from the four rajahs namely: Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol. The dumato are datu by origin. However, by traditional arrangement, they can not be enthroned as sultan (executive), but they can arrange the process of selection of the next sultan. They can be a judge or legislator. They have a slave and other properties like the sultan. Therefore, the dumato clan under traditional socio-political concept of community possessed a quality comparable to the noble class but they can not be a national or central leader. They can lead their own respective communities. For analogy purposes, they are the local leaders of now a days.</p>
<p>What is the difference among settlers, lumad and Moro? Settlers are group of people from different neigboring places such as Visayas, Luzon, Borneo, Singapore and other places who migrated and established their residence to Mindanaw after the declaration or approval of Torens Law which declared that entire Philippine Archepilago is a public land. Before or prior to the declaration of the Torens Law Mindanaw was a dominated and settled by the Moro as a nation. Therefore, settlers are not original inhabitants of Mindanaw. They are new occupants of Mindanaw. On the other hand, lumad and Moro are the same. Lumad means native inhabitants, likewise, Moro connotes original inhabitants of Mindanaw.</p>
<p>Who were the datus of Mindanaw? Traditional concept of datu goes along with the socio-political structure and social class of the community. Datu is a general term which connotes leader. During the traditional observance of leadership, datu may be expressed in term of Sultan, Emperor, Rajah, King and Prince. Its usage varies on the different states and nations. In Mindanaw, during the ancient or prehistoric period, the term rajah has been used to refer a leader until the arrival of Shariff Kabunsuan. The term Sultan or Surutan has been used after the arrival of Shariff Kabunsuan. Sultan Kudarat was the first leader who used the title Sultan (Surutan). Datu is a hereditary title. It (Datu) started from the ancient socio-political structure adopted during the Uranen Kingdom, led by Rajah Urangguwan; the first known organized political structure among Iranuns based in Tbok of the Iranun Bay (Illana Bay). This political structure flourished until the arrival of Shariff Aulia, the first Arab missionary who landed the Island. The Shariff married the daughter of the Rajah named Princess Rinalaut, the first known royal nuptials or wedding ceremony according to Iranun tarsila. They begot the four rajahs: Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol. Princess Angintabu, the daughter of Makaapen was married Shariff Kabunsuan sometimes in 1476. Out these wedlock, whom Sultan Kudarat descended. Therefore, the datus of Mindanaw were descended from the four (4) rajahs. The datus of Ranaw up to Tagoloan (Misamis Oriental) was descended from Rajah Dungklang. The datus in the coastal areas (along the Iranun Bay) were descended from Makaapen. The datus in Kutawato- Maguindanaw areas were descended from Rajah Maraguia. The datus in Upper River Stream up to Bukidnoon-Davaw areas were descended from Rajah Budtol.</p>
<p>What are the present political subdivision of Mindanaw? There are six political regions in Mindanaw. They are: Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Sulu, Tawi-tawi, Basilan, Maguindnao, Lanao del Sur and Marawi City; Region 09 (Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga City, Isabela City and Pagadian City; Region 10 (Bukidnoon, Camiguin, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Occidental, Tangub City, Dapitan City, Ginggoog City, Oroquita City, Cagayan de Oro City, and Iligan City; Region 11 (Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Davao City, Digos City, Island Garden City of Samal and Tagum City; Region 12 (Cotabato City, Kidapawan City, Koronadal City, General Santos City, Tacurong City, South cotabato, North Cotabato Sarangani, and Sultan Kudarat; and Caraga Autonomous Region (Surigao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Agusan del Norte, Tandag Sity, Butuan City, Prosperidad City, and Surigao City.</p>

Mranaw, Maguindanaon or Islanganen, Kalagan, Tiduray, and Subanen were originally belonged to Iranun (Moro) nation. Other tribes which belonged to the Iranun (Moro) nation are: Tboli, Blaan, Manobo, Bagobo, Davawnon, Cagayanon, and Hiligaynon. Generally, all tribes or nation which were existing and enjoying self-rule before the coming of the Spaniards are called Iranun. The Muslim groups in the Philippines was originally belonged to two groups: Taga Lupa Suog, and Iranun. Iranun in later centuries splited into many groupd of tribes. The biggest is Maranaw among the Iranun nation.
Other traditions among Iranuns said that Sama, Yakan, and Badjao sprang these nationality. They only separated through the agers of time and civilization. They were all the companions of Shariff Kabunsuan who migrated from Johore to Mindanaw and Sulu.Brief Historical Facts (Iranun Premier)
How the term Moro derived? The term Moro was derived from the word Moores. They were the group of people whom the Spaniards encountered in field combat during the heights of their colonization campaign. When the Spaniards extended their colonial campaign going east of the globe, they found out a group of people who have the same ability in field combat with that of the Moores. Later, it was adopted describing the native inhabitants of the Island. Therefore the origin of the term Moro was a foreign word.
What was the original nationality of the Moores (Moro)?
Historical facts and records shows that Iranun was the original nationality of the native inhabitants. Tarsila tells that Shariff Aulia, the first Muslim missionry who arrived in the Island married Rinalaut, an Iranun lady. They begot Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol. In the following generation, Shariff Kabunsuan arrived. He married an Iranun named Princess Angintabu, a daughter of Makaapen.
Where the Iranun civilization started or originated?
According to the Iranun tarsila, Iranun as nation was one of the oldest existing nations in the world. It sprang from Karingke-Karibang Line of Descent. The Karingke and Karibang offspring was intermarraige with the people of Malay in origin, probably from the Sri Vishaya Empire. Out of this breed line of descent, a group of people sprang into existence. Their leader was Rajah Urangguwan. Later this generation become and developed into a nation and state called Uranen Kingdom. The nationality of its people called Iranun. Modern authorities in history traced back the date in 1190.
Why they were Iranun?
Long time before (prehistoric period), the present coastal areas of the the present Iranun Bay (Illana Bay) within the Moro Gulf had no flat land surface. The constant flow of rivers and creeks from the mountains to the coastal areas, and volcanic eruptions little-by-little a flat land surface developed. There was a gradual formation of flat land surface as seen today (the present topograhy). Modern science described and illustrated as a result of sedimentary formation and residual remains forms the low and flat land surface in the coastal areas. The vernacular called it IRA which means remains. The suffix nun means people. Thus it forms a word or term IRANUN which means people living the residual remains in the coastal areas.
In its socio-political meaning and interpretation, Iranun means people who inhabited along the coastal areas from Tagalook Bay to Sibugay Bay. The first seat of government of the Uranen Kingdom was in Tbok, a barangay of Malabang, Lanao del sur along coastal area of the municipality.
Who were the heirs of the Uranen Kingdom?
After the death of the Rajah Urangguwan, the founder of the Kingdom, his heirs named: Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol divided and established their own political unit. Makaapen had stayed foot and remained in the seat of government at Tbok. The area of responsibility of Tbok starts from Malabang River to Zamboanga Peninsula and and all in land places embraces thereof. Tbok was his seat of government. Dungklang moved going east direction. He established his political unit at Magulaling, Balabagan, Lanao del Sur in now a days. He extended his political sovereignty up to Ranaw region including the Tagoloan (now Cagayan and Misamis Oriental). Magulaling was his seat of government. Maraguia moved going south direction. He established his political unit in Slangan (now Cotabato City). The area of responsibility of Slangan embraces generally the present Cotabato City, some part of Maguindanao, and Sultan Kudarat provinces. Slangan was his seat of government. Budtol moved going upper stream through Slangan. He established his political unit at Buayan. He extended his political sovereignty up to Davao region including Agusan Provinces, and part of North Cotabato Province. These four ancient political divisions last until the arrival of Shariff kabunsuan in the succeding decades (1475).
What was the relation of Uranen Kingdom with other ancient Kingdoms?
Relation has many interpretations and connotations. The inquiry is perhaps inviting the respondent to socio-cultural and political relations of Uranen Kingdom to other ancient kingdoms. Uranen Kingdom has four social classes of people. They were: Pendatu (Noble and Ruling Class), Dumato (Commoners), Endatuan (followers), and Uripin (Slaves). This social class was common to all ancient Kingdoms and Sovereigns. Uranen Kingdom had its diplomats with other ancient Kingdoms. They had been confederated to each other( Aninipay Kingdom, Maktan Kingdom, Sugbu Kingdom, and Batangan Kingdom). They shared the same cultrure and tradition, and practiced the same source livelihood and economy.
What was the nationality of the ancient neigboring kingdoms?
Uranen Kingdom and its neigboring Kingdoms as enumerated has the same nationality. They shared the same and common nationality. Their inhabitants and people were all Iranuns.
Characteristics of the Iranun
Iranun as people was very friendly, courteous, helpful, humble, kind, loyal, courageous and brave. It is a promise-fulfilling nation. They considered promise as sacred statement which should be fulfilled. Western writers have wrong description. Iranun was not and never be a bandits and pirates people. The truth was that when colonization and aggression of the Spaniards and other foreign ancient super powers, Iranun had strongly and vehemently repulsed and defended their sovereignty as an independent state and nation. The established and adopted a counter strategy against the invaders. They launched a heavy counter-offensive. War had been declared to all aggressors, colonizers and invaders regardless of nationality or origin. It was a fact and normal in time war that there was a spoil of war (prisoners of war), and collateral damages. Normally, the victorious groups would brought back to their place of the origin all spoils of (prisoners of war). Therefore, the description of the western writers and historians were not true.
Tradition of the Iranun
The tradition of the Iranun started from the ancient times. Iranun considered tradition as a guide of all humanistic and political undrtakings. Tradition is something established and inherited. Hereditary Political leader in Iranun tradition is inherited. After the father death or disability, the eldest son assumed the authority. In some cases, a daughter of the deceased datu assumes the authority (the deceased datu has no son). Kapagidala In time the present ruling family has no qualified successor, the authority to rule shall be transfered to other ruling family with the same decendancy ( saka lukes in Iranun version). The application of this practice shall be applied again-and-again on succession issue. The Prince Apparent class among the ruling group shall assume the authority in time of no qualified in the Sultan or King or Rajah Clan.
Qualification or Criteria in Choosing the Ruler
There are four major areas, namely: Bansawan (ruling and noble class), Nunawan Knowledgeable), Artawan (Brave, Strong, and Courageous)and Rupawan (wealth). Eldest Council Iranun has its Council of Elders to resolve issues especially on politics (succession of leader). Its names varies from principality to principality. Its name is peculiar to a certain principality. In the case of the Slangan Principality, its Council of Elders was: Datu Sa Kaludan, Maharaja Edenda, Ambaharaja, and Maharajalaila. In Subpangan Principality, its Council of Elders was: Maharajalaila, Kastiri, Ambaharaja, and Matuaharaja. In Balabagan Principality, its Council of Elders was: Iramangen (Ampawa Clan), Imagulalingen (Ambaharaja Clan), Ibungabungen (Imragaten Clan), and Ibaroyen (Amidumpaw Clan).
Justices
Iranun has its own justice system. Datu Kali is the chief justice. The Datu Kali is asssisted by Kali a Datu, and Tuan a Datu. The major source of rendering decision was taken from the Holy Qur-an, Hadeeth, Qiyas, the Tradional Sources called Radawan and Ghalib ko Enged.
Enthronement Ceremony
The sultan or raja or king shall be enthroned with the presence of the Council of Elders. The ceremony is usually held in the Royal Court or Turugan in vernacular dialect. The in-coming sultan shall step foot to the white soil, a symbol of confirment. The Chairman of the Council of Elders shall announce and proclaim the in-coming sultan. The cannons and other forms of guns shall be blown, an honor-sign (Hudyat ng parangal). Fiest shall follow.
What is white soil or earth?
White soil or earth-soil is just an expression connoting sign of royalty. The soil which has been refered was a soil which was carried over by the Shariffs. The tradition among Iranuns say that every enthronement ceremony, the in-coming sultan should step foot as one of the symbols of true line of descent. In Maguindanao Sultanate, the Tabunaway Clan is the authorized clan to get the white soil from the Tantawan Cave. Tradition says that the white soil is being guarded by a big snake. Only representative from Tabunaway Clan whome the snake vows its head. In Balabagan Sultanate, the Amidumpaw Clan is the authorized clan to get the white soil from Magulaling Cave.
The wiki has posted twenty (20) questions which are all fucosed on Mindanaw. These questions contribute much to the issue Moro Nation.
What is Mindanaw? Mindanaw is the second largest island in the Philippines of now a days. Historically, Mindanaw is one of the historical Islands in Asia. Mindanaw was included in the ancient map of the world. This connotes that Mindanaw was once upon a time a civilized state with distinguished inhabitants. Modern authorities in history called Mindanaw a Land of Promise of the Orient Seas.
What was the original name of Mindanaw? Mindanaw is composed of two words which has different meanings. It were joined together to connotes a place. Min is an Arabic term which means from (one of the eight parts of speech (preposition). Danaw is an Iranun term which means shallow water which flown from water system. Some linguistic authorities translated as marsh. The two terms formed a single word which traditionally and culturally defined or described as a place whom tradition and culture among Iranuns (Moro) were structured; and later on it flown to different neigboring nations and states.
What is the difference between Maguindanaw and Mindanaw? The two words are used interchangeably. Some says Maguindanaw is also Mindanaw. They have the same connotation. Some says that they have different connotation. Let us examine which of the two comes first. Traditional leaders among Iranuns used the term Maguindanaw to described the political territory(s) under controlled and influenced of Sultan Kudarat. It was a sovereign state and nation. On the other hand, Mindanaw came to existence during the early years of the Americal regime in the Philippines (1902). They corruptly used the word Maguindanaw to mean the entire Mindanaw Island of now a days. Therefore, the difference is that Maguindanaw is the ancient name of Mindanaw; and Mindanaw of now a days is a colonized term of ancient in origin. They connote the same place.
Where was the original place called Mindanaw? Iranun tradition says that the present site of Cotabato City was the original Mindanaw as called by the westerners where development was gradually spread over the entire Island. Iranun tradition says that Mindanaw and Slangan are identical.
What is lumad in Mindanaw? Historically and politically, lumad refers to the native inhabitants of the Island who were existing as a nation long period of time before the coming of the Spaniards. The Spaniards called the natives as Moores. Later on Moores was corruptly used as Moro as an identity of the natives. Historically and culturally, Moro and lumad are one or single or identical to each other.
What is Panitikan in Mindanaw? Panitikan is a tagalog or Filipino term for literature. Mindanaw is one of the most richest state of the world in terms of literature. Mindanaw literature is described as one of the oldest literature in the world. Darangan was one of the most ascribed literatures among the Iranuns (Moro). Darangan was identified as the most civilized generation or stage of development of the Uranen Kingdom. Benbaran was the seat of government. It was ruled by Tuminaman sa Rugong A Pasandalan A Murog. Bantugen, the hero and over-all command of the federal district, Daranda, chief, Sangkarayar Miniken; Mabaning, advocate general; Lumuday sa Barat, chief, Bakuludan sa Waki; Sumilalaw Sulog, chief, Saglayan ko Regen; Batara Managda, chief, Da Madiar sa Linog; Mapalala Magaug, chief, Saulaya sa Seleg; Pindulunan sa Ragat, chief, Batara si Tundugen; Sadurog ko Marandang, chief, Rinawraw Tubpaan; , Madaramba Kalinan, chief, Ayuon Ka Lumbatan; and Princess Lawanen was most adored princess of their time. Bugabong a Kumara was another state of the Darangen Period. Benbaran and Bungbong a Kumara were competing states of their time. Princess Gandingan was the lady ruler. Sarbaka Kilaten was one of the districts of Bugabong A Kumara; and the same time its capital, and Baklayan Puregen as its summer capital.
How tribe had come to its use and existence? Long time before the coming of the Spaniards to the East Nations, Mindanaw was a sovereign state. It has people, government, and laws. Iranun was its nationality. Sometimes in 1190 Shariff Aulia arrived. Shariff Kabunsuan followed in 1475. Those who did not accept and embrace the religious mission of the Shariffs went far away from their original villages where they exercised their sovereignty. Among the identified were the Tiduray of the Kutawato Region, Subanen of the Samboangan-Sibugay Peninsula, and Kalagan of the Tagalook (Dabaw) Region. These three group of natives became the mother and origin of all highlanders. Those who accepted and embraced the religious mission of the Shariffs stayed foot in their villages. They are the present native Muslims. The term tribe was unknown during the early history of the Island. In 1521, Magellan came, arrived and started invading the Islands of the Philippines of now a days. They started introducing some concepts which caused disunity among the natives. In 1898, the Americans took over, they continue colonizing the natives. Many words and concepts were introduced and later on amplified to destroyed the original culture, tradition, beliefs and others. It was the start of using the term tribe. Iranun, the original nationality of the natives was fragmented and chopped into many subgroups. Thus, the birth of the tribes in Mindanaw.
How tribes had been baptized or named? Tribes had been called or baptized on the following manner: (a) according to the topography of the place (b) according to the culture or belief of the group (c) according to their complexion (d) adoption (e) named in honor and memory of a certain personality (f) according to its location (g) according to its founder ( h) according to climate or weather condition (i) according to other form of creations like birds, animals, trees, rivers, lakes, marsh and others.
What are the tribes in Mindanaw? Originally and by tradition, there is only one or single tribe in Mindanaw. It is Moro as popularly known and used in the present days. The colonizers (Spaniards and Americans) were the archetics of the birth of the term tribe as we know today. Iranun auithorities in tarsila classified tribes in Mindanaw into two; namely: Muslim Moro and Non Muslim Moro. The identified Muslim Moro are: Iranun, the original tribe (nation), Mranaw, Maguindanawon, Tausog (Sulog), Sama, Jama Mapun, Yakan, Badjaw, Kalagan, Kalibugan or Kulibugan, Malbog, Palawani, and Sangil (Sangir in Iranun version). The non Muslim Moro are: Tiduray, Subanen, Blaan (Biran in some version), Tboli, Bagobo, Manobo, other tribes are affiliated with major non Muslim Moro tribes. However, many of the non Miuslims Moro have embraced and accepted Islam as an ideology way back 1960 up to the present. According to survey, more or less ten (10) non Muslims Moro who are embracing Islam everyday throughout Mindanaw.
Who were the datus of Mindanaw? The term datu is a general term which means and connotes traditional leadership. It is inherited. Royal titles such as sultan (surutan in other version), rajah, emperor, king, and other titles which connotes royalty are termed and called datu. Royal titles are peculiar. States and nations vary on the royal title being used or adopted. In Mindanaw Ragat or Pagilidan, Ranaw), and Sulo; sultan is usually used to identified the leader. Traditionally, datu has multifunctions and authority. The datu is an executive, legislator, and judicial. He is also the commander- in-chief of the armed forces of his state. The datus in Mindanaw claim their royal descendancy from Shariff-Iranun Core of Descent Line. Authorities in tarsila narrated that datus a traditional leader officially started from Sultan Mohammad Dipatuan Kudarat. By succession and descending order the following were officially enthroned: Kudarat, Dundang, Barahaman, Kuda, Malinog, Batua, Manamir, Bunglo, Kibad, Kawasa, Makakua, Untong, Pablo, Mastura, Ismael, and Guiwan.
What is the difference from dumato and datu? Dumato and datu are sometimes used interchangeably. However, the two are different in category and descent of origin. The former was descendent from Shariff-Iranun Core of Descent Line. The latter was descended from the four rajahs namely: Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol. The dumato are datu by origin. However, by traditional arrangement, they can not be enthroned as sultan (executive), but they can arrange the process of selection of the next sultan. They can be a judge or legislator. They have a slave and other properties like the sultan. Therefore, the dumato clan under traditional socio-political concept of community possessed a quality comparable to the noble class but they can not be a national or central leader. They can lead their own respective communities. For analogy purposes, they are the local leaders of now a days.
What is the difference among settlers, lumad and Moro? Settlers are group of people from different neigboring places such as Visayas, Luzon, Borneo, Singapore and other places who migrated and established their residence to Mindanaw after the declaration or approval of Torens Law which declared that entire Philippine Archepilago is a public land. Before or prior to the declaration of the Torens Law Mindanaw was a dominated and settled by the Moro as a nation. Therefore, settlers are not original inhabitants of Mindanaw. They are new occupants of Mindanaw. On the other hand, lumad and Moro are the same. Lumad means native inhabitants, likewise, Moro connotes original inhabitants of Mindanaw.
Who were the datus of Mindanaw? Traditional concept of datu goes along with the socio-political structure and social class of the community. Datu is a general term which connotes leader. During the traditional observance of leadership, datu may be expressed in term of Sultan, Emperor, Rajah, King and Prince. Its usage varies on the different states and nations. In Mindanaw, during the ancient or prehistoric period, the term rajah has been used to refer a leader until the arrival of Shariff Kabunsuan. The term Sultan or Surutan has been used after the arrival of Shariff Kabunsuan. Sultan Kudarat was the first leader who used the title Sultan (Surutan). Datu is a hereditary title. It (Datu) started from the ancient socio-political structure adopted during the Uranen Kingdom, led by Rajah Urangguwan; the first known organized political structure among Iranuns based in Tbok of the Iranun Bay (Illana Bay). This political structure flourished until the arrival of Shariff Aulia, the first Arab missionary who landed the Island. The Shariff married the daughter of the Rajah named Princess Rinalaut, the first known royal nuptials or wedding ceremony according to Iranun tarsila. They begot the four rajahs: Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and Budtol. Princess Angintabu, the daughter of Makaapen was married Shariff Kabunsuan sometimes in 1476. Out these wedlock, whom Sultan Kudarat descended. Therefore, the datus of Mindanaw were descended from the four (4) rajahs. The datus of Ranaw up to Tagoloan (Misamis Oriental) was descended from Rajah Dungklang. The datus in the coastal areas (along the Iranun Bay) were descended from Makaapen. The datus in Kutawato- Maguindanaw areas were descended from Rajah Maraguia. The datus in Upper River Stream up to Bukidnoon-Davaw areas were descended from Rajah Budtol.
What are the present political subdivision of Mindanaw? There are six political regions in Mindanaw. They are: Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Sulu, Tawi-tawi, Basilan, Maguindnao, Lanao del Sur and Marawi City; Region 09 (Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga City, Isabela City and Pagadian City); Region 10 (Bukidnoon, Camiguin, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Occidental, Tangub City, Dapitan City, Ginggoog City, Oroquita City, Cagayan de Oro City, and Iligan City); Region 11 (Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Davao City, Digos City, Island Garden City of Samal and Tagum City); Region 12 (Cotabato City, Kidapawan City, Koronadal City, General Santos City, Tacurong City, South cotabato, North Cotabato Sarangani, and Sultan Kudarat); and Caraga Autonomous Region (Surigao del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Agusan del Norte, Dinagat, Tandag City, Butuan City, Prosperidad City, and Surigao City).
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