What are the Celtic words for hell?
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In Irish it's: leanbh / leanbán / babaí / baibín In Welsh it's "baban" In Scots Gaelic it's "leanabh"
In Irish it's "máthair" In Welsh it's "mam" In Scots Gaelic it's "màthair"
Those who follow the path of Christianity believe that hell exists. Who goes to this place and exactly what it consists of is a topic of debate among many Christians, however.… To get concrete answers about what hell is and who goes there, one must refer to the Bible. By understanding hell in the Bible, Christians can gain a better understanding of hell and its purpose.If you ask the average Christian what hell is, they will tell you that it is a place where evil people go when they die. If you ask them what hell is like, they will probably speak of fire and brimstone and constant torture and pain. To truly understand what hell is, however, you must turn to the bible. According to the Bible, the exact nature of hell is addressed in Revelation 21:8. This verse about hell in the Bible states, "But as for the cowardly, the faithless, the detestable, as for murderers, the sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their portion will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death."According to the Christian religion, Christians are able to avoid hell because Christ died on the cross to wash believers of their sins. If you repent for sins and accept Christ as your savior, you can avoid hell. This is also addressed in the Bible in Revelation 20:6. This verse of the Bible states, "Blessed and holy is the one who shares in the first resurrection! Over such the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for a thousand years." This means that those who share in the resurrection and salvation of Christ will not suffer the second death and they will not suffer the torment of hell. Many Christians think that they only have to accept Jesus as their savior to get into heaven and avoid hell. This is not true. The deeds that you perform here on Earth will affect what happens to you in the afterlife. While Jesus is the path to salvation, you must also live according to His word. This can be seen in the Bible in Mark 9:43-48. This portion of the Bible states, "And if your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life crippled than with two hands to go to hell, to the unquenchable fire. And if your foot causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life lame than with two feet to be thrown into hell. And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell, ?where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched." This verse makes it obvious that sin can cause you to go to hell, even if you are a believer of Christ.Many people wonder if a Christian believes that Christ is their savior, how that person can still go to hell. Truly following Christ is not only about believing in Him, but obeying Him as well. You must live the way the Bible tells you to or you run the risk of facing hell in the afterlife. This becomes apparent when you read John 3:36. This Bible verse states, "Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him." This verse tells you not only to believe in the Son, but to obey him to avoid the wrath of God and hell.There is debate among believers about what hell is like. Some say it is merely a permanent separation from God. Others believe that it is a place of torture and torment. To know the truth, you must read about hell in the Bible to discover what it truly is. According to Matthew 13:50, hell is a place of actual torment. This Bible verse tells us, "And throw them into the fiery furnace. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth." This verse does not depict a mere separation from God. It depicts a place of actual suffering. A human's time here on Earth is minuscule when compared to eternity. It only makes sense then, that Christians should concern themselves with the afterlife and not just their time here on Earth. According to the Christian faith, everyone faces one of two options after death. They either enter the kingdom of heaven or fall into the depths of hell. To avoid hell, you need to understand the true nature of the afterlife and the true path to salvation.To truly understand what hell is, you must turn to the bible. According to the Bible, the exact nature of hell is addressed in Revelation 21:8. This verse about hell in the Bible states, "But as for the cowardly, the faithless, the detestable, as for murderers, the sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their portion will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death." (MORE)
Celtic warrior women are often forgotten about amidst the patriarchal cultures and society of the Greco-Roman era. The issue with this is that the extremely progressive and eg…alitarian rights of Gaelic women are difficult to believe as real. Their equal status is a tough one to understand amidst the stories of oppressed women who existed at the exact same time, and this has a lot to do with the triumph of the Romans in Western culture. Read on to find out about these thrilling and powerful women. Women actually had far more rights in Ancient Gaelic culture than they did in any other culture at the time. On the legal end of the spectrum, women had the right to possess land (and to buy and sell it), and could sue for divorce if they wanted to. They could also take on occupations that were reserved for men in other areas at the time. These included becoming warriors, and healers, or medicine women. They could also become priestesses, prophetesses, and seers if they chose to enter into religious affairs. There are many stories in Celtic folklore, which show the might of female leaders, and women warriors who had potent strength in battle. Women could also be chief of a Celtic clan, and gain title in the ways that men could. They had extreme independence and were praised for courage, ability to have their own individuality, and self-respect unlike other women of the time. Most people don't realize the power of women Celtic warriors. This is likely because the Gaelic cultures didn't end up being the one that won out in the end, succumbing to Roman, then French, and later British leaders. The Roman conquest of the Celtic peoples gave a Hellenistic ideology to the way stories were told, and how that culture is now viewed. Hellenistic and Roman cultures were strictly patriarchal, with women being limited to the private spheres, and male homosocial relationships taking precedence over male-female relationships. Women were strongly oppressed, and not viewed as equal to men in strength, intellect, or any other ability. This ideology is what lasted in Western culture, and what became the predominate social construct of the male-female binary, and is the reason movements such as feminism and gay pride have been forced to break those constructs. This predominately patriarchal view is also the reason the more egalitarian society of the Gaelic peoples is not often discussed, because the Celtic culture was not the triumphant one. Victors, unfortunately, write the history, so when Celtic warriors are remembered, it is generally the men. Boudicca was a Celtic King's wife, who became the leader of an army following the death of the King, Prasutagus, in 60 CE. The Romans had invaded the British Isles at this point, having originally begun their conquest in 43 CE, and attempted to gain ultimate control after Prasutagus's death. They beat Boudicca, raped her daughters, sold a majority of the royals as slaves, and raided the treasury of the royals. Boudicca founded an army, and raided and burned many of their major cities. This forced Romans to flee, and those who didn't were killed. However, her army endured long, arduous battles, and, exhausted and starving, were eventually beat by the Romans. It is said that Boudicca returned home to poison herself to evade capture by the Romans. There was a war goddess, Andraste, who could be invoked in wartime. Boudicca invoked her while in war against the Roman armies. There was also a triple warrior goddess with the names Morrigan, Badb, and Macha. Grainne O'Malley was a 16th century Pirate Queen, and Medb was the Connacht queen who began waging the war against Ulster. The Scottish warrior women were Scathach, who also was in the Ulster Cycle, and a female warrior whose name is unknown, but who has a structure built for her. Scathach rival was the female warrior Aife. Celtic women are known to have had more sexual liberation than the Roman women of the time. Roman views of the "proper" women included chastity, but Celtic women were entitled to promiscuity as much as any man. Because of this, family lines were matrilineal, as the father of a child could have been uncertain - and this was entirely acceptable. Furthermore, a woman did not need to fight very hard for divorce. Reasons for divorce could be homosexuality, impotence, sterility, maltreatment, lack of respect and support, or a lack of privacy about their sexual lives. However, divorce could come from really any reason, including faded attraction, if the man was "repulsive" to her. Women were quite equal with men, and far more so than Roman women with their men. It's evident that Celtic society was far more egalitarian and progressive in the way of women's rights than the general modern perception. It's an interesting point of study to see where this society differed from the other patriarchal societies of the time. There were many more women with authority than what has been mentioned, and it is important to remember that as a whole these women had more power than Roman women. These women could be viewed as some of the first proto-feminists, fighting against the invading patriarchal society of Rome, which was attempting to impress Roman values on Gaelic societies. The legend goes that Celtic women kept daggers strapped to their inner thighs in order to protect their sexuality. A woman could use these as defense if a man attempted to force himself on her. While chastity wasn't viewed in the same way in Gaelic society, and women had more power, rape certainly still did exist, particularly in wartime. (MORE)
Hell's Kitchen, the section of Manhattan from 34th Street to 59th Street, and Eighth Avenue to the Hudson River, has long been known as an actors' and artists' neighborhood du…e to its proximity to the Broadway Theatre District. Many creative types including actors have made this area of Midtown their home and stomping ground. Several prominent theatre and performing arts organizations are located in Hell's Kitchen as well. Actors coming and going to work at local theatres and performance venues also frequent the area.Burt Reynolds, Bob Hope, James Dean, Madonna, Jerry Seinfeld, and Larry David are among the many famous actors who have lived in the Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood. Alicia Keys, Sylvester Stallone, and Robert DeNiro were born in Hell's Kitchen. Hell's Kitchen is home to several organizations for the acting community providing education and support. [The Actors Studio](http://theactorsstudio.org/) on West 44th Street is a well-known space where actors refine their craft. Members must audition and be invited to join. Known to offer affordable acting classes, the [Actor's Connection]( http://www.actorsconnection.com/) schedules networking seminars and special events for actors. [The American Theatre of Actors](http://www.americantheatreofactors.com/) is a repertory theatre company on West 54th Street with actors, playwrights and directors. The organization focuses on the promotion of new talent.Don't be surprised if you see a few actors wandering the streets of the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood. You might see some familiar faces coming and going from the [The Actor's Temple](http://www.theactorstemple.org) on West 47th Street, a Jewish synagogue in which many actors and actors' families are members. Comedy events and theatrical performances also take place here throughout the year. [St. Malachy's Actors' Chapel](http://www.actorschapel.org/) on West 49th Street has long attracted show business people as well. Actors created the [Clinton Community Garden]( http://clintongarden.org) on West 48th Street in 1977. The group cleaned up the trash in the neighborhood and nurtured this little sanctuary in an unexpected place. This became a refuge from the hustle and bustle of the theatre district, where many worked at night. Today, the Clinton Community Garden is still open, with public area in the front, and a space for key-holding residents of the neighborhood toward the rear. Take a tour of Hearst Publications, at the intersection of 57th Street and Eighth Avenue, and possibly experience a star sighting. Home to some of the top magazines in the world like Seventeen, Good Housekeeping, and Cosmopolitan, actors are often coming and going for interviews and photo shoots. CBS Broadcast Center on West 57th Street films television shows like CBS News and CBS Sports. [The Colbert Report](http://www.colbertnation.com/), [The Late Show with David Letterman](http://www.cbs.com/shows/late_show/), and [The Daily Show](http://www.thedailyshow.com/), are all filmed in Hell's Kitchen. Find free tickets for live tapings on the shows' websites.The neighboring theatre district (east of Eighth Avenue) has the largest concentration of theaters in New York City, but Hell's Kitchen boasts several theaters including the Manhattan Theatre Club, St. Luke's Theatre, New World Stages, the Signature Theatre Company, and the Al Hirschfeld Theatre, a Broadway venue.The federally subsidized Manhattan Plaza, stretching from West 42nd Street to West 43rd Street between Ninth and Tenth Avenues has long been a residence for actors. The two towers set aside 70 percent of the apartments for performing artists. Residents have included Al Pacino, James Earl Jones, Andrea McArdle, Mickey Rourke, and Zachary Quinto, among others.Many actors have taken up residence at one point or another or have worked in the New York theatre scene in Hell's Kitchen. Creative types have made this area of Midtown their home and stomping ground, and rightfully so, considering the large concentration of fellow actors and agencies dedicated to the acting community. (MORE)
Ireland is a scenic island country where startlingly beautiful emerald green landscapes are steeped in tradition and touched by magic. Both the heart of the people and the fai…th of their ancestors are reflected by the Irish Celtic cross, the ever-present symbol of ancient Ireland. The Irish Celtic cross is easily one of the most recognized symbols of Irish culture and faith. Throughout Ireland, the countryside is marked by stone with freestanding high crosses that have survived the "Dark Ages." Every cemetery is filled with decorative commemorative Celtic crosses. Irish art and tourism are deeply influenced by both the image and the sacred places where the Irish Celtic cross still stands as a testament to the contradiction and the faith of Ireland.The Irish Celtic cross is easily recognizable, as a cross, where the arms are linked by a circle. This is perhaps best described, as a cross with a halo around the center. The remaining freestanding stone "High Crosses" are highly decorated with Christian scenes, and can be found outside most monasteries and historical sites. The Irish Celtic cross is a mainstay of Irish art and jewelry, and can be found in images everywhere from trendy art galleries to local tattoo parlors.As both a symbol of Irish-Celtic Christianity, and of pre-Christian Druid paganism, the origins of the Irish Celtic cross are often disputed. The legend goes that the most beloved saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick, took the pagan symbol of the sun and displayed it on the cross in an effort to convert the pagans to Christianity. This myth is contradicted by the pre-Christian "sun crosses," which first appeared in the Bronze Age. The only differences in the "sun cross" and the Irish Celtic cross is that the sun cross is entirely encircled (sometimes more than four) and the Celtic cross always has its four arms extending outside the circle.The Irish Celtic cross "high cross" started appearing between the seventh and the ninth century, throughout the Celtic regions of Ireland, Scotland, and Great Britain. The original crosses were the centerpiece of every Irish sacred place (usually where a monastery or church were built). The conventional wisdom is that early Irish Christians worshipped outdoors around the cross. Many of the upright crosses were also erected to mark geography (marketplaces) and historical events, or famous people (early historical markers). The sandstone construction has been worn away, and many of the symbols and scenes depicted on the most ancient high crosses has been worn away by generations of the Irish wind and rain.Originally the many ancient "high crosses" were erected almost everywhere, but cemeteries. At some point, bodies began to be buried in close proximity to some of the most historic stone crosses. It was not until shortly after the Glasnevin Cemetery was opened in 1832 that the Irish Celtic cross became a common marker for graves. For all practical purposes, the commercial death industry served as a profound revival for the Irish Celtic cross.The Glasnevin Cemetery is the final resting place for well over 1.5 million souls and home to many thousands (the world's largest collection) of distinct Irish Celtic crosses to mark their graves. Literally, there are more Dubliners buried here than are currently living in Dublin. The Glasnevin Museum is a more recent addition, opened in 2010. An amazing glass structure filled with audio-visual and interactive displays, which provide a learning experience for Irish history and patriots. This museum has won awards worldwide,Some of the most sacred sites that have an Irish Celtic cross have become a mainstay for tourists and pilgrims. There over 100 locations to choose from on this small island country. Celtic crosses, or their remnants, are near all the ancient monasteries and churches.No traveler that has an interest in the Irish Celtic cross should miss the Monasterboice site of the Muiredac "high cross." Although little remains but ruins of the original monastery, there are three crosses and a massive round tower to mark the site. Each cross features some of the most detailed, intricate and intriguing carving that have survived. They were erected between the ninth and tenth centuries.The High Crosses at the monastery in Kells have some of the earliest most detailed carvings that have survived. Biblical references from Adam and Eve to Christ's Baptism are on display on the faces of the crosses that were built at various times. The Kells site is features a cross that was partially destroyed by Cromwell's invasion, as well as the mysterious East or unfinished cross where a carving was started but never finished.Everywhere you look in Ireland and Irish communities around the globe, the Irish Celtic cross is present. The original religious and spiritual meanings of the Irish Celtic cross are somewhat lost in the current day art and jewelry. Today the symbol reflects the strength of the Irish spirit and the power of the Irish culture and history. Irish Celtic crosses are one of the most popular designs in jewelry, and the symbol appears on millions of necklaces, pendants, rings, bracelets and earrings.It seems that wherever you travel in Ireland, you will find an Irish Celtic cross. Along the countryside, they stand as a mark of endurance of a people that have withstood a history of war and famine. In churches and monastic sites, the crosses remain symbols of an Irish Catholic faith. In the cemeteries, as grave markers, they stand sentry to the Irish soul. Today whether it is part of a tattoo, a fine print, or a pendant the Irish Celtic cross has come to symbolize the Irish culture and history.Jewelry design and manufacturing is a big industry in Ireland. The shamrock, the trinity knot, and the Irish Celtic cross are the most popular designs in jewelry. The United States, which has over 40 million people of Irish extraction, is the largest market for Irish jewelry. (MORE)
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Celtic tattoos are a popular school of tattoo art inspired by the ornamentation found in classic Celtic manuscripts such as "The Book of Kells." It makes use of intricate line… work that forms elaborate coiling knots. Celtic tattoo artists are skilled at creating fine, accurate lines and tattoos with crisp edges. These arists are some of the best in the business.Alex Binnie works out of Into You Tattoo in London, one of the oldest and most well respected in England. Binnie himself has been tattooing since the late-1980s, and he is generally considered to be one of the pioneers of large-scale Celtic art tattoos. He prefers to work on ambitious pieces that cover an entire arm or leg, or that use the whole body as a canvas. Expect bold black lines and bright pops of color from his Celtic-inspired pieces.Pat Fish was one of the artists who popularized Celtic tattoos for a larger audience. She has worked out of Lucky Fish Tattoos in Santa Barbara, California since the mid-1990s, creating hundreds of custom pieces inspired by Celtic artwork. Fish has a vast knowledge of Celtic history and a genuine understanding of both the art style and the culture that produced it. Though Fish specializes in smaller tattoos, she is also available for larger pieces.Regino Gonzalez is a relatively young artist with an abundance of talent. He works out of Blackout Tattoo in Kowloon, Hong Kong, a multi-national studio that draws artists from all over the world. Gonzalez works on a variety of different tattoo styles with ease, but his black and white line work is especially stunning. This makes him well-suited for the Celtic style with its elaborate lines and knots.Idexa Sterne is a native of Bremen, Germany, though she has worked out of Black & Blue Tattoos in San Francisco for over 20 years. Sterne specializes in all manners of geometric designs, including Celtic tattoos. She is skilled at crafting both traditional Celtic designs and more modern tattoos that have a strong Celtic influence but are still unique to the wearer.These Celtic tattoo artists are all in high demand in their respective cities. If you are planning on getting high-quality work done by one of these artists, schedule your visit well ahead of time. Famous tattoo artists often have full schedules booked weeks, or even months, in advance.Before becoming a world renowned tattoo artist, Alex Binnie began his artistic career as a medical artist. Working as a medical illustrator at Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital, Binnie helped design a number of books and pamphlets with detailed drawings of organs and other parts of the body. (MORE)
The Celtic knot and the dragon are both popular tattoo ideas in their own rights. If you want to show off your Irish heritage and your love of the mythical beast at the same t…ime, a combination tattoo is a great alternative to separate pieces. A design incorporating both elements is limited only by your own imagination. To get the creative wheels turning, use these creative Celtic knot dragon tattoo ideas to get started.If you want both tattoos, why not place them on top of each other? A stylish dragon with an even more stylish Celtic knot tattoo is a creative way to combine the tattoo designs while keeping them distinct. If you position the dragon so that its tattoo location mirrors your own, you get an even better effect. For example, place the dragon high on your shoulder and have the Celtic knot on the dragon's shoulder as well.The slender look of a dragon tail is perfectly suited for knot-tying. If you already have either tattoo or want to keep the two parts very distinct, this is a perfect way to connect them together. A Celtic knot tied out of a dragon's tale is sure to be a design no one has ever seen. If you really want to make it unique, have the spikes of the dragon's tale continue through the knot, giving it a special texture.Another way to overlap the two elements is by giving the dragon a necklace decorated with the traditional knot design. To make this design work, you must either have a very large dragon or focus simply on its head and neck. The intricate knot requires some space, otherwise it just looks like a blob. The necklace really stands out when you have it done in a different color than the dragon.Fans of Chinese-style dragons find it easy to turn a dragon into a Celtic knot. The long body of these dragons are easily stretched and woven into a knot design. The traditional Chinese holiday colors, unmistakable head and the tail coming out one end of the knot keep your dragon's spirit intact, even if it is tied around itself.A Celtic knot dragon tattoo is a one-of-a-kind design guaranteed to stand out in a crowd. No matter which part of the tattoo means more to you, these creative ideas give equal weight to both elements. Add your own personal touch and color to make these designs even more unique.According to Rankmytattoos.com, both dragons and Celtic knots are among the most common tattoos. The dragon is the 7th most popular tattoo design. The Celtic knot design comes in at 12. (MORE)