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How did Thomas Malthus influence Darwin's theory of evolution?
By writing a book that proposed human suffering and death from starvation because the population of humans went up exponentially but the supply of food goes up arithmetically. Darwin took this idea as an insight. He figured that populations of organisms produced far more progeny then the environment could supply with resources. So a selective process would be put in place. The fitter organisms would survive and reproduce while this much less fit would lose the struggle for existence.
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That through time, species of animal, plant, or bacteria undergo change. When a life form reproduces, each of its offspring (babies) will be different from the parents becau…se of genetic mutations. Sometimes these mutations may give it an advantage over other individuals of the same specie. (e.g.: A giraffe has a higher neck and can search food on taller trees.) Because of this advantage, the life form that is different (we will call it A) can live longer and has better chances to reproduce. The life form that has not this advantage (we will call it B) will live less longer and will have less chances to reproduce. Because of that, the population of "A" will increase and the population of "B"will decrease. In the end, there will only be "A" remaining.
The idea that organisms could change with time pre-existed Charles Darwin. However, it was Darwin himself who gathered the first major evidence into the definitive book on the… subject The Origin of Species. Darwin's addition to the concept of change of organisms across time was the concept of selection. There are three types of selection: Artificial Selection, Sexual Selection and Natural Selection. He used Artificial Selection to back up the hypothesis that organisms harbour within themselves the capacity to change from common ancestors. Artificial Selection is obvious, as should be the notion that life derives from common ancestry. Chihuahuas, Alsations, Dachshunds etcetera have all been artificially selected and derive from the Canis lupus common ancestor. Birmingham Rollers and many other breeds of pigeon (Darwin bred pigeons so would know what he was talking about) derive from the Columba livia common ancestor. Artificial Selection is simply an illustration. It seems Natural Selection should be the true ruler of Selection in the wild undomesticated world. Natural Selection states that whatever has a morphology or biochemistry or behaviour that does not allow it to survive and reproduce, will not do so. Desert animals do not have thick coats. Ptarmigans are not black in winter. Birds have airsacks in addition to lungs. Gazelles have eyes on the sides of their heads and as a result are better able to scan for predators. In other words, from predarwinian change-thoughts, a mechanism for that change had been added by Darwin, that whatever is around today is the result of Natural Selection. But Natural Selection is simply the selector of what change survives and what doesn't. The change itself is brought about by genetics. Mendel's Genetics knowledge came too late for Darwin to add into his own work. DNA was only discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953. The story of Darwin ended and modern genetics took over, explaining where change comes from. DNA replicates prior to gametogenesis and errors are made by the enzymatic processes that replicate the DNA. During meiosis, DNA is randomly segregated, splitting maternal and paternal chromosomes into separate and randomly assorted gametes, giving high possibility that the offspring should differ slightly from their parents. Now, the picture is even more complex; chromosomal rearrangements during meiosis may reproductively isolate the offspring of a pairing. See articles on chromosomal rearrangement in muntjaks and many rodents for more information. There is also a fossil component, displaying past evolution. Darwin predicted that there should be transitional forms between major taxa, and he was right. Archaeopteryx (discovered 1859) is transitional between coelurosaurs and birds. Tiktaalik, Ichthyostega and Acanthostega show the evolution of the amphibian leg from the fish's fin. Mammal-like reptiles of the Permian show the evolution of the mammal jaw. There are many australopithecine and Homo intermediates between early apes and Homo sapiens. There are many species of extinct elephant and horse and giraffe and seal and Ambulocetus and Rodhocetus show the evolution of the whale. Thus I would phrase The Theory of (Darwinian) Evolution by Means of Natural Selection as a theory of how life comes to be as it is, via change, at any moment of time. It is documented by the fossil record which shows how past life evolved to the present life we see now. Genetics and cytogenetics show how new species arose (past) and arise (present) and how the change itself occurs. Natural Selection explains how the change that emerges genetically is either 'selected' or 'not selected'; in other words how the survival of what morphologies and behaviours can survive, do survive, whereas the morphologies and behaviours that fail when faced with the environment, do not survive. And central to the theory, all life proceeds by common ancestry.
Malthus described the effects of a rising human population and a limited supply of food, leading to the "Malthusian catastrophe" in which there were too many people and not en…ough food. Darwin applied this to all populations and saw that resources (or lack thereof) limit survival.
As Charles Darwin published "The Origin of Species" in 1859 and the Enlightenment took place in the 18th century, the answer is no.
Thomas Malthus predicted that the human population will grow faster than the space and food suples needed to sustain it. Darwin and Malthus concluded that If all offspring of …almost any species survived for several generations, they would overrun the world.
How the principle of gradualism and Charles Lyells theory of uniformitarianism influenced Darwin's ideas about evolution?
Darwin's mechanism for evolution was natural selection through gradual change in the genome in response to factors pressuring from the environment. Geological gradualism, the …thought that large changes are an accumulation of smaller changes over time and uniformitarianism, the idea that geologic processes have remained constant over many many years, gave Darwin a geologic time frame in which his mechanism of natural selection could operate. The small genetic variations and mutations that accumulated in an organism to shape the drastic changes leading to the differentiation of new species needed constant environmental pressures over a long period of time. Gradualism and uniformitarianism allowed for both of these criteria and so influenced Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection.
Thomas Malthus said that the human population is going to decrease over the years because there are not enough fod resources to sustain the growing/exponential populatio…n. So there will be competition and the most FIT will get the food, reproduce, and spread their genes. This is the basis of Darwin's theory, that scarcity of resources, territory, etc. leads to the most fit to survive from competition and thus the survivors will therefore create more babies and their genes will be passed to the next generation, thereby creating more species with those fit genes.
It flies in the face of Established Religion and every thing it stands for. Although evolution makes no claim about religion or even how life sprang from un-life, religious a…dherents see it as undermining the belief that God created everything and as science trying to replace God or someother supernatural diety. All evolution seeks to explain is the changing of living organisms from one form to another according to the dictates of the environment and natural selection, all of which could be ascribed to divine design or scientic explanation.
Malthus wrote a book that explained how resources increased arithmetically while human population increased geometrically ( exponentially ). So Darwin used this idea in showin…g that more organisms are born than can be supported by the environment and this set up a struggle for existence in which those organisms better suited to survive and reproduce in the immediate environment would leave more descendents in the population over time.
That trough time, a specie of animal, plant, bacteria can change. When a life form reproduces, one of its"babies" may be different from its parents because of genetic mutati…on. Sometime, this mutation may give it an advantage over other individuals of its specie. (e.g.: A giraffe has a higher neck and can search food on high trees.) Because of this advantage, the life form that is different (we will call it A) can live longer and has better chances to reproduce. The life form that has not this advantage (we will call it B) will live less longer and will have less chances to reproduce. Because of that, the population of "A" will increase and the population of "B"will decrease. In the end, there will only be "A".
Darwin's theory of evolution is basically 'Survival of the Fittest" or "Natural selection." Genetic mutations occur in every species. Sometimes these are beneficial. For examp…le a calf born more muscular than the rest will be more likely to mate and consequently pass on his genes to his all organisms have been living for millions of years. change over time.
Species can adapt to their environment over long periods of time. Over a very long period of time, the traits of a species can change. Species change over long periods of ti…me according to natural selection.
According to Malthus, when food production is more than is needed by the population, the population increases; if population grows too much faster than food production, the po…pulation growth is slowed by famine, disease, and war.
It denotes Darwin's specific view of how evolution works. Darwin developed the concept that evolution is brought about by the interplay of three principles: variation (p…resent in all forms of life), heredity (the force that transmits similar organic form from one generation to another), and the struggle for existence (which determines the variations that will be advantageous in a given environment, thus altering the species through selective reproduction).
Why did Darwin's visit to the Galapagos Islands have such an important influence on the theory of evolution?
When he went to the different islands with different climates he noticed that the finches had adapted to their climate. (The bird that lived in a forest with plenty of bugs ha…d a small, narrow beak for picking bugs out of trees, the finches that lived near a beach full of eggs had a beak meant for holding onto it's surroundings so it's feet could break the shell, and the finch that lived where it had to survive on hard nut's had a very hard shell used for breaking them open) Without any knowledge of genetics (they were discovered quite recently) he thought that since something could adapt to it's surroundings, over time it could develop into a completely different creature. With this hypothesis, science has no limits. But now we know that all of science has it's limitations and, unless it undergo's mutation, a creatures has a maximum amount it's allowed to change, because of genes. (Like how eskimos are stouter and fatter than tell lanky people who live in Africa... If an African was moved to Alaska it's offsprings would gradually begin to look more like eskimos= adapting to it's surroundings, within limitations) Hope this helps :)
How has Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection influenced scientific thinking in the modern world?
The theory of evolution by natural selection, which is the cornerstone of biology, is the basis for immunology, evolutionary biology, ecology, biological anthropology, neurolo…gy, evolutionary development and a host of other scientific disciplines. The testable hypotheses that evolutionary theory generates reaches as far as astronomy and Lee Smolin's concept about evolving universes.
One of the most prominent names to object to (parts of) Darwin's proposals was Richard Owen. Other than him, objections came mostly from religious corners. Acceptance of Darwi…n's hypotheses was very broad right from the start. See links below for more information.