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Various advantages of selective distribution include reduced costs, increased market coverage, and better control over sales. Disadvantages may include that it does not cover the market well enough or that it becomes difficult to match specific retailers and dealers to your needs.
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disadvantage: selective breeding gets rid of variety advantage: selective breeding rules out weakness and disability disadvantage: isn't that what Hitler tried to do with …humans in WWII? do we really want to be like him? Selective breeding(or artificial selection) produces traits which may be advantagious to us, but be a disadvantage to the animal.Here are some examples-The lapps of northern Europe herd and breed the wild deer, selecting docile animals. The resulting herds could not survive in the wild.Cows with big udders are good for us , but are probably painful for the cow. English bulldogs mght be considered a cool looking dog, but have breathing difficulties and such small pelvises that they often have to give birth by causation. Advantages: Can produce fitter, stronger animals or animals of a higher yield of milk, meat or eggs for example. Can produce animals better suited to survive in poor climates or marginal conditions, thus preserving human food supplies and saving life. Can ensure the eradication of hereditary sickness in some blood lines. Disadvantages: For show animals such wild kitten eatingas some dogs, it is practised quite strictly by breeders aiming at a certain look which is set down as the breed "standard"- many Dalmation puppies are euthanased because they do not exhibit the breed standards for example, so there are serious moral questions to it too.Too much close interbreeding to obtain certain cosmetic traits can also result in the amplifying of inherent illnesses - like the bulldogs mentioned above, or German shephered dogs with hip problems and so on - in fact, these issues are rapidly worsening in recent years with dogs in particular. keep in mind it will eat your babies if you anger them.
advantages: we get more breeds and more animals/plants easier people can make more more Disadvantages the animals/plants can have genetic diseases It is har…d to get rid of the genetic diseases because you have to breed them out
They may cause mutations Artifical selection is the process of interntional, or unentitional modeifcation of a species through human actions which encourage the breeding of c…ertain traits over others. Some disadvantages of artificial selection is that it is inhumane, can cause mutations or produce new problems. An example of the inhumane process is the new way of breeding chickens. These chickens are produced without fethers. Critics say the feather-free chickens will suffer more than normal birds. Males might be unable to mate, because they cannot flap their wings, and "naked" chickens of both sexes are more susceptible to parasites, mosquito attacks and sunburn.
Natural selection can help creatures adapt to their enviorment. Sometimes this can cause unwanted problems.
Advantages of a Distribution Channel When a customer is considering buying a product he tries to access its value by looking at various factors which surround it. Factors like… its delivery, availability etc which are directly influenced by channel members. Similarly, a marketer too while choosing his distribution members must access what value is this member adding to the product. He must compare the benefits received to the amount paid for using the services of this intermediary. These benefits can be the following: Cost SavingThe members of distribution channel are specialized in what they do and perform at much lower costs than companies trying to run the entire distribution channel all by itself. Time SavingAlong with costs, time of delivery is also reduced due to efficiency and experience of the channel members. For example if a grocery store were to receive direct delivery of goods from every manufacturer the result would have been a chaos. Everyday hundreds of trucks would line up outside the store to deliver products. The store may not have enough space for storing all their products and this would add to the chaos. If a grocery wholesaler is included in the distribution chain then the problem is almost solved. This wholesaler will have a warehouse where he can store bulk shipments. The grocery store now receives deliveries from the wholesaler in amounts required and at a suitable time and often in a single truck. In this way cost as well as time is saved. Customer ConvenienceIncluding members in the distribution chain provides customer with a lot of convenience in their shopping. If every manufacturer owned its own grocery store then customers would have to visit multiple grocery stores to complete their shopping list. This would be extremely time-consuming as well as taxing for the customer. Thus channel distribution provides accumulating and assorting services, which means they purchase from many suppliers the various goods that a customer may demand. Secondly, channel distribution is time saving as the customers can find all that they need in one retail store and the retailer Customers can buy in small quantitiesRetailers buy in bulk quantities from the manufacturer or wholesaler. This is more cost effective than buying in small quantities. However they resell in smaller quantities to their customers. This phenomenon of breaking bulk quantities and selling them in smaller quantities is known as bulk breaking. The customers therefore have the benefit of buying in smaller quantities and they also get a share of the profit the retailer makes when he buys in bulk from the supplier. Resellers help in boosting salesResellers often use persuasive techniques to persuade customers into buying a product thereby increasing sales for that product. They often make use of various promotional offers and special product displays to entice customers into buying certain products. Customers receive financial supportResellers offer financial programs to their customers which makes payment easier for the customer. Customers can buy on credit, buy using a payment plan etc. Resellers provide valuable informationManufacturers who include resellers for selling their products rely on them to provide information which will help in improving the product or in increasing its sale. High-level channel members often provide sales data. On all other occasions the manufacturer can always rely on the reseller to provide him with customer feedback. Disadvantages of including intermediaries in the distribution channelRevenue lossThe manufacturer sells his product to the intermediaries at costs lower than the price at which these middlemen sell to the final customers. Therefore the manufacturer goes for a loss in revenue. The intermediaries would never offer their services to the manufacturer unless they made a profit out of selling his products. They are either made a direct payment by the manufacturer, for instance shipping costs or as in the case of retailers by selling the product at costs higher than the price at which the product was bought from the manufacturer (also known as markup). The manufacturer could have sold at this final price and made a greater profit if he had been managing the distribution all by himself. Loss of Communication ControlAlong with loss over the revenue the manufacturer also loses control over what message is being conveyed to the final customers. The reseller may engage in personal selling in order to increase the product sale and communicate about the product to his customers. He might exaggerate about the benefits of the product this may lead to miscommunication problems with end users. The marketer may provide training to the salespersons of retail outlets but on the whole he has no control on the final message conveyed. Loss of Product ImportanceThe importance given to a manufacturer's product by the members of the distribution channel is not under the manufacturer's control. In various cases like transportation delays the product loses its importance in the channel and the sales suffer. Similarly a competitor's product may enjoy greater importance as the channel members might be getting a higher promotional incentive.
Advantages: * determines the fitness of an organism by direct application. * employs a wide range of criteria * provides for opportunism Disadvantages: … * involves a lot of chance. * some organisms escape the full range of possible criteria * is under employed in boom times, over-employed in lean times. * recessive traits 'hide' from the process. *
Advantage: Improved scalability Unlike a single-database system, in which the amount of data that can be stored depends on the limitations of one host and one database, a di…stributed-database system is easily scalable and, therefore, set up for growth. As more sites or regions become part of the Teamcenter Enterprise network, you can expand the database topology to include new databases. With multiple databases, Teamcenter Enterprise data is divided into logical pieces, so that users usually work only with the data that is most applicable to them. Improved performance The majority of database inserts, queries, updates, and deletions are on user data; therefore, a distributed-database environment separates user data from centralized or shared data and stores it locally. Local user databases reduce network traffic and eliminate network bottlenecks on most transactions. Local user databases also distribute the user load in terms of system resources, such as memory, I/O, and disk. In addition, a distributed-database environment separates the user data from the data related to operational or background processing, which also reduces the amount of local system resources used. Increased availability Because user databases are independent, if one database is unavailable, users of other user databases can continue to work. In a distributed-database environment, selected classes are replicated in other databases when they are created, deleted, or updated. This replication increases availability. For example, by replicating administrative data to a local host, chances are increased that the data can be read when it is needed. By separating data, administrators have more flexibility in determining the frequency and types of backups needed for different types of data. This also increases availability. Disadvantage: Degradation of performance on a small network One user action can cause activity in several databases, some of which may be remote. The additional overhead of these transactions can be a performance penalty when the total amount of data in the network is small. Users also see slower performance when accessing user data that is not local. For this reason, the distribution of user data must be carefully planned to balance the need for local data with the desire for fast access to a large amount of data. Increased use of database space The schema of all databases must be the same, that is, every table must exist in every database. Therefore, database space is used for tables that may never be accessed. When the number of tables is very large, the amount of space used this way can be significant. Administrators must use database storage parameters to size tables and reduce database space consumption. Complex use and administration The use and administration of distributed databases are more complex than for a single-database network: Users must be aware of the concept of database scope and where different types of data are stored. Administrators must keep the schemas of all databases synchronized and ensure that the network is configured to take optimal advantage of the distributed-database environment in terms of availability and performance. Although database backups are more flexible in a distributed-database environment, multiple databases add complexity to the backup process.
Advantages: It only cuts down the valuable trees that are needed meaning it leaves a larger range of biodiversity. Disadvantages: Selective logging can harm the trees surrou…nding the ones being targeted which can be more disastrous than normal logging as it can cause diseases through the trees. On average, for every tree that is cut down for selective logging, 4 more are injured and are left. that is a large waste of wood, meaning they have to cut down more trees to make up for the wasted wood.
To know about the advantages and disadvanteges of the distribution system visit http://forums.pcworld.ca/showthread.php?p=2058#post2058
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One advantage of using normal distribution is that there are less errors. A disadvantage of normal distribution is that it can not be interpreted to terms of probabilities….
Advantages: Easy to implement In-place sort (requires no additional storage space) Disadvantages: Doesn't scale well: O(n2)
Advantages: Performance: very often a collection of processors can provide higher performance and better price/performance ratio than a centralized computer. Distribution: man…y applications involve, by their nature, spatially separated machines (banking, commercial, automotive system). Reliability : if some of the machines crash, the system can survive. Incremental growth: as requirements on processing power grow, new machines can be added incrementally. Sharing of data/resources: shared data is essential to many applications (banking, computer supported cooperative work, reservation systems); other resources can be also shared (e.g. expensive printers). Communication: facilitates human-to-human communication Disadvantages: Difficulties Security problems: sharing generates the problem of data security. of developing distributed software: how should operating systems, programming languages and applications look like? Networking problems: several problems are created by the network infrastructure, which have to be dealt with: loss of messages, overloading.
The following are the advantages of the public distribution system: It has helped in stabilising food prices and making food available to consumers at affordable prices. It ha…s helped in avoiding hunger and famine by by supplying food from surplus regions of the country to deficient regions. The system of minimum support price and procurement has contributed to increase in foodgrain production. The following are the disadvantages of the public distribution system; Instances of hunger occur despite granaries being full. This points to certain lacunae or inefficiency in the system. High level of buffer stocks often leads to wastage of foodgrains and deterioration in quality. The storage of foodgrains inculcates high carrying costs on the government. The provision of minimum support price has encouraged farmers to divert land from production of coarse grains that are consumed by poor, to rice and wheat.
Selective tendering has a low cost for production of tender documents since there is a small list of selected firms to tender. Price will be the main determinant for selection…, since all other considerations would have been done already making the analysis process simple and faster.
Advantages and disadvantages of pds
Selection sort is ideally suited to sorting small sets and, since it does not require random access, can be adapted to sort both lists and arrays. However, insert sort gen…erally performs better when sorting arrays. To understand the disadvantage, you need to compare the algorithms. Selection sort starts by treating the entire set as the unsorted set. It then assumes the first element is the largest element and begins comparing all other elements to this element. When it finds a larger or equal element, the remaining elements are compared to this element. Once all elements have been compared, the largest element will have been located. This is then swapped with the last element. The last element then becomes the first element of the sorted set and the unsorted set is reduced by one element. The algorithm repeats until there is only one element in the unsorted set, at which point the entire set is sorted. That one element is always the smallest element because everything in the sorted set is either larger or equal to it, thus it is already in place. Thus for a set of n elements, there are n-1 iterations. Each iteration requires n-1 comparison operations (where n reduces by one at the end of each iteration) and 1 swap operation. With insert sort we build the sorted set at the beginning of the set rather than the end. A set of one can always be regarded as being sorted, thus we begin with a sorted set of 1 and an unsorted set of n-1 elements. We then copy the first element from the unsorted set, thus creating a gap between the sorted and unsorted sets. If the element to the left of that gap is larger than the copied element, we move that element into the gap, one position to the right, which subsequently moves the gap one position to the left. If the gap reaches the beginning of the sorted set or the element to its left is not larger than the copied element, then we place the copied element in the gap. We then repeat the process for the next unsorted element until there are no more unsorted elements. Thus there are n-1 iterations (same as for selection sort) and at least two copies per iteration (one to move the element out of the unsorted set, and another to move it back into the sorted set). On each iteration, a sorted set of k elements will require 1 to k comparison operations and a similar number of move operations. Since we stop comparing when we have found the insertion point, we will generally perform fewer comparisons overall than selection sort unless the unsorted set happens to be in reverse order. However, we will incur more move operations depending on where the insertion point lands on each iteration (bearing in mind that a swap is equivalent to 3 move operations). Thus for a set of 10 elements, selection sort will perform 9 iterations, with 9+8+7+6+5+4+3+2+1=45 comparisons and 2x9=18 swaps (equivalent to 54 move operations), thus we have 99 operations in total. Insert sort would also require 9 iterations, however the number of comparisons and moves will vary. In the best case, where the set is already sorted, there will be a minimum of 9 comparisons and 18 moves (27 operations in total) and in the worst case, where the set is in reverse order, there will be 45 comparisons and 3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11=63 moves, thus we have 108 operations in total. While there will inevitably be some cases where selection sort outperforms an insert sort, in the vast majority of cases insert sort will be substantially quicker than selection sort, because selection sort will always take 99 operations to sort a set of 10 elements, whereas insert sort will take anything from 27 to 108 operations, with an average case of 68 operations. Selection sort can be improved slightly by testing the position of the largest element. If it is already the final element of the unsorted set, then we do not need to swap, however this adds an extra comparison to each iteration whether we swap or not. Thus the best case, where the set is already sorted, becomes 54 comparisons with no swaps, and the worst case becomes 54 comparisons with 18 swaps, giving a range of 54 to 108 operations with an average of 81 operations. While this will increase the number of cases where a selection sort outperforms insert sort, selection sort still comes off worst overall.