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Explain the cause of the prohibition and effect of rise of organized crime?

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Prohibition began with the passage of the 18th Amendment in 1919 (Of course it could be argued that it began a few years earlier as individual states began passing anti-saloon laws). The amendment passed as a result of the efforts of members of the Temperance Movement who believed that society's evils were the result of alcohol consumption. Supporters of the Temperance Movement believed that the men of early 20th Century were neglecting their families by spending all of their money on alcohol instead of important things like food. Supporters also believed that drunkenness was a major source of crime. Most supporters were women (especially women who also fought for suffrage), churches and factory owners (who supported the movement in hopes that less men would come to work intoxicated and hinder production in the factory).
The passage of the 18th Amendment proved to be a mistake. Instead of reducing crime the ban on alcohol actually increased crime and created a more ominous form of it-organized crime. The mob was created and the American gangster was born. Gangsters like Al Capone made a fortune as bootleggers in which they transported and distributed illegal alcoholic beverages much like drug dealers do today. Not only did they supply the local speakeasy with boozes, but they also used excessive "pressure" and force to make sure the their customers remained their customers and customers of other bootleggers became their customers. This ended badly for many saloon owners who were torn between two competing mobs that did not care for his personal safety.
Prohibition ended in 1933 with the passage of the 21st Amendment which repealed the 18th Amendment. It received great support due to the state of depression of the U.S. at the time. Organized crime, however, did not end. Prohibition began in order to make the U.S. a safer, better place. It failed miserably, but gave birth to a new problem before its demise-the mob in which still functions even today; can you believe that?
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