The new methods of raising capital in the industrial age relied primarily on?
Yes, if it is in reference to the contemporary spiritual movement.
getting a job or opening a store. Issue Shares.
Defining an industry An industry is a group of firms that market products which are close substitutes for each other (e.g. the car industry, the travel industry). Some indust…ries are more profitable than others. Why? The answer lies in understanding the dynamics of competitive structure in an industry. The most influential analytical model for assessing the nature of competition in an industry is Michael Porter's Five Forces Model, which is described below: Porter explains that there are five forces that determine industry attractiveness and long-run industry profitability. These five "competitive forces" are - The threat of entry of new competitors (new entrants) - The threat of substitutes - The bargaining power of buyers - The bargaining power of suppliers - The degree of rivalry between existing competitors Threat of New Entrants New entrants to an industry can raise the level of competition, thereby reducing its attractiveness. The threat of new entrants largely depends on the barriers to entry. High entry barriers exist in some industries (e.g. shipbuilding) whereas other industries are very easy to enter (e.g. estate agency, restaurants). Key barriers to entry include - Economies of scale - Capital / investment requirements - Customer switching costs - Access to industry distribution channels - The likelihood of retaliation from existing industry players. Threat of Substitutes The presence of substitute products can lower industry attractiveness and profitability because they limit price levels. The threat of substitute products depends on: - Buyers' willingness to substitute - The relative price and performance of substitutes - The costs of switching to substitutes Bargaining Power of Suppliers Suppliers are the businesses that supply materials & other products into the industry. The cost of items bought from suppliers (e.g. raw materials, components) can have a significant impact on a company's profitability. If suppliers have high bargaining power over a company, then in theory the company's industry is less attractive. The bargaining power of suppliers will be high when: - There are many buyers and few dominant suppliers - There are undifferentiated, highly valued products - Suppliers threaten to integrate forward into the industry (e.g. brand manufacturers threatening to set up their own retail outlets) - Buyers do not threaten to integrate backwards into supply - The industry is not a key customer group to the suppliers Bargaining Power of Buyers Buyers are the people / organisations who create demand in an industry The bargaining power of buyers is greater when - There are few dominant buyers and many sellers in the industry - Products are standardised - Buyers threaten to integrate backward into the industry - Suppliers do not threaten to integrate forward into the buyer's industry - The industry is not a key supplying group for buyers Intensity of Rivalry The intensity of rivalry between competitors in an industry will depend on: - The structure of competition - for example, rivalry is more intense where there are many small or equally sized competitors; rivalry is less when an industry has a clear market leader - The structure of industry costs - for example, industries with high fixed costs encourage competitors to fill unused capacity by price cutting - Degree of differentiation - industries where products are commodities (e.g. steel, coal) have greater rivalry; industries where competitors can differentiate their products have less rivalry - Switching costs - rivalry is reduced where buyers have high switching costs - i.e. there is a significant cost associated with the decision to buy a product from an alternative supplier - Strategic objectives - when competitors are pursuing aggressive growth strategies, rivalry is more intense. Where competitors are "milking" profits in a mature industry, the degree of rivalry is less - Exit barriers - when barriers to leaving an industry are high (e.g. the cost of closing down factories) - then competitors tend to exhibit greater rivalry.
Forming Groups and selling stocks
New Zealand's economy primarily relies on a combination of tourism, dairy products (particularly milk powder) exports and meat (particularly lamb and beef) exports
Logos and pathos
Morphological data for plato users C (:
Yes, it is a proper nou n.
Due to the harsh soil and climate New Englanders had to find different ways to make a living what methods of industry do they rely on?
Firstly, New England was not very harsh compared to other regions in North America and it was largely self-sufficient in agriculture. The main problem in New England was that …it could not produce cash crops (i.e.) tobacco, indigo) on large plantations as in the south. Because of this, and a rapidly growing population, New England diversified its industries, starting with lumber production, shipbuilding, and then commerce (trade). Boston, and other towns which took shape, purposely invested into these industries to help them develop, especially shipbuilding. Because New England could not produce cash crops for profit, it provided shipping and traded its own timber and wheat with the West Indies in return for most their sugar. In New England, sugar and other imported goods eventually lead to manufacturing, where sugar, for example, was used to make rum and then resold to other markets, including the Native peoples. So, in conclusion, the New Englanders had to rely chiefly on exporting timber, wheat, conducting commerce (shipping and trade), building ships, and manufacturing.
investors cannot earn money, the company does not have to repaycapital, paying dividends is not an option
No, it isn't. If you think in terms of "research and development", then science is the research piece. Science uncovers concepts and principles. Development happens when engin…eers and other ridiculously brilliant and talented "science types" take the concepts and principles from science and find ways to turn them into practical applications or devices. Of course there are important overlaps, but science is primarily a way of knowing and not primarily a way of inventing .
mechanical energy (turning generators)
To give us information