What would you like to do?
Describe different types of research?
· This collects data that does not already exist.
· Survey, questionnaire, interview, observation.
- This looks at existing data.
- It may be a summary, collation or synthesis of information.
- Looks at what humans behaviour and the reasons behind it.
- What people do and why.
- Quantitative research systematic empirical investigation quantitative properties.
- How many people do these things and how often.
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First of all 2 categories: Secondary & primary market research Secondary: looking for all the existing information already available on the market Primary: creating new inform…ation Primary: - qualitative market research: focus group, meeting with a small amount of your target market to get deep and precise information about the demand, their needs regarding your product/service - quantitative market research: quantify information. Get some figures, statistics about some questions in order to define your product/service (about characteristics, features, price range, etc.)
Step 1: Identify And Develop Your Topic Step 2: Find Background Information Step 3: Use Catalogs To Find Books And Media Step 4: Use Indexes To Find Periodical Articles Step 5…: Find Internet Resources Step 6: Evaluate What You Find Step 7: Cite What You Find Using A Standard Format
There are different types of research papers: • Case studies. • Compare and contrast papers. • Argumentative papers. • Analytical papers. • Cause and effect pap…ers. • Reports. • Subject-based papers. • Survey research and data analysis. Case studies A case study is an in-depth study of a particular situation rather than a statistical survey. It is a narrow method of reporting on a topic or situation often giving context to other research. Compare and contrast papers A compare and contrast research paper discusses the pros and cons of two pieces of work. The writer needs to do enough research on both pieces of work to be able to make comparisons and contrasts critically. Argumentative papers This is a paper which contains arguments, the writer's personal points of view and a solution. It is often about a controversial issue. It will contain a balanced argument from both sides. If the writer is going to stay neutral he should make sure that he does not write more points for one side than the other. Analytical papers This type of research contains various sources of information that analyse different points of view on a given topic. The writer has a broad and open approach, studying a wide variety of resources, and coming to a general conclusion at the end. Cause and effect papers This type of research is often used in business or education. The writer analyses the reason for the probable (cause) and the result (effect). Reports Reports are one of the professional types of research papers. There are different types of reports: • project reports • annual reports • quarterly or half-yearly reports • focus group reports. Subject-based papers This is the most common type of paper written by learners in schools and colleges. Subject-based papers are usually on a given topic decided by the teacher or tutor. A student should research the topic, looking at a variety of resources and then write the paper. Different types of research Survey research The researcher collects the information, analyses the data and reports the results. Examples of survey research are: • public opinion polls • mail surveys • telephone surveys • consumer surveys.
There are basically three types of researches. 1. exploratory research:- a type of research in which we don't know the problem as well as solution we have to get all the inf…ormation about problem first in which we go for SAP analysis and E-TOP analysis. 2. descriptive research:- A type of research in which we well known about problem but do not have knowledge about solution this research we do for solution. 3. Experimental research:- Experimental research in which we have knowledge about problem and solution also but we get alternative solution.
To come up with a good research output, a good research design is needed. Without a good research design, the researcher will find himself flooded with information which may n…ot be appropriate in meeting his objectives. Social Research Social research is aimed towards an understanding of social phenomena. Applying the appropriate research design in gathering the required data about people and their behavior is essential in understanding the complexities of human behavior. Social research uses both quantitative and qualitative approaches; the former approach focuses on quantifying evidence and usually applies statistics in analyzing the data gathered to reveal generalities while the latter aims to achieve understanding through subjective analysis of subjects and emphasizes the context by which things happen. The number of subjects of social research scientists range from a multitude of people to individuals. Documents are also examined to strengthen the findings. Hereunder are 4 different types of research design that social scientists employ to gather data in the field in a systematic manner to come up with sound, reliable results. 4 Types of Research Design 1. Experimental Research Design An experiment is a research design where a certain degree of control over a given set of variables is exercised by the researcher when conducting an investigation. Experiments are used to test new hypothesis or existing theories with the end in view of confirming or refuting them. The experiment starts off with a problem statement, a hypothesis is formulated, then an experiment is carried out to find out if the hypothesis is correct or not. The results are analyzed using statistics that form the basis in coming up with a conclusion. When many experiments have already been done getting the same results, a theory may be formed which are then conveyed through publication of findings. For example, an experiment is carried out to find out which amount of a toxin will cause symptoms to experimental animals referred to generally as "guinea pigs." Experimentation need not be done only in laboratories. 2. Case Study Research Design A case study is a research design that focuses on a single case rather than dealing with a sample of a large population. For example, a careful determination of the factors that led to the success or failure of a community project may be conducted. 3. Longitudinal Research Design A longitudinal research design involves collection of data over a period of time. This is further subdivided into three types namely trend study, cohort study, and panel study. a. Trend study A trend study is a type of longitudinal research design that looks into the dynamics of a particular characteristic of the population over time. For example, a researcher might want to study the people's preference for projects, whether government or non-government, in their community. Respondents of the study vary across study periods. b. Cohort study A cohort study is a type of longitudinal research design where a cohort is tracked over extended periods of time. A cohort is a group of individuals who have shared a particular time together during a particular time span, for example, a group of indigenous peoples living in the forest for decades. c. Panel study A panel study is a type of longitudinal research design that involves collection of data from a panel, or the same set of people over several points in time by measuring specific dependent variable identified by the researcher to achieve a study objective. From the data gathered,it is possible to predict cause-effect relationship after a given time. Panel study is usually done when it is difficult to analyze a case-study which is only a one-shot deal. People's shifting attitudes and behavior can be detected. For example, cause-effect relationship may be investigated between the number of faculty research outputs and the amount of time given for research as work load over three years. 4. Cross-sectional Research Design A cross-sectional research design is a common research design used by social scientists. It gathers data from a cross-section of a population. For example, a contingent valuation study asks a sample of a population regarding their willingness-to-pay to preserve a given forest ecosystem accessible to them. Choosing the correct research design will enable the researcher to gain a better understanding of social phenomena. Thus, familiarity with these different research designs is a requisite for a well-guided research study.
Alluvial soil:it is a transported soil;it is the most fertile soil bcoz of sediments brought by rivers. Red soil:it contains lot of salts,not so fertile. La…terite soil:it is formed by leaching of waterso it is not so fertile as most of the nutrients are washed away due to heavy rains which result in leaching. Black soil:found in deccan plateau,it is a very retentive soil.cotton is its main crop. desert soil:found in rajasthan,poor soil.cultivation can be done with the help of fertilizers. mountain soil:found in mountaineous areas as kashmir.
The 4 different types of mutations are: 1. Harmful: most common. They reduce an organism's chance for survival ex. sickle cell anemia 2. Helpful: which produces desirabl…e traits ex. fruit more resistant to diseases 3. Neutral: which produces no change so they aren't harmful or helpful 4. Lethal: results in immediate death of an organism Hope this helps!! =)
research is of two types, 1-BASIC RESEARCH = it is the new work in science not done by any one before. 2-APPLIED RESEARCH = type of research already existed in practise ,p…urpose is just to re vice it.
Case Studies Job Analyses Documentary Analysis Developmental Studies Correlational Studies Examples of this are Surveys (questionnaires, Delphi method, interviews, n…ormative) Im only in psychology 1 but this is my most educated guess.=) hope this helped.=p
Joint Resolutions- similar to bills , and when passed have the force of law. Concurrent Resolutions- deal with matters in which the house & senate act jointly.
There are two different types of market research 'Primary and Secondary'. Primary is when you are carrying out your own new research. Secondary is research that already exists… as it has already been carried out. This is usually the cheaper type method of research but may not inform you of everything you need to know. Primary research can then be carried out through quantitative or qualitative research. Quantitative research is numerically oriented, requires significant attention to the measurement of market phenomena and often involves statistical analysis. Perhaps the most common quantitative technique is the 'market research survey'. These are basically projects that involve the collection of data from multiple cases - such as consumers or a set of products. Quantitative surveys can be conducted by mail (self-completion), face-to-face (in-street or in-home), telephone, email or web (as Marketest service) Qualitative research provides an understanding of how or why things are as they are. Research of this sort is mostly done face-to-face. One of the best-known techniques is market research group discussions (or focus groups) Doing both types of market research is usually most effective!
DEFINITION OF RESEARCH : Research can be defined as a process that is followed by a person to answer either his/her own queries or somebody else queries about a particula…r object, person, subject etc. The person that do the research is known as researcher and the thing about which he/she is doing research is known as area of research. WHY THIS CONCEPT CAME INTO EXISTENCE ? When a person has a strong will or keen nature to know about something he/she starts thinking : # Why did this happen ? # What will happen if it is not happened in this manner ? # Is there any alternative that can be followed to replace? If yes, what is it ? If not, then why? And to answer all these queries, all these why, how, what an individual starts to think about that particular thing (depending upon his/her area of interest) and this process continues till he/she comes out with some satisfactory result. TYPES OF RESEARCH : Types of research is a very broad concept because almost everything in this world can be a area of research depending upon one's own interest. (ADDITION BY High school Dropout) I pulled this from a study guide I made awhile back for research methods I. Perhaps it will be helpful, although I'm sure there are many more varieties (and comprehensive definitions) than just these. Actually, the whole study guide pertains to research, so here's a short version of the whole thing. Forgive me for any typos. Research Methods Study Guide #1 Jacob Yancey 03/16/08 Part I: Culture of Research and Basic Science Concepts A. Terms a. Basic Vs Applied Research - Applied research is targeted at specific practical questions, Basic research targets knowledge for knowledge's sake. b. "Objective Measurement" - A way of obtaining data without bias. (objectivity = when a thing is the same whoever looks, which can be seen as nothing more than consensual subjectivity). c. Inductive research - taking specific pieces of collected data to a general conclusion. d. "Reviewing the Literature" - finding out about previous research pertinent to the endeavor. You do this to hopefully avoid repeating a prior experiment and wasting time. e. Replication - Being able to reproduce the same results yourself or by other researchers. f. Causal Relationships - a direct relationship between one event (cause) and another event (effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. g. Empirical Research - by direct observation. h. Theories Vs Hypotheses - A theory is a broad and comprehensive explanatory framework that generates numerous hypotheses, whereas a hypothesis is a specific prediction typically derived from a theory. i. Operational definition - a completely explicit description of the means and criteria used to measure the concept. Must give in all research articles. j. Empirical questions - a question that can be answered through direct observation. k. Deductive Research - having a general conclusion then looking for the data. l. "Publish or Perish" - must submit research to the scrutiny of your scientific peers. B. Concept Q's a. What is the difference between basic and applied research. Which is most likely to produce breakthroughs in knowledge and theory? Basic research is more likely to produce breakthroughs. I imagine the reasoning behind this is that when you undertake research purely to gain information, there is a chance that you will encounter something completely new. Whereas within applied research the motive seems primarily to enhance the answers we have for specific practical questions. Applied research would seem geared toward efficiency, while basic research would seem geared toward pushing the envelope and encountering perhaps murky, but brand new ideas. b. What distinguishes an empirical question from a non empirical question? An empirical question is one that is objective, and that can be answered through direct observation; while a non empirical question would be more subjective and conceptual. c. What is an operational definition, and how is that distinct from a merely conceptual definition? An operation definition is a complete, thorough, and explicit description of the means and criteria used to measure the concept. The conceptual definition is the broader idea, and the operational definition is the replicable terms of how one has attempted to measure it. d. What is it about an operational definition that makes observations "objectively quantifiable"? By stating their operation definitions researchers make it possible for other researchers to use, criticize, or refine the measurement technique, or to compare results with other researchers who used different operational definitions to measure the same thing. Therefore, what makes observations objectively quantifiable is merely that the researcher has provided an operational definition that makes the measurement technique explicit, public, and subject to examination by the scientific community. Why is quantification (turning observations into numbers or categories) necessary for operational definitions? Once quantified, the operational definition becomes a mathematical formula that anyone can attempt. Quantification translates an operational definition into the language of mathematics which is fairly universal. Part II: Three Basic Types of Research and the Fundamentals of Experimental Design A. Terms a. Naturalistic Observation - Observing something within its natural environment without the subject being aware, or more importantly changing its behavior because of the observation. b. Independent Variable - The variable manipulated by the experimenter. c. Levels of an IV - The different groups within an experiment. d. Individual Difference Variables - Organismic Variables. e. Within Subject Experiments - recycles subjects (uses subjects in all/both conditions). Can be complicated by sequence, practice, and fatigue effects. f. Between Subject Experiments - involves random assignment of subjects to conditions. Each subject is used for only one condition. g. Correlations Study - A study in which the researchers measure the type and strength of relationships among variables that are not under the researchers control. Cannot prove causation. h. Dependant Variable DV - Variable measured to see the effect of the IV. i. Organismic Variable - The individual differences of people in a study. j. External Validity - Typically derived from field based research; applicable to outside world but hard to prove cause and effect; generalizable. k. Negative or Inverse Correlation - (-1.00) means that the two things never had in conjunction. l. Reluctance - changes that come about by being watched. m. Experiment - Researcher manipulates a variable and measures its effect on another variable (typically to prove cause and effect). n. Extraneous Variable - the normality of uncontrollable difference (EV). o. Internal Validity - Typically derived from lab experiments, looks to prove cause and effect, but hard to apply to real world. q. Inter observer Reliability - assesses the degree to which different raters/observers give consistent estimates of the same phenomenon. (on a subjective thing like an essay, do teachers all give within 5 or so points?) r. Participant Observer Technique - Using a researcher in the experiment as a "fly on the wall" to participate and observer from inside the experiment. (case studies) s. Correlations Coefficient - Pearson's R. The measure of one things relation with another. t. Confounding Variable - an EV with additional properties that are correlated with the IV. u. Positive Correlation - +1.00 the things almost always happen in conjunction. v. Hawthorne Effect - specific version of reluctance in which the IV doesn't cause the effect, but the awareness of change causes the effect and increases productivity. w. Pearson's R - (Pearson's product-moment correlation) (expressed as r) between -1.00 and +1.00, the correlation coefficient. x. Quasi-Experiment - wannabe experiments, typically wanting to prove cause and effect, but do not have control of critical variables that are needed for a true experiment. Three methods of eliminating/reducing Confounding Variables: i. Random Assignment - Randomizes EV's across conditions ii. Hold EV's constant - involves making sure that some factors are the same across conditions and groups. iii. Manipulate EV's into IV's - makes a more complex but informative experiment. Part III: Sampling Theory, Measurement Theory, and Statistical Significance A. Terms a. Population - A group of interest. c. Random Sampling Vs Random Assignment - Random sampling is an issue of external validity, because if you don't randomly sample you cannot generalize your results to the rest of the world. Random assignment is an issue of internal validity; if you do not randomly assign your subjects to conditions you may create CV's that threaten the experiments internal validity and proof of causality. d. Reliability - The operational definition must be free of excessive amounts of random measurement error. e. Population Mean (or pop true score) - (pop x_) often hypothetical target f. Statistical Significance - When the researcher can be at least 95% that the effect is real. Does not equal validity. g. Sample - means of drawing, randomly or not, people from a given group into an experiment. h. Representativeness - Does the sample represent the population? i. Validity (in the context of measurement theory) - Does the operational definition measure what it is supposed to? j. Stratified Random Sampling - randomly sampling from a specific group. k. Sample Size - The higher the sample size the more likely the results are to be accurate. Must be at least 20 to be considered an accurate representation of any given group. l. Sampling Error - sample mean minus population mean.
give me examples for different typolgies of research in political science
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There are several different types of research reports that can be conducted. These include but are not limited to preliminary report, staged report and full report. The preli…minary report is the beginning of the research phase.
Different ways of organizing data that has been research is putting them in different files and folders either on a computer or on another electronic device.