What would you like to do?
This is just off the top of my head. Any market research text book can give you more details, and may include some intermediate steps I left out. 1) Identify problem - What …are the key questions, and what decisions will be made based on the results. Without a good handle on this the research will likely be useless. It's also useful to have an idea of your budget as early as possible. 2) Define your audience - Who do you need to reach to answer your questions? Current customers, potential customers? The more specific the better, but if you get too narrow the target will be difficult (i.e. expensive) to reach. "Moms" is too broad, while "Moms age 25 to 30 with children 1 to 3 who have purchased 5+ jars of Gerber baby food in the past week" is too narrow. A better definition would be "Moms who purchased baby food in the past month". 3) Determine research method - Surveys are typical, but could also include focus groups or 1-on-1 in-depth interviews. If using a survey, will it be by phone, mail, in-person, web, etc.? 4) Determine sampling - How many do you need to survey for a reliable sample size (there are formulas for this) and what is the best source to find them - phone screening, buy a list, etc.? 5) Write the questionnaire - Make sure the questions adequately address the defined problem. Question wording should be easy to understand and specific. The response options need to allow for appropriate analysis. 6) Implement the survey (field work) - Track productivity and costs. Resolve any obstacles that come up. 7) Tabulate and analyze the data - Prepare summary statistics for each question, broken out by relevant subgroups if necessary. May include coding of open end questions and advanced statistical techniques. 8) Report the results - Create graphs, charts and text that communicates the findings. Conclusions/recommendations should be actionable regarding the defined problem.
the process of mass communication
There are many stages of this planning process:Analysis stage Current marketing situation analysis: the marketing audit the environmental analysis SW…OT analysis This stage covers the relevant background information necessary for plans to be formulated and decisions to be made. It includes detailed analyses of the current market situation, the organization's existing products/services situation, the competitive situation and the SWOT analysis. The outcome of the current situation analysis and the SWOT analysis in particular provides a foundation for the next stage in the process. Planning stage Defining the requirements of the plan: objectives setting strategic outline At this stage, marketing managers are fully aware of the factors in the organization's current situation which will influence its marketing activity so will look at corporate objectives in the light of this information to develop marketing objectives and evaluate strategic alternatives. Marketing objectives should meet certain criteria: They should be stated clearly and unambiguously. They should be measurable (by sales volume, or percentage increase over the last three years, for example). They should be consistent with the organization's objectives and resources. They should be set down in order of priority. Strategy is based on the idea of a game plan, as in chess, or in military strategy. Thus, marketing strategy sets down the game plan by which the objectives are to be achieved. Each objective should be viewed very closely and strategic alternatives drawn up. For example, a desired increase in sales revenue from a particular service could be achieved in a number of different ways; by greater market penetration, for example, or by enhancing the service offering and charging a higher price. Strategic options should be carefully evaluated for each objective and the best possible course(s) of action selected in each case. The next step is therefore to establish plans of action for each selected strategy. Implementation stage Putting plans into operation: designing action programmes assigning responsibility for their execution costing the programmes This stage is concerned with the operationalization of marketing strategy. The strategy defines the broad areas of marketing activity which must be undertaken to enable the organisation to meet its marketing objectives. These must be translated into programmes of action to be carried out by the various functions within marketing. At the implementation stage, the key questions to be addressed are: "What needs to be done?" (defining appropriate action) "When will it be done?" (scheduling and timing) "Who will do it?" (designating clear areas of responsibility) "How much will it cost?" (budget planning) The marketing plan will focus on the various marketing mix activities which make up the organization's service offering within its chosen market(s): The service package -features, benefits Pricing policy Promotional programmes Distribution - making the service accessible People aspects of successful service delivery" Process design Physical evidence Each element of the marketing mix activities proposed must be carefully costed and analysed for optimal use of organizational resources and to ensure the most suitable approaches are used so that marketing objectives can be met. Measurable targets should be built into the plan to allow for effective monitoring programmes. Clear areas of responsibility for carrying out designated tasks must be set down and understood by all concerned for successful implementation. Monitoring stage Controlling the plan: establishing required performance targets monitoring performance against targets designing corrective courses of action where required contingency planning The last stage in the marketing planning process sets in place control techniques for monitoring the plan's performance. Usually this entails a systematic review of all aspects of the plan against targets set, usually on a monthly or quarterly basis. The review must be carried out regularly to ensure prompt attention and action in areas when the results lag behind targets set. Managers and others responsible for implementation of all elements of the action programme should be involved in the monitoring process. Control mechanisms should be in place based on the components identified above:
Question: What do you mean by Research and Legal Research? What is the importance of legal system? Research: The word research derives from the French recherche, from reche…rcher, to search closely where "chercher" means "to look for or to search". Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or as any systematic investigation to establish facts. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. Kinds of Research: Research can be divided into following terms as_________________ 1. Scientific research 2. Artistic research 3. Historical research 4. Legal research. 5. Geographical research 6. Space research 7. Medical research Research methods for above all types The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure.): Exploratory research: which structures and identifies new problemsConstructive research: which develops solutions to a problemEmpirical research: which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence Research methods can also fall into two distinct types: Primary research : It is a collection of data that does not already exist.Secondary research: It is a summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research. In social sciences and later in other disciplines, the following two research methods can be applied, depending on the properties of the subject matter and on the objective of the research: Qualitative research: It understands of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior.Quantitative research: It is systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships Research is often conducted using the hourglass model Structure of Research. The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results. Now we can discuss regarding the legal research as follows: Legal research: Legal research, according to one source, is "the process of identifying and retrieving information necessary to support legal decision-making. In its broadest sense, legal research includes each step of a course of action that begins with an analysis of the facts of a problem and concludes with the application and communication of the results of the investigation." Essential of legal research: The processes of legal research vary according to the country and the legal system involved. However, legal research generally involves tasks such as: (1) finding primary sources of law, or primary authority, in a given jurisdiction (cases, statutes, regulations, etc. ( 2) searching secondary authority (for example, law reviews, legal dictionaries, legal treatises, and legal encyclopedias such as American Jurisprudence and Corpus Juris Secundum), for background information about a legal topic; and (3) Searching non-legal sources for investigative or supporting information. Sources of legal information range from printed books, to free legal research websites and information portals to fee database vendors such as LexisNexis and Westlaw. Law libraries around the world provide research services to help their patrons find the legal information they need in law schools, law firms and other research environments. Many law libraries and institutions provide free access to legal information on the web, either individually or via collective action, such as with the Free Access to Law Movement Importance A course in Legal Research Methods stresses the plurality of research techniques, the importance of research choices, and a general concern to gain reliable and valid knowledge. The relationship between theory and practice is explored, as are the techniques for collecting, analyzing and interpreting research findings. Law is changing as fast and as dramatically as some may suggest is questionable where it is undeniable that the practice of law is becoming increasing in its area. Actually law is practiced only to utilize which is supposed to be right for all in any society. But law is changing according to society's demand. So it should be analyses the new one which is better one, It is very impotent to legal research for any society which is currently practiced for following reason: 1. To create new one 2. To find some relevant 3. For better service 4. To make easy to learn 5. To make easy to enforce 6. For professional skill 7. For students 8. For political Movements 9. for comparative student To create new one: The main object of the legal research is to find out the new one which is more efficient than the previous law. For instances: To find some relevant Sometimes legal research lies on few relevant terms of such law which is not so appropriate in its area but it is already exist. So it can be research for relevant terms to fulfill such gap. For instances: For better service Always law stands for better remedy for society. When its efficiency becomes demolish then research that law can help to find out appropriate law to provide better remedy according to its demand. For instances: To make easy to learn Law must be research for learning easy because of that the ambiguous one can not be adopted for last long .So to make a easy law to learn easy by legal research. For instances: To make easy to enforce It is very important to research in easiest way to enforce such law which is difficult to enforce .The complicated system of law may be refused by the society, consequently such law may be weak causing difficult procedure. For instances: For professional skill: It is also important to research for professional skilled person because in his profession a person can seek such suitable theory which is not exist as before by his skill which may be relevant for new one and the society may agree with that theory by which may form in to perfect law .For instances: For political Movements Research the law depend the political movements. When any law create obstacle to political movement which is better for the society then the law is necessary to research best method to shape such law. For instances: for comparative study Law can be research for comparative study .Because a comparative study creates convenient law between two things which can be implemented by the society. For instances For Student: An understanding of research methods will assist Honours and post-graduate students to conduct and write up their dissertations, as well as other students involved in evaluating and writing research reports. In bringing such recommendations together, by the end of the module students should be able to: 1. Describe the main methods associated with research methodology, examine their underlying assumptions and discuss their main advantages and disadvantages, limitations and probable mistakes that can lead to data loss. 2. Demonstrate an understanding of theory and the nature of research in the Social Sciences. 3. be familiar with a range of Quantitative and Qualitative research techniques. 4. Apply the theoretical understanding of research methods to the collection, analysis, presentation and interpretation of data, using appropriate electronic resources. 5. be able to present research results clear, concise and coherent manner. Legal research is performed by anyone with a need for legal information, including lawyers, law librarians, student and paralegals. It is important to change revolutionary in society Richard sharif
define the problem or the need
desk research, feild research, primary data, secondary data xx desk research, feild research, primary data, secondary data xx
1 observations 2 preliminary data gathering 3 problem definition 4 theoretical frame work 5 testing of hypothesis 6 research design
The usual step is during case preparation, although, as the trial develops it can continue throughout the conduct of the case.
According to American Marketing Association, “Marketing Research is the function that links the consumer, customer and public to the marketer through infor…mation-information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems, generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process.” Marketing Research is systematic problem analysis, model building and fact finding for the purpose of important decision making and control in the marketing of goods and services. Marketing Research is a well-planned, systematic process which implies that it needs planning at all the stages. It uses scientific method. It is an objective process as it attempts to provide accurate authentic information. Marketing Research is sometimes defined as the application of scientific method in the solution of marketing problems. Marketing Research plays a very significant role in identifying the needs of customers and meeting them in best possible way. The main task of Marketing Research is systematic gathering and analysis of information. Before we proceed further, it is essential to clarify the relationship and difference between Marketing Research and Marketing Information System (MIS). Whatever information are generated by Marketing Research from internal sources, external sources, marketing intelligence agencies-consist the part of MIS. MIS is a set of formalized procedures for generating, analyzing, storing and distributing information to marketing decision makers on an ongoing basis. While Marketing Research is done with a specific purpose in mind with information being generated when it is conducted, MIS information is generated continuously. MIS is continuous entity while Marketing Research is a ad-hoc system. While in Marketing Research information is for specific purpose, so it is not rigid; in MIS information is more rigid and structured. Marketing Research is essential for strategic market planning and decision making. It helps a firm in identifying what are the market opportunities and constraints, in developing and implementing market strategies, and in evaluating the effectiveness of marketing plans. Marketing Research is a growing and widely used business activity as the sellers need to know more about their final consumers but are generally widely separated from those consumers. Marketing Research is a necessary link between marketing decision makers and the markets in which they operate. Marketing Research includes various important principles for generating information which is useful to managers. These principles relate to the timeliness and importance of data, the significance of defining objectives cautiously and clearly, and the need to avoid conducting research to support decisions already made.
1. setting goals and establishing strategies 2. developing a marketing plan 3. putting a plan into action 4. evaluating the plan's effectiveness
HE SIX STAGES OF MARKETING EVOLUTIONMarketing as it exists today is a relatively recent phenomenon, even though its roots reach back into the nineteenth century. In the early …nineteenth century a woman who wanted a new dress had two choices: to make her own or to hire someone to make one for her. If she decided to hire someone, she would pick out the fabric and get measured, and the dress would be custom-made for her. There were no standard sizes as there are today. Standard sizes are the result of modern mass-manufacturing processes. The Simple Trade Era Prior to the Industrial Revolution, people made most of what they consumed. Any excess household production could be brought to town and sold or traded for other goods. This type of economy is commonly referred to as a pure subsistence economy. In a pure subsistence economy, there is little need for marketing (to facilitate exchanges), since each household produces what it consumes. However, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution, businesses rather than households became the producers of many types of goods. When the producers of products are not also the consumers of those products, exchanges must take place. Thus serious thinking about the exchange process-that is, marketing-began in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. The evolution of marketing into the most important business function in many firms was first recognized by Robert Keith (1960), an executive at Pillsbury, and was substantiated by other business leaders at other firms. According to Keith, marketing evolved into its present-day prominence within Pillsbury during four distinct periods beginning after the simple trade era in American history. Keith called these periods the production era, the sales era, the marketing era, and the marketing company era. The Production Era The production era is so named because many companies' main priority was the reduction of the cost of production. Companies felt that exchanges could be facilitated merely by lowering manufacturing costs and, in turn, passing along the cost savings to customers in the form of lower prices. This focus on production (which lasted from just after the Civil War until the 1920s) was fueled by such milestones as Henry Ford's invention of the assembly line and the more efficient work principles advanced by Fredrick W. Taylor's scientific management movement (Haber, 1964). These two innovations made business managers aware that mass production resulted in steeply declining unit costs of production. In turn, the declining unit costs of production made profit possibilities look fabulous. The rationale for mass production seemed sound at the time. According to Michael Porter(1980), reduced production costs can lead to reduced selling prices, which appeal to the largest segment of customers. Unfortunately, turbulent economic conditions associated with the late 1920s through the 1940s caused many companies to fail even though they had adopted this production-oriented philosophy. As a result, companies looked for other ways to facilitate the exchange process. The Sales Era The next era of marketing evolution is called the sales era because many companies' main priority was to move their products out of the factory using a variety of selling techniques. During The sales era, companies felt that they could enhance their sales by using a variety of promotional techniques designed to inform potential customers about and/or persuade them to buy their products. This type of thinking was initiated by the economic climate of the time. When Herbert Hoover was elected president in 1928, the mood of the general public was one of optimism and confidence in the U.S. economy. Few people had any reason to believe that prosperity would not continue. In his acceptance speech for the Republican presidential nomination, Hoover said: "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land. The poor-house is vanishing from among us." However October 29, 1929-"Black Tuesday"-marked the beginning of the Great Depression. This was the single most devastating financial day in the history of the New York Stock Exchange. Within the first few hours that the stock market was open, prices fell so far as to wipe out all the gains that had been made in the previous year. Since the stock market was viewed as the chief indicator of the American economy, public confidence was shattered. Between October 29 and November 13 (when stock prices hit their lowest point), more than $30 billion disappeared from the American economy- comparable to the total amount the United States had spent on its involvement in World War I (Schultz, 1999). The amount of disposable and discretionary income that consumers had to spend on necessities and luxuries also decreased dramatically as the unemployment rate approached 25 percent. Companies found that they could no longer sell all the products that they produced, even though prices had been lowered via mass production. Firms now had to get rid of their excess products in order to convert those products into cash. In order to get rid of products, many firms developed sales forces and relied on personal selling, advertising signs, and singing commercials on the radio to "move" the product. Theodore Levitt(1960), a prominent marketing scholar, has noted that these firms were not necessarily concerned with satisfying the customer, but rather with selling the product. This sales orientation dominated business practice through the 1930s until World War II, when most firms' manufacturing facilities were adapted to making machinery and equipment for the war effort. Of course, the war dramatically changed the environment within which business was conducted. This also changed companies' philosophies of doing business. The Marketing Department Era The manufacturing capability of most industrialized countries-except the United States-had been destroyed during World War II. Therefore U.S. firms once again found it relatively easy to sell the products they manufactured because there was little competition from abroad. Armed with sales concepts developed during the sales era, as well as new manufacturing capabilities and large research and development (R & D) departments developed during the war, firms realized that they could produce hundreds of new and different products. Firms realized that they needed a set of criteria to determine which products would be manufactured and which would not, as well as a new management function that would incorporate many related functions such as procurement, advertising, and sales into one department, the marketing department. It was also at this time that many firms realized that the company's purpose was no longer to manufacture a variety of products, but to satisfy their customers. The change in company thinking or purpose from that of manufacturing products to that of satisfying customers was truly revolutionary and had many implications. Firms that see themselves as manufacturers of products use selling techniques that are preoccupied with converting products into cash. Firms that see themselves as marketers focus on satisfying the needs of buyers through the products that are sold, as well as all those functions associated with developing the product, delivering the product, and consuming the product. In short, selling focuses on the needs of the seller; marketing focuses on the needs of the buyer. Theodore Levitt (1960) has pointed out that Henry Ford's development of the assembly line illustrates the difference between firms that focus on production (a production orientation) and those that focus on customers (a customer orientation). Ford is widely known as a production genius for developing the assembly line. Many incorrectly believe that the reduced manufacturing cost made possible by the assembly line allowed Ford to sell millions of $500 cars (a production orientation). However, Ford's thinking was actually the reverse. He invented the assembly line because he concluded that millions of buyers would be willing to pay $500 for an automobile (a customer orientation). His main task was to reduce manufacturing costs (in whatever way possible) so that he could sell cars at $500 and still make a profit. The assembly line was the result, not the cause, of his low price. As Ford himself put it: We first reduce the price to the point where we believe that more sales will result. Then we go ahead and try to make the prices. We do not bother about the costs. The new price forces the cost down … because what earthly use is it to know the cost if it tells you that you cannot manufacture at a price at which an article can be sold? But more to the point is the fact that, although one may calculate what a cost is, and of course all of our costs are carefully calculated, no one knows what a cost ought to be. One way of discovering … is to name a price so low as to force everybody in the place to the highest point of efficiency. (Ford, 1923) In short, during the marketing department era, many companies changed their thinking or purpose from that of manufacturing products to that of satisfying customers. Firms with a customer orientation attempt to create satisfying products that customers will want to buy. Beginning in the 1960's some firms had implemented this customer-oriented philosophy to the point where the marketing department set the agenda for the entire company. These types of firms are referred to as marketing companies. The Marketing Company Era Firms that have moved from simply having a marketing department that follows a customer orientation to having the marketing department guide the company's direction are called marketing companies. In marketing companies, the marketing department sets company operating policy, including technical research, procurement, production, advertising, and sales. A press release from Two-Ten News Network (1998) exemplifies the strategy of a marketing-driven firm: Atlanta-AGCO Corporation, a leading worldwide designer, manufacturer and distributor of agricultural equipment, today announced management appointments to strengthen and expand its global marketing and sales functions. According to Robert J. Ratliff, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of AGCO, "These appointments will strengthen AGCO's position as a marketing-driven company. Marketing is the key function that has been the basis of AGCO's worldwide profitable growth. AGCO's strategy is to vigorously expand our sales and marketing strength around the world while implementing aggressive reductions to manufacturing costs to adjust to industry conditions. These appointments reflect AGCO's commitment to further expand AGCO's market leadership around the world and to maintain profitability." As can be seen with AGCO, marketing is the basic motivating force for all activities within the corporation, from finance to sales to production, with the objective of satisfying the needs of the customer. Firms that practice this philosophy of bringing all departments together with the objective of satisfying their customers are practicing the marketing concept. The marketing concept states that if all of the organization's functions are focused on customer needs, profits can be achieved by satisfying those needs. The satisfaction of customer needs can be accomplished through product changes, pricing adjustments, increased customer service, distribution changes, and the like. Today, some firms take the marketing concept one step further by establishing long-term relationships with their customers, as discussed in the next section. The Relationship Marketing Era Relationship marketing is the process whereby a firm builds long-term satisfying relations with its customers in order to retain the customers' loyalty in buying the firm's products. Philip Kotler (1997), a noted author of several books on marketing, has pointed out that the need for customer retention is demonstrated by the fact that the cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be five times the cost of keeping a current customer happy. One example of a firm that practices relationship marketing to retain customer loyalty is Saturn. Saturn has been able to retain 60 percent of their customers-meaning that 60 percent are repeat buyers. Melissa Herron (1996) explained that Saturn accomplishes relationship marketing by taking a different view of what it sells. Traditionally, car manufacturers have sold cars, but Saturn expanded its product to include the entire experience-the shopping experience, the buying experience, and the ownership experience. Even if its cars were no better than competitors', the company decided, the entire buying and consumption experience would be better. This philosophy is made clear in the company's values and mission statement. Saturn's values include commitment to customer enthusiasm, commitment to excel, teamwork, trust and respect to the individual, and continuous improvement. Their mission statement also supports their relationship building philosophy: "Earn the loyalty of Saturn owners and grow our family by developing and marketing U.S. manufactured vehicles that are world leaders in quality, cost and customer enthusiasm through the integration of people, technology and business systems." This relationship-oriented strategy is most obvious in the company's advertising and in its pricing philosophy. For example, most car ads highlight the car's features: it's sexy and it's fast or it's comfortable and it's safe. In Saturn ads however, the car is secondary. Greg Martin, a Saturn official, explained that most car companies zero in on the four wheels and the engine, while Saturn's ads tell you you're going to get a good car and you're going to get treated well. The company-customer relationship is enhanced through trust, respect, and quality products (Herron, 1996). In summary, relationship marketing takes the marketing concept one step further by establishing long-term, trusting, win-win relations with customers in order to satisfy the customer, foster customer loyalty and encourage repeat buying. CONCLUSIONThis article has presented a historical overview of the evolution of marketing in the United States, from just after the Civil War until the present. In general, companies have determined that, in order to be successful, they must become less internally focused and more externally focused (on the customer). This trend in company thought has extended to the point where many firms now see themselves as long-term partners with their customers. As information technology becomes more advanced, marketers will be able to become more acutely aware of their customers' needs and more quickly able to provide goods and services to satisfy those needs.
Every day you have the opportunity to be curious about the natural world around you, about current events, history -- curious about anything and everything. The great jackpot… for you in writing about something is learning about it. Learning by writing is one of the best ways for you to develop your critical thinking abilities. You will be most successful writing about something that you're curious about. In sum: you can be thinking all the time about what you want to write about.
development of a research design
Strategic market research is an ongoing process.
Following are the 6 steps of market research process - 1. Understand business goals and problems Collaborate with the client to define specific objectives …of the proposed research. Determine key timing and customized research and reporting requirements. By understanding the business problem clearly, you'll be able to keep your research on collected information focused and effective. 2. Develop study plan and research design Design the discussion, guide, survey, focus group, etc. Conduct necessary secondary research. It means how will you identify and choose model. 3. Analyze your data and perform research Conduct focus group, initiative session, web usability, survey, etc. Post data and research result online as they become available allowing the client to take an advanced look for major trends in your data. 4. Deliver actionable insights Data analysis that summarize clear conclusion from the gathered data. Information combines in a report that aims to tell story of the data. Answer the original business problems and resolve that problems. Offer clear business recommendations. 5. Present results Result presented in person or via teleconference depending on client demand. A conversation communicating clear actionable insights. 6. Follow up Regularly follow up with the clients.
Let the data determine the shape of your essay.