Explain the production of cast iron using the cupola furnance?

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A Cupola or Cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, ni-resist iron and some bronzes. The cupola can be made almost any practical size. The size of a cupola is expressed in diameters and can range from 6 inches to 13 feet. The overall shape is cylindrical and the equipment is arranged vertically, usually supported by four legs. The overall look is similar to a large smokestack.

Cupola and Cupolet operation. CUPOLA VRS CUPOLET Both are the same in most respects from the tuyeres down. The cupolet is short and has a lid to maintain pressure and heat inside the furnace. The cupola has a tall stack and no lid. The operation varies only in how the furnace is charged. The cupolet is a batch melter. The iron charge is bashed very small and the full amount of metal to tap can be charged at one time. When charging be sure not to let the coke bed get too low. If the tap is 100lbs you can often charge the full amount all at one time or as much as will fit in the furnace. Watch the tuyeres as the iron rains and when it stops its time to tap. The cupola is charged in smaller amounts in sequence. If the tap is 100lbs then charge 25lbs iron then 5lbs coke then iron then coke etc. To know when to tap keep time with the charges. Usually 7-10minuts to melt a charge. Mark the time of the first iron charge and watch the tuyeres for the first drops iron. This will give you an idea of how fast you are melting. The slag hole is often used to determine when to tap. As the well fills with iron the slag will run. When iron runs from the slag hole the well is full and the furnace is taped. Conversely cupolets don't always have a slag hole. After a tap the tap hole is left open to run off the slag. Be sure not to over fill a furnace with no slag hole or iron and slag will pour into the wind box. AIR As a general rule of thumb, more is better. If there is any doubt you probably need more. 2 or 3 electric or gas leaf blowers (gas is not recommended due to the fact that you have GAS at an iron pour) would be ok to use on a 16inch furnace. Squirrel cage blowers are no good. Pressure is critical not just volume. In general, for a 16inch bore furnace, 600-900 CFM and 2+ inches of water. (as read on a manometer). Default to more air. BOTOM SAND Ram the sand so that it slopes to the tap. In general, the steeper the slope the better. In some cupolas the sand slopes from the height of the slag hole to the tap hole. However! A steep slope greatly increases the hydraulic pressure at the tap hole and bots have been known to break out. This can happen at any moment. Use anything you want just be sure it cannot run out the bottom like an hourglass. COKE When loading the furnace before burn in use softball size coke (bed coke) and fill to the tuyere level. Then use coke about half that size to fill the rest. Be sure to make room at the tap for burn in and taping. Build a cave at the bottom and also at the tuyeres. Always avoid blocking holes. BURN IN The burn in is the most critical time of the iron pour other than the tap. Almost all the problems that might arise are often linked with a poor burn in. burning in with a gas burner (propane or other) is the easiest way. It allows you to make the coke bed just right and if dun well will not burn away a lot of coke as the furnace reaches temperature. Start every burn in with the burner in the tap hole. Be patient as it can take a long time. The burn in is not just to light the coke, its also to soak the furnace with heat. Watch the tuyeres and note the color of the coke. When the coke is bright orange or yellow you may turn on the blast and remove the burner. NEVER EVER put iron in the furnace until the coke is too bright to look at with the naked eye. Even then the furnace may need time to soak with heat. If iron is charged to soon it will melt and freeze in the well. The furnace needs to be hot enough to melt iron and hotter to keep it liquid until the tap. During the initial burn in the center of the coke may be yellow and the coke near one or more tuyeres may be cold. The blast can be turned on with the tuyeres open and the burner can be held in the cool tuyere. Do this until all the tuyeres are evenly hot and then close the tuyeres. Start with lower blast volume as to not blow out the fire. In a pinch a furnace can be started with wood or charcoal. Briekets make a lot of ash and it can cause clogging. Hard wood charcoal is preferred, its hotter and isn't so ashy. Burring in with wood or charcoal prevents you from packing the bed so watch out for obstructions in the well and tuyeres. TUYERES Keep them clear and free of slag and coke. If there is glass in them be sure to open them the moment there is no blast air this is less critical with non glass. Also the tuyeres stay open whenever the blast air is off, except for short times during charging and taping etc. Opening the tuyeres prevents the build up of explosive gases. It also prevents the furnace heat from breaking the glass. FLUX About a 1/2 lb to every 100lbs of iron. Bash it small and charge it before the iron. It cleans the iron and helps to remove silica. Flux makes the slag flow and helps later when cleaning out the furnace by making the slag easer to brake out. CHARGE In general the furnace should be charged as soon as there is room to do so, iron then coke. If time is needed between taps just replenish the coke that burns. Often the blast is turned off for charging. Bash the iron small. The largest chunk of iron should be no bigger than the size of a serving spoon. Never try to melt sprew cups or thick things. Cupolas can melt bigger chunks than cupolets. Steel is ok to melt but it needs more heat to melt and is usually only supplementary. TAP The furnace should be taped as fast as is safe. A well-run furnace should be able to be taped with a handspike and a hammer. Also a pointy length of rod is good. When taping, hold the ladle on its side to avoid getting crumbly bot in it as the tap is cleared. Always tap in an upward or level direction to avoid breaching the bottom sand. Never ever tap down ward. Quite often the tap needs to be poked a bit after the iron starts flowing to clear slag and obstructions. BOTOM DROP Lookout it's hot!
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What are some uses for cast iron?

cookware, furniture, support material for roofs historical usage - cannon, shots . +++ . Oh, and many other things besides. Both conventional Cast-Ironand its "Malleable Cast-Iron" species, are very important thanks totheir properties; and the main material for engine-blocks,machine-tool beds, valve-bodies, pump and motor casings,pipe-fittings and a host of other mechanical-engineeringcomponents.

What are the uses of white cast iron?

White Cast Iron is silvery-white in color. It is hard and does not melt easily. It is not easily worked on a machine. Thus it cannot be used for delicate castings. It is mainly used for ornamental purposes.

Can you use muriatic acid on cast iron?

Answer . I would not recommend it, however, if you know a welder or mechanic you have the cast iron cleaned in their vat that they use to clean their parts in.. go figure but it woks, I used to have my done by a friend in his shop.

What is cast iron?

Cast iron is, as the name implies, "iron" which has been "cast", or melted and poured into a mold. The material is usually not really pure iron but rather an alloy including carbon and (often) silicon.

Why dont you have to use coolant while machining cast iron?

As far as i know, coolant is not required while machining cast iron because, carbon in cast iron is present in the form of graphite (which is a cooling agent - self cooling). Moreover the carbon content is high in cast iron.

What are the classification of cast-iron explain their composition properties and applications with their microstructures?

Cast-iron is either pure iron or some alloy of it melted until it'sliquefied, then cast in a mold. It's relatively brittle, butbecause of its low melting point and easy casting, it's widely usedfor pipes, machines, and parts of cars, as they can be easilyproduced with these molds.

Why is a cast iron insert used in a motorcycle crankcase?

Cast iron insert is used in a motorcycle crankcase due to itsdurability. This makes is impossible for thread stripping of thecylinder head.Ê

What are the uses of a cast iron skillet?

Cast iron skillets are used for frying and baking. I use mine to fry bacon and eggs, and to bake cornbread. They are non-sticking if they have been seasoned. To season a skillet, cover the inside of the skillet with a thin coat of oil and put it into a hot oven (400). Turn off the oven and let the oil cook onto the skillet. It will form a coating that is non-sticking. Never wash your skillet in soapy water because that will remove the coating. When the coating is washed off or wears off re-season it. I have a skillet that is over 50 years old. It doesn't wear out, it doesn't get dented, and if you always keep it seasoned it won't rust.

Why cast iron is called cast iron?

Firstly, cast iron is made by casting process, or called as casting method, which is a type of metal fabrication method. You can compare it with forging, stamping, welding methods. Secondly, the main raw material for producing cast iron is pig iron. I think this is a reason the name. Although cast steel is also produced by pig iron, but cast steel has lower content of carbon element. So, scientifically speaking, if the carbon content is upper 2%, then it should be called as cast iron, but if lower than 2%, then it should be called as cast steel.

How do you clean new a cast iron skillet before use?

I just washed mine in water and detergent, rinsed it, then heated it with a litle oil in it then let it cool and used paer to rub out the oil. it is fine to use a soft scrubber an detergent on it to wash it, however a light coating of oil wil stop a build up of rust.

What are common uses for cast iron?

It is used in making automobile,railway sleepers, gutter pipes,agricultural and machine parts, pipes, hollowware, stoves, andfurnaces. It is also used for making wrought iron and steel. . +++ . No longer for wrought iron. It was, but that material becameobsolescent over a century ago, as it became uneconomical to make,its manufacture was very hard and unpleasant for the iron-workers,and it became mechanically unsuitable for all the new engineeringdemands developing in the late 19C. It was usefully a bit morecorrosion-resistant than mild-steel, and I believe some was stillbeing made and used in the mid-20C, but it was on its way out. Themodern material for ornamental so- called "wrought iron" nowadaysis Hot-rolled, or Black, Mild-Steel. . ' . Cast-iron is not used for railway sleepers, though some sleepersare pressed or rolled steel plate. It may well be used for othertrack parts such as the rail chairs and some components ofturn-outs (points), though. It is a very important material forprecision-engineering components such as machine-tool bodies andengine-blocks. Very few if any building gutters and drain-pipes aremade now from cast-iron, except perhaps for sensitive restorationwork on 'Grade-1 Listed' ancient buildings - almost all suchfittings are now plastic.

What are the uses of cast iron?

Cast iron mainly includes grey cast iron, ductile cast iron and malleable cast iron. As for ductile iron, it has very wide application, such as Pressure pipes and fittings, Automotive applications, Agriculture, road and construction applications, General engineering applications. As for the specific application of ductile iron, grey iron and malleable cast iron, please refer to the links below.

What oil should be used to clean cast iron?

Oil is used to season cast iron cookware, not clean it. Seasoning is performed with any type of cooking oil or fat (shortening, lard, etc.) Just coat the cookware entirely and place in a 350F oven for at least an hour. Repeat as needed to build up the seasoned layer. Cleaning should be done by rinsing immediately with hot water. If stubborn stuck-on food becomes a problem, use coarse salt and a non-metal scrub brush. To remove rust use the cut end of a raw potato as a scrubber with Comet or Ajax type scouring powder. Then re-season the cookware properly before using it. Mild dish-washing liquid is okay for occasional use. Always dry thoroughly before storing. If the cookware has not been fully seasoned, a thin coat of oil after washing is sometimes used to protect the surface before storing. The entire cookware must be covered with a towel to prevent dust sticking in the oil. (It's much easier to just fully season it.)

The uses of malleable cast iron?

malleable iron is used for many types of threaded pipe fittings used for gas and plumbing service Black heart malleable cast iron is mainly used to produce the iron casting parts with impact, shake or torsion functions. Normally used to produce rear axle housing castings, spring bracket, low pressure valve body, pipe fittings, tools and wrenches. Black heart malleable cast iron is also called as ferritic malleable cast iron.

What is a cast iron?

This is an interesting question, and I have made a research for it. However, it is difficult to answer it by short words. Cast iron is made from remelting pig iron, usually with some quantities of scrap iron, scrap steel and some alloys, such as Cr, Ni, Mo and Cu according to the different requirements. Depending on the specific application, iron foundries reduce the carbon and silicon content to the desired levels from 2 to 3.5% and 1 to 3% respectively. Other alloys and elements are also added during melting process according to the different requirements. With the different melting and inoculation processes, the different cast irons will be produced. There are several main types of cast iron, such as white cast iron, grey cast iron, ductile cast iron, malleable cast iron. For the detail information about them, you can refer to the related links below. I wrote this article, so I bet it will be helpful for you to comprehensively learn about cast iron.

Is iron ore used in car production?

yes, it is used extensively to make steel for many parts, includiny the chassi and body panels of many cars

Why is cast iron used in making weight lifting equipments?

It is cheaper than using, for example, stainless steel, and really only has to be heavy.

What is furnance?

A furnace is a device to make air hot and spread it through a home via heating pipes.

Uses for cast iron?

White iron is too brittle for use in many structural components, but with good hardness and abrasion resistance and relatively low cost, it finds use in such applications as the wear surfaces (impeller and volute) of slurry pumps, shell liners and lifter bars inball mills and autogenous grinding mills, balls and rings in coal pulverisers, and the teeth of a backhoe's digging bucket (although cast medium-carbon martensitic steel is more common for this application).

What raw materials are used in a Cupola furnace?

Two raw materials that are used in a Cupola furnace include rocksand briquettes. The cupola is a vertical furnace that is similar toblastfurnaces.

Can cast iron cookware be used in the oven?

Yes, OK to use cast iron as long as it does not have any plastic on handdles.

What is the use of dot product in Physics and explain?

Dot Products in Physics denote scalar results fmo vector products, e.g Work = F.D = FDCos(FD) a scalar result from the dot product of two vectors, F Force and D Displacement.

What welding process is used to weld cast iron?

arc welding such as SMAW (stick), GMAW (mig). Some cast metals may be brazed for certain applications. The actual properties of the Cast metal will be needed for the type of electrode and/or process.

Where do you get cast iron from?

A plumbing supply that sells XHCI uncoated or NHCI Dandong Foundry in China could supply various cast iron castings and products. Many of their castings are exported to USA, Germany, Italy, Japan and other countries.

Which is heaver iron or cast iron?

Iron weighs 0.284 pounds per cubic inch, while cast iron is about 0.25-0.27 pounds per cubic inch, due to how it is made and processed. So pure iron is heavier

What do you thing is cupola furnace is essential for a prime production mill or not?

yes for a small melting foundry its very essential because of its low working price and easy operation. no significant labor is needed for melting pig iron form cupola

Describe the iron smelting process of the natural wind powered furnance?

An ancient wind-powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka BEFORE the development of the blast furnace, iron smelting was achieved by ore reduction at temperatures below the melting point of the metal, forming an agglomerated 'bloom' of low-carbon iron and slag. The forced-draught (bellows-operated) shaft furnace known from archaeological studies is usually regarded as the pinnacle of this early smelting technology 1--3 . Examples of natural-draught furnaces, in which gas buoyancy in a shaft of sufficient height induces a draught adequate to drive the smelting process 4 , are also known, but are generally regarded as disappointingly inefficient by comparison 5 . Here I report the discovery and excavation at Samanalawewa, Sri Lanka, of a previously unknown furnace type. The furnaces are all situated on the western margins of hills and ridges, where they are exposed to the strong monsoon winds. Field trials using replica furnaces confirm that this furnace type uses a wind-based air-supply principle that is distinct from either forced or natural draught, and show also that it is capable of producing high-carbon steel. This technology sustained a major industry in this area during the first millennium AD, and may have contributed to South Asia's early pre-eminence in steel production.

Uses of cast iron?

Cast Iron is commonly used for cooking, pans and saucers etc. It is also used for BBQs. It also used to be used for the construction of bridges. Designers also use it to create furniture, particularly outdoor patio pieces. It is also used in pipe plumbing. Source: eHow.com

Can bees wax be use to season cast iron pans?

Lodge uses Bees wax, the real problem in any "hurry up" method isthat too many people use the word "liberally" to mean excess, andthis is never acceptable, the secret of using cast iron is to buildup thin layers. not to try and have an instant finish. Beeswax willeventually burn down into carbon, which is what seasoning is, butbeeswax is far from the easiest or most reliable method

Can you use cast iron skillet on glass top stove?

You can, but it might not transfer the heat as well as if you wereusing a gas stove. The unit should heat it up over some time.

Is cast iron different from iron?

Cast iron is a type of iron. There are many methods to produce iron products except of casting method, such as forging, cold rolling, hot rolling, welding, stamping etc. In addtion, there are many types of cast iron, pig iron and wrought iron. For more information about them, please refer to the links below.

Why nickel is only use for weld the cast iron?

Nickel is used mainly because cast iron is brittle and very suseptable to rapid heat change. The nickel rods allow the weld to heat and contract without causing cracks. you can also help this process be heating the cast iron to cherry red and when welded allow it to cool wrapped in rock wool. this allows for a slow cooling helping to prevent cracking.

What is cast iron pan used for?

Cast Iron Pan used for cooking, baking andgrilling. You can cook any kind of food in the cast iron pan. Castiron is heavier than most conventional pots and pans. Due to heatretention cast iron cooks better food as compare to other pans.

Why cast iron is used for lathe?

Any solid material that is capable of cutting ferrous metals areused, but if the family is the most iron. Cast iron is less prone to warping than other metals. This refers not to the machining of cast iron, but the use of castiron as the bed of the lathe. Yes, more housing is made ​​of cast iron industrial machines. Because iron does not tolerate the stress. Its ability to cause melting and casting, the theme is good. . +++ . I assume the question asks why cast-iron is the main materialfor making the lathe - and in fact most machine-tools. . ' . It is easy to machine and gives very good bearing surfaces suchas the shears on the lathe bed; thanks to its inherent"self-lubricating" and oil-retaining property due its granularstructure of iron crystals interspersed with those of graphite -you soon find the graphite when you machine the stuff! . ' . It has a damping effect - it is not as resonant as steel soreduces vibration. . ' . Re-writing the first respondent's last sentence as I think hemeant: it melts at a relatively low temperature, and its lowviscosity when molten greatly facilitates casting intricateshapes.

Which is better to use under ground Cast steel vs cast iron?

cast iron finds its application good if it has to bear compressive loads while steel is good for tensile loading. For underground application cast iron should be prefered over steel

What are the uses of cast-iron steel?

It is used for heavy crushing material, car brake discs and vice or machine parts. AQA DT pg 18

What cast iron used for?

the most common day to day use of cast iron in the household is with cookware. Cast iron skillets are very useful for cooking meals that require high heat and they are often deep to allow for deep frying.

Why is cast iron not used in the construction of buildings?

It easily fractures, has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass through. Flawed beams can cause the collapse of buildings

Which car manufacturers use cast iron radiators?

Almost all car manufacturers have used cast iron radiators at one time or another, however most are now made of an aluminum alloy that can cool the water intake quickly.

Can cast iron cookware be used over an open fire?

Yes, one can use cast iron cookware to cook food over an open fire. These products are designed to withstand intense heat of open fire cooking because they can cast heat very well.

What are the advantages of using cast iron guttering?

An advantage to using cast iron guttering in your home is itshigh resistance to impact such as vandalism and accidents. It issecure against heavy winds and snowfalls. If adequately maintained,the cast iron properties will be sustained for life. . +++ Can you still buy new cast-iron guttering, except perhaps veryexpensively for important restoration work on ancient buildings?Most such fittings now are plastic. As for impact-resistant,cast-iron is brittle and gutters are of thin sections, easilybroken! It will last for years though - possibly longer than uPVC -as cast-iron exposed to the weather is usually quite resistant tocorrosion to any great depth.

When would one use a cast iron teapot?

One would use a cast iron teapot at any time for a tasty cup of tea. Cast iron teapots keep the tea warm for over an hour, the teapot heats evenly and brings out the best flavour. The teapot should also last a lifetime.

What are the benefits of using a cast iron Christmas tree stand?

A cast iron Christmas tree stand holds the tree securely in place, provides excellent support. It helps keep the tree upright regardless of all the decorations loaded on the tree. Cast iron stands a more durable and able to withstand heavy duty activity

Where are cast-iron griddles used?

Cast iron griddles are used for cooking, so the obvious places that they are used at are kitchens in restaurants, houses, apartments, and condominiums.

What are the advantages of using a cast iron hibachi?

One advantage of using a cast iron hibachi is that the heat will be distributed evenly once the charcoal beneath the grill is lit. A cast iron hibachi is also more durable that those made from lighter metals.

What is a cast iron trivet used for?

A trivet is an object that can be placed on a table and is used for putting hot dishes on top of to avoid damaging the table. A cast iron model is a heavy duty and long lasting trivet.

Can you use cast iron clamps on copper pipe?

Not directly without some type of sleeving or protection between them. They are dissimilar metals and it will create electrolysis which will severely impair the copper pipe and create holes in the copper in the future.

Why is cast iron a poor material to use for cutting knives?

Cast iron is brittle compared to other steels, so excessive forcecould break it, as it does not yield well. In addition, it willrust (oxidize), unlike stainless steel

Why is cast iron used to make parts of car engines?

Certain car parts can be made by running molten metal into a mouldformed in special sand. This process is were the term caste ironcomes from.

Should I use soapy water in a cast iron pan?

Not a good idea. Cast iron is greased and "seasoned" by being heated, which seals pores in the iron pan. Using soapy water strips that away- it will rust, food will stick to it. Most can be wiped clean. If it does get the soapy water treatment, renew the seasoning by wiping it with oil, heating it in the oven and let it cool.