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Types of client server architecture?

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The Client/server architecture approach introduced replacement of file server by database server. User queries could be answered directly by using a relational database management system. The client/server architecture significantly decreased network traffic by providing a query response rather than total file transfer. It allows multi-user updating through a GUI front end to a shared database. Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) or standard query language (SQL) statements are typically used to communicate between the client and server.

The following are the examples of client/server architectures.
1) Two tier architectures In two tier client/server architectures, the user interface is placed at user's desktop environment and the database management system services are usually in a server that is a more powerful machine that provides services to the many clients. Information processing is split between the user system interface environment and the database management server environment. The database management server supports for stored procedures and triggers. Software vendors provide tools to simplify development of applications for the two tier client/server architecture.
2) Three tier architectures The three tier architecture is introduced to overcome the drawbacks of the two tier architecture. In the three tier architecture, a middleware is used between the user system interface client environment and the database management server environment. These middleware are implemented in a variety of ways such as transaction processing monitors, message servers or application servers. The middleware perform the function of queuing, application execution and database staging. In addition the middleware adds scheduling and prioritization for work in progress. The three tier client/server architecture is used to improve performance for large number of users and also improves flexibility when compared to the two tier approach. The drawback of three tier architectures is that the development environment is more difficult to use than the development of two tier applications.
i) Three tier with message server. In this architecture, messages are processed and prioritized asynchronously. Messages have headers that include priority information, address and identification number. The message server links to the relational DBMS and other data sources. Messaging systems are alternative for wireless infrastructures.
ii) Three tier with an application server This architecture allows the main body of an application to run on a shared host rather than in the user system interface client environment. The application server shares business logic, computations and a data retrieval engine. In this architecture applications are more scalable and installation costs are less on a single server than maintaining each on a desktop client.
Uses Client/server architectures are used in industry as well as in military. They provide a versatile architecture that allows insertion of new technology more readily than earlier software designs.
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