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A number of important strategic philosophies and practices guide Marketing planning, efforts and/or Marketing relationships/partnerships.


The Nine P's/9P's of Marketing can be used successfully by product and service companies selling directly or indirectly to consumers, to intermediaries (such as industrial, consumer, retail, wholesale and professional channels of distribution), and to other businesses.
Nine P's (9 P's) Londre©2007

(Larry Steven Londre, Londre Marketing Consultants, LLC, owno a copyright for this concept, the Nine P's/9 P's©2007, which augments the Marketing Mix and 4P's by the American Marketing Association, Neil Borden and Jerome McCarthy):

Planning or Marketing Process: To develop and transform marketing objectives to marketing strategies to tactics, marketing management must make basic decisions on marketing targets, marketing mix, marketing budgets/expenditures and marketing allocations. It's dividing the total marketing budget among the various tools in the marketing mix and for the various products, channels, promotion, media and sales areas.

People/Prospects/Purchaser (Target Market)

Target Market consists of a set of buyers who share common needs or characteristics that the company decides to serve. Market targeting can be carried out at several different levels.A product focusing on a specific target market contrasts sharply with one following the marketing strategy of mass marketing.Defining a target market requires Target Market consists of a set of buyers who share common needs or characteristics that the company decides to serve. Market targeting can be carried out at several different levels.Defining a target market requires market segmentation; the process of segmenting the entire market as a whole and separating it into manageable units based on demographics, geographics, psychographics, behavior, technographics or technographical characteristics.Segmentation is an important Marketing concept; the market segmentation process includes:
-Determining the characteristics of segments using Geographic, Demographic, Psychological, -Behavioral and/or Technographics or Technographical Segmentation in the target market(s).
-Separating and targeting these segments in the market based on those characteristics.
-Checking to see whether any of these market segments are large enough to support the
organization's product.

The process of segmenting the entire market as a whole and separating it into manageable units based on demographics, geographics, psychographics, behavior, technographics or technographical characteristics.Segmentation is an important Marketing concept; the market segmentation process includes:
Determining the characteristics of segments using Geographic, Demographic, Psychological, Behavioral and/or Technographics or Technographical Segmentation in the target market(s).
Separating and targeting these segments in the market based on those characteristics.
Checking to see whether any of these market segments are large enough to support the organization's product.
Once a target market is chosen, the organization can develop its marketing strategies to target this market.

-What is still missing in this research evidence is the recognition that the link between service quality and profitability can be stronger if it is recognized that some customers are more profitable than others.
-Can the segments be accessed? Marketing strategies need to be adapted for the different tiers or segments. Instead of viewing the market as a uniform group of customers with similar potential, the firm needs to view them as distinct groups or segments with differing potential. This means developing different marketing strategies for each tier, especially different strategies for price and product offering.

It is important to note that there is evidence and recognition of a link between service quality and profitability, and that some customers can be more profitable than others.


Product: The goods and service combination the firm offers to the target market, including variety of product mix, features, branding, designs, packaging, sizes, services, maintenance contracts, warranties and return policies.A product (service) is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a want or need. (Kotler)
Look at branding; brand equity; brand name; quality; unique selling proposition (USP) and unique value proposition (UVP); newness; complexity; physical appearance; packaging; labeling; ingredients; maintenance and service contracts; and others.
A product line is a group of products that are closely related because they function in a similar manner, are sold to the same customer groups, are marketed or sold through the same types of outlets, or fall within given price ranges. The major product line decision involves product line length (the number of items in the product line. A company's product mix has four important dimensions: width (number of different product lines), length (number of items a company carries within the product lines), depth (number of versions offered for each product in the line), and consistency (how closely related the various product lines are in end use, production requirements, distribution channels, or in any other way).A service is any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. (Kotler)"Product" includes packaging, as a subset of the total offering. Brand managers use packaging as a badge, enhancing the product's value. Here's an example: in fall 2008, McDonald's scrapped and changed its package design across 118 countries, 56 languages. Packaging can increase the perceptions about the quality of the product.A Product or service also should have Purpose, which is discovering the product's real value, use, difference, reason, or function for the consumer and user.In comparing the quality of a service consumers can relate it to their expectations and the experience with other services.
Price/Pricing: All aspects regarding pricing. The amount of money a consumer is willing to pay to obtain the product. Pricing includes wholesale/retail/promotional prices, discounts, trade-in allowances, quantity discounts, credit terms, sales and payment periods and credit terms. Pricing decision making also involves adjusting prices concerning the competitive environment, economic situations and involve buyer perceptions.

Price:
o "Pricing" is the sum of the values that customers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service.
o Deceptive and misleading pricing practices may lead potential buyers and consumers to believe they will get more value and a better price than they will actually receive.
o Consider, develop and review store and non-store, e-commerce and "brick and mortar" targeting, marketing mix pricing factors, considerations, objectives, strategies and tactics, including "Partners."
o Consider and review "Value-pricing and "Perceived-pricing." "Value," the worth in monetary terms of the technical, economic service and social benefits a customer receives in exchange for the price he or she pays for a market offering. Look at good, better, best pricing and values.
o The "value" that the customer perceives in relation to the price paid must be greater than alternatives in order for a selected product to be purchased. (Anderson and Narus, Business Market Management, Understanding, Creating, and Delivering Value, 1999)
o Prices are a key positioning factor and must be decided in relation to the target market, the product and service assortment mix, and the competition. All retailers would like high turns x earns (high volumes and high gross margins), but the two don't usually go together. Most retailers fall into the high-markup, lower volume group (fine specialty stores) or the low-markup, higher-volume group (mass merchandisers and discount stores). (Kotler and Keller)
o Retail price simply means the price at which goods or services are sold by a retailer to a consumer. This is the purchase price that you pay whenever you buy a product from a retail store. Retail sales are designed for consumption and not for resale of goods or services rendered.
o Pricing strategies include: cost-, profit-, competition-, demand-, value-, customer led-based pricing.
o The manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP), list price or recommended retail price (RRP) of a product is the price which the manufacturer recommends that the retailers sell the product. The intention was to help to standardize prices among locations. While many or some stores always sell at, or below, the suggested retailprice, others do so only when items are on sale or closeout/clearance.
o Be sure to adequately estimate raw materials, labor, and all sources of costs.
o Develop, consider and review: target rate of investment; pricing as a "promotional" variable; penetration pricing; stabilization of pricing strategies; target market share; meeting or prevention of competitive actions. In addition to the "monetary" price, customers may also consider non-monetary prices such as time, effort, convenience, or psychological costs.

Place/Distribution:
The company's activities that make the product available, using distribution and trade channels, roles, coverage, assortments, locations, inventory and transportation characteristics and alternatives. Offering the right product at the right PLACE, at the right time, at the right price. Consider, develop and review store and non-store, e-commerce and "brick and mortar" factors, considerations, objectives, strategies and tactics, including "Partners."Develop steps in an effective and efficient distribution plan, objectives, strategies, and tactics, plus execution.Channels of distribution.Considerations in and for an effective distribution network and partners.Channel partners. Identify and specify the roles of distribution partners and members, within the integrated strategic distribution strategies.Develop geographic strategies.Develop and review financial conditions of partners, perishability, installation, maintenance and use of technology.Develop and review distributor and broker services and their compensation, pricing issues.A typical supply chain may consist of four links in the chain: Producer/Factory/Manufacturer, Distributor, Wholesaler, Retailer supplying the consumer and ultimate users.Look at convenience due to better and wider distribution.Develop better strategic partners in types and qualities of suppliers, manufacturers, brokers, distributors, wholesalers, intermediaries, traders, merchants, retailers, and others.Review selection and possible exclusivity of distribution partners, intermediaries and retailers.Does the product, communication, promotion, pricing including distribution costs plus the other Nine P's need to be adapted/changed/modified in each region, distributor, and/or country? Develop retailing strategies; Store and non-store retailing.Develop and review e-commerce services, strategies, tactics and activities.Types of distribution channels, intensive, selective, exclusiveDeveloping global, national, regional and local partners and alliances.


Promotion: The communication element includes personal and non-personal communication activities. Activities that communicate the merits of the overall product, which include:
o Should we promote? What should we promote? To whom should we promote? What economic and discount levels should we offer? What form of promotion should we offer? What features? How frequent?
o Look at consistency of message and messaging, especially with and within the different targets/elements/components/parts.
o Personal Selling/ Sales Force
o Advertising--Mass or nonpersonal selling: TV, radio, magazines, newspaper, outdoor/out-of-home (OOH), online, mobile
Advertising is structured and composed of nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods, services) and ideas by identified sponsors through various media. (Contemporary Advertising, 14the, Arens, Weigold, Arens, 2013)
Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. (Principles of Marketing, 14e, Kotler and Armstrong, 2012). Ads can be a cost-effective way to disseminate messages, whether to build a brand preference or to educate people.
The definition of advertising is changing; the lines between what is advertising and what is marketing are blurring and the traditional sponsorship model of advertising isn't as "cut and dry" as it used to be. Advertising today seems to be taking on more of a distribution model whereby the channels of communication include owned (website, social pages), earned (WOM, social sharing) and paid media.
An example with mobile marketing and advertising, as cell phones/mobile devices keep changing and turn into multi use devices including payment activators. The mobile device and/or cell phone is a very personal medium. Can be on 24/7, people and potential shoppers run their lives off of mobile. It's business, it's personal, and it's information generating/gathering/forwarding. It's been referred to as "a brand in the hand" or "brands in the hands."

o Sales Promotion-Promotional tools, both a tool to speed up sales or value for the company; or an extra incentive to buy, a value to the customer. Includes trade deals, trade incentives, rebates, money-back offers, frequency programs, slotting allowances, samples, loyalty programs, coupons, premiums, tie-ins, p-o-p, displays, sweepstakes, allowances, trade shows, sales rep/trade contests, events/experiences and more.
o Collateral Materials--Booklets, catalogs, brochures, films, sales kits, promotional products and annual reports.
o Direct Marketing (also referred to as Action or Direct Response Advertising)--online, direct mail, mobile, database management, catalogs, telemarketing, and direct-response ads.
o Interactive/Internet/Web, Digital Media, Social Media - Interactive/online is a form that uses the Internet and Web to deliver promotional messages to attract customers. Social media is an interactive platform in which individuals and communities create and share user-generated content. Social media is ubiquitously accessible, includes Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, Twitter, as examples.
o Events and Experiences--Events, promotions and/or face-to-face engagements are delivering consumers to encounter, "experience," and interact with the product or the service, usually prior to buying.
o Public Relations--press releases, publicity. Securing editorial space, as opposed to paid space--usually in print, electronic or Internet media. Promote or "hype" a product, service, idea, place, person or organization, internal communication, lobbying. PR involves a variety of programs designed to promote or protect a company's image/reputation or individual products.


Partners/Strategic Alliances: Marketers can't create customer value and build customer relationships by themselves. They work closely with other company departments (inside partners) and often with partners and alliances outside the firm.Changes are occurring in how marketers connect with their suppliers, channel partners and others. A joint partnership; the joint relationships, partnerships and strategic alliances. The relationship existing between two parties; a relationship resembling a legal partnership and usually involving close cooperation between parties having specific and joint rights and responsibilities as a common enterprise. Usually plural or "Partners," not Partner. It is important to partner with firms that have similar corporate philosophies.Review and have clear, comprehensive, time-bound contracts and agreements.Have agreed upon objectives and strategies.Look for team management, relationship-building and team-building focus.From Philip Kotler: Value chains, of suppliers, distributors and customers. Partnering with specific suppliers or distributors create a value-delivery network; also called a supply chain. Partnership Marketing; Partner Relationship Management.Partnership and cooperative agreements are formed that enable parties to bring their major strengths to the table and emerge with better planning, products, services, promotion, distribution and ideas than they could produce on their own.Continuous support and cooperation with consultation is usually needed.

Presentation: The "P" is the act of presenting any of the different 9P's�© to your customers, suppliers, wholesalers, retailers, sales force, marketing intermediaries, clients, employees, and/or partners. They are symbols or images that represent something; a descriptive or persuasive account (as a sales person of the product or service). Something set forth for the attention of mind.
o Think about positive and negative emotions in a presentation by a salesperson or sales force. Negative emotions narrow a person's vision and propel selling behavior toward survival in the moment, especially new sales people --- "I'm frightened, so I'll flee." Positive emotions do the opposite: They broaden people's ideas and we sell longer and can be more perceptive, more creative. For the seller, positive emotions can widen our view of the potential buyer and the specific situation. Where negative emotions help us see trees, positive ones reveal forests. They can aid in devising unexpected solutions to the buyer's problem. The effects of positivity during a sales experience can infect the buyer, making him or her less adversarial, more open to the possibility and more willing to make a purchase.
o Wal-Mart and retailers want a better integration of its retailing in store and online.
o Another example or two: The Internet changed everything especially in the "presentation" of the different P's. Another part of "presenting" is the big picture perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR) which refers to consideration of, and the firm's responses to issues, beyond narrow economic, technical and legal requirements. These objectives and firm strategies of accomplishing social benefits along with the traditional economic gains which the firm is seeking is vitally important to the "presentation" to the constituents, different publics and to the world.
o Companies look and review issues of global sustainability, not interfering in the internal politics of the different countries and the governments of local markets, respecting natural resources, conducting research and development activities in developing countries, respecting local laws and regulations, environmental concerns, creating jobs in the served markets, respecting human rights, and more.


Passion: Those intense, driving or overmastering feelings, emotions in the marketing, developing, promoting and selling of products or services. Emotional, as distinguished from reason and rational decision-making; A strong liking for or devotion to some activity; deep interest in your partnership/presentation of any of the 9P's© to any target or partner.
o As a brand manager or marketing manager it starts with "believing" in the product and services you market and sell. And from research, it needs to show, in the "presentation" your passion for the product. Many sales persons dispute the concept that many sales people can sell anything, whether they believe in the product or not. That may have been true in the past, before the web, when manufacturers, producers and sellers held distinct information and specific product advantages, with buyers having limited choices. Not now.
o Today, buyers can find tons of information about products, product lines, product variables, product attributes, distribution options, strategic partnerships, pricing, sales promotions, new product development, and more.
o Salespeople have told me that believing leads to a deeper understanding of your product offerings, which allows sellers to better match what they have with what others need and buyers want.


Nine P's (9 P's) ©2007
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