The internal energy of an ideal gas depends on?
internal energy of an ideal gas is a function of its temprature only, according to joule's law
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The ideal gas law, which is a good approximation to the behavior of many gases under many conditions, even though it has many limitations. It is a combination of Boyle's law a…nd Charles's law and was first stated by Emile Clapeyron in 1834. (MORE)
It was first stated by Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of Boyle's law and Charles's law.
To prove this, we will have to use 3 equations, 2 of them related to ideal gases: (i) pV = nRT (ii) p = 1/3 d <c2> (iii) Ek = 1/2 mv2 First of all, an ideal gas has no i…ntermolecular forces. Thus, its molecules have no potential energy. The internal energy of any system can be defined as the sum of the randomly distributed microscopic potential energy and kinetic energy of the molecules of the system. It is thus evidently clear that the internal energy of an ideal gas is entirely kinetic. (Ep being zero) So, U = 1/2 m <c2> (for an ideal gas) From (i) and (ii), <c2> = 3p/d = 3pV/m = 3nRT/m (d= m/V) Substituting in the appropriate equation, we get: U = 1/2 m (3nRT/m) U = 3/2 nRT From the above equation, it can be concluded that for a fixed mass of an ideal gas, internal energy is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature. (fixed mass such that n is constant) (MORE)
If you are a chemistry student, you might have heard the term internal energy and wondered what exactly it is. When used in thermodynamics, internal energy refers to the total… energy of a thermodynamic system. The measurement of internal energy is important for a variety of processes in science and engineering, including engines, chemical reactions, transportation, and even space. Internal energy is typically caused by the constant motion of certain molecules. Read on to learn more about the components of internal energy and how it is used in chemistry.Internal energy is the sum of the potential energy of a system, and the kinetic energy of the system. Potential energy means the energy a particular object has because of its position. When the object is in motion, this potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.When a system is either heated or worked on by an outside force (such as mechanical work or changes in pressure and volume), the internal energy of the system changes. This change is equal to the total energy caused by the added heat or work that is completed. When a system is heated to melting or vaporizing, the internal energy does not change until the entire system has gone through the change. If heat is absorbed by the system, then the change is positive. If heat is given off by the system, the change in internal energy is negative.Internal energy typically refers to invisible movement. For example, a glass of water sitting on a table has a certain measure of kinetic energy. Although the water within the glass does not appear to be moving, the molecules of the water are actually in constant motion. This kinetic energy, combined with potential energy, makes up the internal energy of the system. Although internal energy cannot be seen, it can be felt in the heat either given off or absorbed by the system.In thermodynamics, it is important to know certain equations when calculating internal energy. For example, the first law of thermodynamics has to do with the change in the internal energy of a system. This equation is the change in energy equals the change in heat plus the change in work. If there is no change, despite heat or work being applied to the system, then internal energy is conserved.If you are interested in studying chemistry or engineering at a college level, thermodynamics will be an important part of your coursework. This science is concerned with the relationship between energy, heat, and work. By learning what internal energy is and how it changes, you have already gotten the first lesson of thermodynamics. Your science teacher is a great resource if you want to learn more.The science of thermodynamics was first invented by a scientist named James Joule. He was the first to study the relationship between heat, energy, and work. During his research, he noted that when work is done on a system, the temperature and energy rises. He called this new type of energy "thermal energy." (MORE)
Gas turbine engines are perhaps one of the most enduring symbols of modern industrialization, even though few people outside the engineering, automobile, aviation industries, …and their enthusiasts have detailed knowledge of their internal mechanism. From John Barber in 1791 to Frank Whittle in 1930, the world has witnessed several versions of this technology. A gas turbine engine is a type of internal combustion engine to rotate turbines. The turbine in rotational motion can further be utilized for various purposes. Unlike other internal combustion engines, this device is powered by gas. It has three main parts: compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine. A gas-powered engine is more energy efficient than other types of internal combustion engines. This internal combustion engine has a long history. The propulsion action that the turbine engine is based upon was discovered by the Greeks almost 2,000 years ago. In the 17th century, the steam-powered engine came into existence. John Barner developed the turbine engine in the 18th century. Franz Stolz however, developed the actual gas-powered turbine engine only in 1872. This turbine was not very efficient. Aegidius Elling, who can be called the inventor of the modern gas turbine engine, improved the design. The most pervasive use of gas turbine engines is in the aviation industry. Jet propulsion engines are at the heart of modern airplanes. The gas turbines are used, to a lesser extent, in generating electricity at power stations. They are also used in the petroleum industry to transfer natural gas through gas pipelines. Some gas turbines are also used in oil refineries. Gas powered turbines were used in older ships and automobiles. Today, however, these engines are less frequently used in cars or merchant and passenger ships, as diesel or gasoline-powered engines are preferred due to a variety of reasons. A gas turbine engine has three parts. The compression chamber creates a high-pressure environment where fuel and air mix, and they are ignited in the combustion chamber. The heat expands the volume of gas. The high-pressure gas ejects from the combustion chamber and through the turbines. Owing to the energy contained in the heated gas, the turbine rotates. This rotation moves compressors, fans, and other auxiliary parts. While there are many manufacturers of gas turbine engines for industrial applications, the larger engines used in airplanes and ships are manufactured by General Electric and Rolls Royce. While General Electric engines are used to power airplanes, Rolls Royce engines are utilized in high-class marine defense, such as navy frigates. Gas turbine engines may not be widely used in modern cars, but they are very crucial to the aviation industry. This ingenious device uses the energy contained in high-pressure gas to move turbines. Not considered suitable for smaller mechanical applications, such as cars, they nevertheless have many specific applications. The MT30 line of gas turbine engines, manufactured by Rolls Royce, powers many naval ships, destroyers, frigates, and aircraft carriers. This engine shares similarities with the engines used in Boeing aircraft's. (MORE)
Most people fail to recognize the importance of a properly maintained heating system until it is broken. Although a gas heater is almost always reliable, there will come a tim…e that it will fail to give out heat, or not being able to produce at all. To minimize full services and costly repairs, you need to know some tips to fix minor glitches and other gas heater troubleshooting tricks. You must have an idea how the system works to be able to spot any problem.With a gas heater, identification of a need for a gas heater troubleshooting is easy. You just need to observe if the heater is working as well as it did before. Check for the level of heat, rumbling noises, flame flickers, dry air, etc. Anything that seems odd for a usually better running heater is a warning sign. It is suggested that you take immediate notice once you recognize a change in its efficiency, so as not to worsen any problem. A major service with a technician can be avoided if you are able to identify a problem early.A gas heater has many parts. For each part, you need to check for any broken component. Are burners intact? Is the pilot light lit? Are there any unnecessary clicking or exploding sounds upon turning the knobs? Are the vents free from any blockage? What about the evaporator pads; are they in need of replacement? Ideally, all mechanical parts should be clean, oiled, and generally in the best condition.Fixing and replacing parts of the gas heater requires the use of some special tools. Screwdrivers, wrenches, pliers, a wire brush, and a multimeter are must-have tools. These tools are available at your local hardware store and should be handy whenever a simple task is in order. Removing parts that should be cleaned like tubings and burners is easy with the right tools. Tightening of moving parts, screws, and brackets will also be easier. Cleaning using a wire brush will make sure that the ports are freed from any debris.With a gas heater, there are parts that need the most attention. For problems regarding a non-working heater, it could be that the ports are having some issues. It might need some cleaning or the debris removed. Sometimes, the pilot orifice could also be blocked and needs to be cleared of dirt and grime. Aside from the ports, the evaporator pad should be either washed or replaced, depending on how soaked it is with minerals from the humidifier. Filters, fasteners, burners, and controls are moving parts that could wear off after some time and might call for a replacement.Before even touching the internal parts of the heater, you need to be aware of important steps that will maintain safety on your end. Before doing anything, make sure that it is turned off and the source of power cut off as well. Once you are sure that it's off, that is the time that you can check the internal parts thoroughly. It is safe to tighten knobs and screws, clean the orifices, replace parts, etc. during this time. Carefully reconnect moved parts and inspect for the proper placement of parts before turning on the power. Observe any leaking and other problems as you check if the heater is working again.If for some reason the gas heater troubleshooting does not work, it may be the time to call for someone who can properly sort the problem out. If you are unsure about what is wrong with your unit, you can ask for a professional to take a look and help you identify any problem. Extensive damages like rusting and other mechanical problems should also be handled by an expert who has the right tools. In this kind of situation, your safest option is to trust someone else who has expertise in dealing with this stuff and not force yourself to do the job. It is safer that way, plus you get to preserve your heater's life in the process.Ideally, you must have your heater inspected by a professional at least once every year. During that annual check, you can observe the routine checks he is doing so that you will have an idea what to look for when you are down there inspecting the heater yourself. There is nothing wrong with taking the time to check and care for your gas heater on your own. What is important is that you know what you are doing. Always make sure that you keep yourself safe upon performing minor repairs. In most cases, you will be able to identify any problem and sort it yourself using basic knowledge on how to fix your heater.Correcting the filter size of your gas heater will save you a lot of money. Take the time to check your filter and replace it as necessary. It will also maximize the life of the heater if the blower blades, motor, and belts are in perfect condition. Be observant of these parts and you may never have to call for a professional to fix anything at all. (MORE)
Check out this list to make sure you do not waste your time or money trying to pick out the best grill on the market. Ideally, you want a great outdoors gas grill that will la…st a long while, give you quality cooking, and something that calls you to grill. Before you can decide what kind of grill you want, think about how much you are willing to spend and then look at this list to help you pick your ultimate grill.This great outdoors gas grill does everything. It has three top-quality stainless steel burners and is commercial quality. The stainless steel construction is also top notch. In addition, it promises to minimize any flare-ups courtesy of a flame stabilizer. Inside this grill, you will also find the ability to isolate and set, specific temperature zones which is helpful if you are cooking both steaks and vegetables at the same time. One of the best things about this grill is that it comes standard with a Lifetime Warranty.The RCS Premier Series Propane Gas Grill is a great outdoors gas grill as well. It uses ceramic briquettes that distribute heat evenly across the surface of the grill. Burners are tubular and rust resistant. This grill also comes with an ignition system that allows for light-by-match if necessary. The RCS comes with a standard 10-year warranty. Despite its perks, the RCS does not offer infrared add-ons and lacks internal lighting.Bull is a well-known name in the grilling world. This great outdoors gas grill is no exception. It contains three stainless steel burners that allow for fantastic even heating. Best of all, you can also use this grill as a smoker. If you are not smoking your meat, then you can remove the smoker box and us it as-is. Comprised of top-quality stainless steel, this grill is also easy to clean. This grill is covered by several different warranties. Burners are covered for five years, flame tamers are covered for three years, gas valves, all painted images, control panels, and igniters are covered for one year, while the cooking grids, steel frame, and steel housing all carry a lifetime warranty.Weber grills are great outdoor gas grills because they are built to last. Constructed with top-quality stainless steel, they are all equipped with electronic ignition, cooking grates, and a double lined hood. The Summit S-420 also comes standard with a flavorizer bar that directs escaped juices back to the flames to create that wonderful smoky flavor you love. This model also comes with two dedicated searing burners. There is a 25 year warranty on anything porcelain as well as the stainless steel frame, 10 years on the burners, and 5 years on the grates.This great outdoors grill is one that you would probably recognize if you have ever been to a campground that offered the availability of grilling outdoors. The cast aluminum base and frame is so durable that it will last well beyond any other standard stainless steel grill. That is why they are chosen for campgrounds, simply because they will last beyond their call to grill. The best benefit of this grill is it can handle several times a week use. The flare guard, burner assembly, and valve assembly are covered by a 10-year warranty while the igniter and all steel components are covered for one year.Picking the best grill for you is going to depend on what you want. Based on these findings, the cast aluminum grills are built to last, but the stainless steel grills come with more features. You will have to decide on quality versus quantity, in terms of features on these great outdoor gas grills. Once you make a decision, feel good grilling to your heart's content on the grill you know you wanted all along.Be careful when looking at infrared grills if you are concerned with warranty issues. Infrared burners are typically covered by shorter warranties than their stainless steel tubular counterparts are. (MORE)
A dryer sucks up most of the energy inside of a house, raising the electric bill immensely. Watching the electric bill rise higher and higher can be nerve racking. When turnin…g to other dryers, many choose a natural gas clothes dryer or a compact clothes dryer. Each of them have their own advantages, but a natural gas dryer will cost more in the beginning, promising to pay off in the future much like solar panels do for houses.Installing an electric dryer is like putting a machine in your house that needs daily feeding. A refrigerator which is twice the size of a dryer, consumes less electricity than the dryer. A 240-volt outlet must be installed if you want to plug it into the wall. However a gas dryer does not use coils to heat the environment inside the dryer but natural gas. The design of this dryer is made to use half as much energy to heat it up than an electric dryer. The cost of this design is slightly higher than gas, but it pays out in the long run.Unlike electric dryers which have coils that heat up and cool down rather quickly, a gas dryer will retain heat for a while. Once the gas is heated up, it may take several hours before it cools down again. This is a double edged sword that cause both a cost and a gain. It causes a gain by retaining heat for the next load of laundry and causes a loss by permeating heat continuously. This can be prevented by having a nice air flow inside the room where the gas dryer is located.Unlike a electric dryer, a gas dryer has more issues when it needs repairing. There are several ways a gas dryer can become very dangerous if there is a gas leak anywhere in the hose or in the machine itself. Once there is a gas leak, it is no longer safe in the general area that the dryer is being kept as gas is highly flammable. While it may cost more, an electric dryer is safer than a gas dryer because it relies on heating coils.If the gas inside the dryer is accidentally lit on fire then it will cause a carbon footprint. This is the only time that the gas itself causes this effect. Because the gas is locked inside the machine, the only time it leaves the machine is when it evaporates. Evaporating gas goes up into the atmosphere without becoming harmful because it is contained within the clouds until it rains again. The gas inside will also trap any harmful chemicals coming off of the clothes being dried.Over time, a gas dryer can become cost effective as it uses fewer resources than an electric dryer. The issue in an electric dryer is that there is more than one coil that constantly has to have an electric current going through it in order to stay hot. With a gas dryer it is one block of gas that has to be heated up once, and then it no longer needs a constant electric current in order to stay hot. Once this happens, cost effectiveness begins as it is no longer using 240-volts to stay hot.The cost-effective natural gas clothes dryer depends on the environment that it?s in in order to be cost effective. They can be unstable if repairs are needed but they do cost less than electric dryers in the long run. There are fewer parts inside of a gas dryer than there is in an electric so there are fewer parts to replace. Since it?s using natural gas, it?s also good for the environment unlike an electric gas which does nothing but burn fuel.While a natural gas clothes dryer may be beneficial to the environment, it?s also important to check if you have the proper installments before going with this dryer. The cost of a gas dryer is higher than an electric dryer but the house it?s being installed in may not even have the proper installment for a natural gas hose which will raise the price immensely. (MORE)
Grilling is one of the most popular activities in the summer or associated with warm weather altogether. The barbecue gas grill is among the most popular barbecuing equipment.… Begin by determining what type of gas grill fits your needs efficiently. Size and style are important features that may matter, when you are purchasing a grill. When comparing a barbecue gas grill to a traditional charcoal grill, some may say, the gas grill takes the heat. Gas grills makes cooking outside similar to inside cooking. Many gas grills feature burners and counter space, giving your grill area a little jazz.Brinkmann presents grilling in fashion with a five-burner barbecue gas grill. This item is approximately $300, its all black with silver trimmings, small smoker, and six interchangeable knobs that controls cooking degrees, as well as other options. This gas grill has 513-square inches for cooking space, and 213 square inches for additional cooking space. This gas grill feature 63,500 Btu's (British thermal unit), five burners, and push and turn for easy lighting. This barbecue gas grill holds a 20-pound gas tank, which may be offered separately. Featuring a stainless steel control unit and porcelain coated cast iron grates, making it an ideal outdoors cooking unit.The five burner barbecue gas grill by Brinkmann has efficient cooking room, five burners, and is described as easy to ignite. The price beats most competitors by an approximate $200, and comparing the price to the features are little to none. However, people are different, and may have unique grilling needs or wants. This grill features a small smoker unit, which may be downside to the Brinkmann barbecue gas grill.This grill features four burners, adequate cooking space, easy to light ignition, and is very cost effective. The features of this grill goes way beyond its price. It is convenient for most backyard and park picnics. Depending on your taste or expectations of a grill, you may come to find that Brinkmann's is one of the best barbecue gas grills. This item is available online and even in stores.Unlike some other barbecue gas grills, Brinkmann's five-burner grill has a small smoker. The product may consist of cheap materials, which might cause early corrosion. Brinkmann offers a line of grilling equipment at low prices. Depending on, how often you plan to use the grill it may or may not be a great pick for you.Can you decide whether, this is a great buy? Fact is, this grill has five burners, tons of grilling space, comes with accessories, and has an affordable price. What is seen in other barbecue gas grills that Brinkmann is missing? It is simple, the choice is entirely yours, make sure you are influenced by facts and your personal needs. This gas grill has the most cost efficient price compared to any other grill in its category.Lighting a gas grill properly is always in your best interest. Making sure the gas grill is turned on and off will reduce the cause of explosion or other hap hazards. Keeping all children and people as far away from gas fumes is a way to practice safety and enjoy your picnic. (MORE)
What is the change in the internal energy of the gas if 500 cal of heat are added to a gas and the gas expands doing 500J of work?
1. First, you want to convert cal to Joules (cal --> J). To do this, multiply the value of cal by 4.184 (1 cal = 4.184J) 500cal x 4.184J = 2092J ------------ 1 cal 2. Calc…ulate the change in internal energy of the gas (ΔU = heat – work). ΔU = 2092J heat - 500J work = 1595J change in internal energy (MORE)
0. An ammeter is placed in series with the circuit in question; if its' internal resistance is high, it will change the current flow, thus making the measurement meaningless. …For the same reason an ideal voltage meter will have infinite resistance. (MORE)
The internal resistance of an ideal voltmeter is infinity ohms. The internal resistance of an ideal ammeter is zero ohms. Since there are no ideal voltmeters or ammeters, we c…onsider the error introduced by adding these instruments to various circuits. In general, practical meters have high enough impedance (voltage) or low enough impedance (current) to not affect the reading more than the instruments accuracy specification, or to not affect the circuit more than is considered acceptable. There are times when this is not true, so we always consider the instrument and its contribution to systemic error. (MORE)