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At what power factor do commercial 4 tube fluorescent fittings usually operate or can they vary?
It varies based on the ballast. Most ballasts nowadays are "power factor corrected" to try and compensate for the bad powerfactor in switching power supplies. The actual power factor of a individual fixture is entirely dependent on the circuit of the ballast, which changes from design to design.
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Can you use 75 watt fluorescent tubes in 60 watt fixtures which is a different question because fluorescent lights do not operate as hot as incandescant bulbs?
You talk about tubes specifically so I assume the 60 watt fixture is also designed for tubes. In such a case you should not use a higher wattage tube. If you were to replace a… 60 watt incandescent bulb with a compact florescent of 75 watts you are correct that the heat would be less. If heat were the only de-rating factor you would probably be okay. Not sure how this is handled in the code.
Fuse is used to restrict the flow of current to the tube when it is supplied with very high voltage. Due to high voltage the tube may burst and even the electrical apparatus g…oes malfunctioning. Hence a resistor is used in the name of FUSE in the fluorescent lamp to prevent this sudden loss of the apparatus.
Strength Suppleness speed stamina
Mercury and Phosphorous.
The gas in a fluorescent light bulb tube is composed of mercury, along with argon, xenon, krypton or neon. It is important to dispose of the tubes properly after they are used…, since mercury can be toxic to people and animals if it is released into the environment.
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Caloric requirements vary from person to person, depending on activity,age,size,sex,physical condition, and climate. Book:Introduction to Health Science Technology Ch # 9 Page…: 271
mercury vapor in the tube is ionized by electric current ionized mercury vapor emits UV light phosphor coating on inside surface of tube absorbs UV light becoming e…xcited excited phosphor coating emits visible light
You can use a wire instead of the starter to test the tubes .. I did it, it works !
A fluorescent lamp is a glass tube containing some mercury vapor, with a phosphorescent coating on the interior surface of the tube. The mercury vapor is made to glow by usi…ng a high voltage across its electrodes that sets off an electric arc discharge in the tube. The discharge can also be described as a conducting plasma. The resulting flow of current through the mercury vapor is stable and well-controlled by an external ballast, or loading device, which consists of a high-inductance choke-coil that is connected in series with the tube. The continuing dischange glow is invisible to the human eye but it causes the phosphorescent coating on the interior surface of the tube to emit visible light. A fluorescent tube lamp works by using the fluorescence principle. It contains two filaments, one at each end of the tube, which glow to heat up the gas contained inside the tube. The inner surface of the tube is coated with compound of elements having fluorescent properties, such as phosphorus. When it was manufactured all normal air was removed from the tube. In place of the air just a small trace of a gas is put into the tube, such as mercury vapor (for a white color), carbon dioxide (for green), neon (for red color), etc. When the electrical supply is turned on, what happens is that the two filaments glow and then the contacts of the starter open. This action provides a voltage across the tube that is high enough to ionise the warmed-up gas inside the tube. This ionised gas, also called a "plasma", excites the special fluorescent coating on the inside of the tube so that it gives out visible light. Note about the need for a choke and a starter Without a high inductance choke in series with the tube, the plasma in the tube would simply short-out the service wires. That would always cause the circuit's protective fuse to blow - or its circuit breaker to trip - to cut off the supply of current to the tube. If that happened the tube light would never be able to perform its intended purpose, which is to continue running - and giving out a continuous light - for long periods of time. The starter is a special kind of switch: its contacts are made of a metal alloy which, soon after a voltage is applied, heats up and bends, causing the switch contacts to open. So a high-inductance choke must be used in circuit with the starter and the tube for two reasons: firstly the choke generates a high voltage pulse across the tube when the starter's contacts open. That pulse causes the gas in the tube to ionise and become a low-resistance plasma and secondly, because it is wired in series with the tube, the choke greatly reduces the current drawn by the tube once it contains the low-resistance plasma. For more information see the Related link below and the answers to the Related Questions.
It provides an 'inductive kick' to start the lamp, and also limits current to the proper level after the lamp is started.
Mercury is present inside the tube light.When we give supply to the tube light the mercury vapours excites and it produces uv radiation which then strikes the fluorescent mate…rial and produces light. Therefore it is called fluorescent light.
Fluorescent lights are quite different from regular incandescents. Incandescents have a filament the glows white hot, producing light. Fluorescents, on the other hand, are mor…e like neon lights: electricity is used to excite a gas to produce light. Unlike neon lights, the light produced by the gas is ultraviolet. The ultraviolet radiation strikes a white "phosphor" (though not necessarily made with the element phosphorus) coating on the inside of the tube, which then emits the visible light we see. Be careful handling any broken fluorescent tubes: the gas used to produce the ultraviolet contains mercury, which is a neurotoxin, and the phosphor is a powder that is easily inhaled. None are good for your health! For more detail on the circuitry, why some have starters/start buttons, etc. see the information in the Related Links shown below.