What are the macro environmental forces that influences purchasing?
The macro-environment consists of those external factors that the company is not in control of but impact on it, the opportunities and threats from the external environment; such as the political, economical, social, technological, environmental and legal factors. These factors have impacts on all marketing mixes as macro environmental forces are something that we, or the company cannot control, unlike the micro environmental forces such as customers, competitors, distributors, shareholders, directors, managers, banks, suppliers etc. A good example would be the current economical issue that the world is facing now, especially the US. Given that the US is in a financial turmoil, the purchasing power of both companies and consumers are affected tremendously, such that no one would want to spend unnecessarily, but to save more money. This thus impacts on the economical factor of the country as their people are not spending, due to high inflation as well, hence the GDP of the country defluctuates and so does the exchange rate of the US dollar.
9 people found this useful
Was this answer useful?
Thanks for the feedback!
Where do you see yourself 5 years from now?View Full Interview
Compare two industries in terms of key environmental influences and competitive forces in them. Assess and compare the entry barriers and the extent of competitive rivalry in the two industries.?
The success of a company's competitive strategy depends on how it relates to its environment. Although the relevant environment is very broad, encompassing social as well as e…conomic forces, the key aspect of the company's environment is the industry or industries in which it operates. Industry structure has a strong influence in defining the rules of the competitive games as well as the strategies potentially available to the company. The intensity of competitive in an industry is not a matter of luck. Rather competition is rooted in underlying industry economics and goes well beyond the established competitors. Not all industries have equal potential. They differ fundamentally in their ultimate profit potential as the collective strength of the forces range from intense in industries like airline, real estate and steel where no firm earns spectacular returns, to relatively mild in industries such as oil field equipment and services, cosmetics and toiletries, where high returns are common. The essence of competitive strategy for a company is to find a position in its industry where it can best cope with these competitive forces or can influence them in its favour. Knowledge of the underlying sources of competitive pressure can reveal the basic attractiveness of an industry, highlight the critical strengths and weaknesses of a company, clarify the areas where strategic changes may yield the greatest pay off and pinpoint the industry trends that promise the greatest significance as either opportunity or threats. According to M. E. Porter, the goal of competitive strategy for a business unit in an industry is to find a position in the industry where the company can best defend itself against these competitive forces or can influence them in its favour. Understanding the existence and magnitude of economic, social, cultural, demographic, geographic, political, governmental, legal and technological and competitive changes underlie the need for an effective external audit. The competitive forces of the environment consists of those with whom an organization must "do battle" in order to obtain resources. As it is argued by one David F. (1989) in his book entitle, strategic Management Columbus, that increasing levels of environmental uncertainty are having a major impact upon all products, services, markets, and organizations in the business world. By identifying when, where, how, and why relevant trends and events will affect them, organizations can use the external audit to formulate and implement strategies more successfully. In comparing the telecommunication and the airline industries considering the springing up of these industries in the country, we would be looking at the key environmental influences in each of these industries and the competitive forces in them. In recent times, there has been the emerging of new telecommunication companies notable among them are airtel taking over zain, expresso taking over kassapa and Vodafone taking over Ghana Telecom. With the surfacing of these companies, it is believed that the key environmental influence that has brought about these companies are economic, social and demographic, political, and technological forces. With the economic factors, it is concern with the nature and direction of the economy in which a firm operates. In view of the fact that consumption patterns are affected by the relative affluence of various market segments, each firm, in its strategic planning, needs to consider economic trends in the segments that affect its industry. On both the national and international level, the firm must consider the general availability of credit, the level of disposable income, and the tendency of people to spend. Other economic factors it must consider are economic growth, inflation, government spending, interest rates, exchange rates, the money supply and taxation. On the issue of social and demographic forces as one of the environmental forces, this has a major impact upon almost all products, services, markets and customers. Organizations of all forms are challenged by the opportunities and threats stemming from changes in social, cultural, demographic and geographic variables. The social factors that affect an organization involve the beliefs, values, attitudes, opinions, and lifestyles of people in the organization's external environment, as developed from cultural, ecological, demographic, religious, educational, and ethnic conditioning. As social attitudes change, so too does the demand for various types of clothing, books, leisure activities, and so forth. Social factors, like other forces in the external environment, are dynamic, with constant change resulting from the efforts of individuals to satisfy their desires and needs by controlling and adapting to environmental factors. Demographic forces include some which can be forecast reasonably well and some which are more unpredictable. Changes in population structure can be readily forecast; changes in tastes and values are more difficult. Again it is essential to be able to appreciate the significance of observed events and changes. Another environmental influence that can result in the above mentioned two industries is political forces, this relate to changes in governments and their priorities and legislation programme. The direction and stability of political factor is a major consideration for managers on formulating organizational strategy. Political factors define the legal and regulatory parameters within which organizations must operate. Political constraints are placed on firms through tax programmes, fair-trade decision, pricing policies, minimum wage legislation, pollution policies, and several other actions geared toward protecting employees, consumers, the general public and the environment. As such laws and regulations are usually restrictive; they tend to reduce the potential profits of firms. Nevertheless, some political actions are designed to benefit and protect firms. Such actions include patent laws, government subsidies, and product research grants. Thus, political, governmental, and legal factors either may represent key opportunites or threats for organizations. For instance, if Vodafone Ghana received financial assistance form the Ghanaian government this support would make the company one of the most successful members of the sub-regional telecom industry. Technological forces of the organization's external environment include new approaches to producing goods and services; new procedures as well as new equipment. To avoid obsolescence and promote innovation, an organization must be aware of technological changes that might influences its industry. Technological changes and breakthrough such as computer engineering, superconductivity, robotics, unmanned factories, bio-computers, lasers, fibre optics, space communications, satellite networks and electronic funds transfer are greatly impacting on organizations. Technological forces such as these represent major opportunities and threats that must be considered in formulating strategies since they can have a dramatic impact on an organization's products, services, markets, supplier's, distributors, competitors, customers, manufacturing process, marketing practices, and competitive position. According to Porter M. (1980), in his book entitled Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Companies, the nature and degree of competition within any given industry depends on five basic forces: 1. The threat of new entrants 2. The bargaining power of customers 3. The bargaining power of customers 4. The threat of substitute products or services 5. The jockeying among current contestants (i.e. rivalry among existing firms) Industry analysis is a tool that facilitates a company's understanding of its position relative to other companies that produce similar products or services. Understanding the forces at work in the overall industry is an important component of effective strategic planning. Industry analysis enables small business owners to identify the threats and opportunities facing their businesses. In view of the above discussion on the industry and forces with companies in the industry, let us now cmpare the airline industry and that of the telecommunication industry in terms of the key environment influences and competitive forces in them using M. E Porter's five forces. It is important to know that if an industry wants to sustain long-term profitability, it must respond strategically to competition and naturally keep tables to established rivals. Considering the commercial aviation industry, its one of the least profitable industries because all five forces are strong. Established rivals compete intensely on price. Customers are fickle, searching for the best deal regardless of carrier, suppliers, that is plane and engine manufacturers, along with unionized labor forces bargain away the lion's share of airlines profits new players enter the industry in a constant stream and substitutes are readily available such as train or car travel. If a firm is to control its growth, change and development, it must seek to control the forces of which provide the opportunities for growth and change, and those which pose threats and demand responses. Managers must as well manage the organization's resources to take advantage of opportunities to counter threats. Understanding an organization's external environment is essential for developing and implementing an effective strategy. To gain a greater understanding of their environment, the company's executives should also analyze their industry and competitors. Thus designing feasible strategies for an organization requires a thorough understanding of the organization's industry and competition. (MORE)
The Macro Environment factors are: 1) Demographic Environment 2) Economic Structural Environment 3) Technological Environment 4) Political Environment MACRO-ENVIRONME…NTAL FACTORS A business and its forces in its micro environment operate in larger macro environment of forces that shape opportunities and pose threats to the business. It refers the major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organization's decision making, and affect its performance and strategies. These factors include the economic factors; demographics; legal, political, and social conditions; technological changes; and natural forces. The important environmental factors are; (1) Economic Environment (2) Political and Governmental Environment (3) Socio-cultural Environment (4) Natural Environment (5) Demographic Environment (6) Technological Environment (7) International Environment. 1. Economic Environment: - Economic environment of business has reference to the board characteristics of the economic system in which the business operates. The business sector has economic relation with the government, capital market; household sector and global sector. These sectors together influence the trends and structure of the economy. The form and functioning of the economy vary widely. The importance external factors that affect the economic environment of a business are; (i) Economic Conditions: - The general Economic conditions prevailing in the country viz. national income, per capita income, economic resources, distribution of income and assets, economic development etc. are important determinants of the business strategies. Business cycles and economic growth of the economy are important factors defining the economic environment. (ii) The economic system operating in the country also affects the business enterprise to a very great extent. The economic system of a country may be capitalist, socialist, communist or mixed. (iii) Economic Policies: - The government decides the economic environment of business through Budges, Industrial regulations, Economic planning, Import and Export regulations, Business laws, Industrial policy, Control on prices and wages, Trade and transport policies, the size of the national Income, Demand & supply of various goods etc. (iv) Economic Growth: - The stage of economic growth of the economy has direct impact on the business strategies. Increased economic growth rate and increase in consumption expenditure, lower the general pressure within an industry and offers more opportunities then threats. (v) The rate of interest affects the demand for the products in the economy, particularly when general goods are to be purchased through borrowed finance. Low interest rated provides opportunities to the industries to expand whereas rising interest rates pose a threat to these institutions. (vi) Currency Exchange: - Current exchange rates have direct impact on the business environment. When the rupee was devalued in 1991, it was to make Indian products cheaper in the world market and consequently boost India's exports. 2. Political and Governmental Environment: - Political environment refers to the influence exerted by the three political institutions they are; Legislature, Executive, Judiciary etc. The legislature decides on a particular course of action. Government is the executive and its job is to implement whatever was decided by parliament. The judiciary has ensure that both the legislature and executive function in public interest and within the boundaries of constitution. Legal and political environment provides a framework within the business is to function and its existence depends on the success with which it can face the various challenges constructed out of political and legal framework. 3. Socio-cultural Environment: - Changes in social trends can impact on the demand for a firm's products and the availability and willingness of individuals to work. Social class and caste of a person goes a long way in deciding the business activities in relation to its production and marketing activities. Tradition, customs and social attitudes have changed the attitude and beliefs of the persons which have their effect on organizational environment. Class and caste are influencing the purchasing pattern. Socio-cultural environment may include expectations of the society from business, attitudes of society towards business and its management, views towards achievement of work, views towards structure, responsibility and organizational positions, views towards customs, traditional and conventional, class structure and labour mobility and level of education. 4. Natural Environment: - Environmental factors include the weather and climate change. Changes in temperature can impact on many industries including farming, tourism and insurance. With major climate changes occurring due to global warming and with greater environmental awareness this external factor is becoming a significant issue for firms to consider. The growing desire to protect the environment is having an impact on many industries such as the travel and transportation industries (for example, more taxes being placed on air travel and the success of hybrid cars) and the general move towards more environmentally friendly products and processes is affecting demand patterns and creating business opportunities. 5. Demographic Environment: - Demographic factor include Size, growth rate, age composition, sex composition etc. of population, Family size, Economic stratification of population, Educational level, Caste, religion etc. All these demographic factors are relevant to business. These factors affect the demand for goods and services. High population growth rate indicates an enormous increase in labour supply. Population with varied tastes, preferences, beliefs, temperaments etc. gives rise to differing demand pattern and calls for different marketing strategies. 6. Technological Environment: In order to survive in today's competitive world, a business has to adopt technological changes from time to time. New technologies create new products and new processes. Technology can reduce costs, improve quality and lead to innovation. These developments can benefit consumers as well as the organizations providing the products. MP3 players, computer games, online gambling and high definition TVs are all new markets created by technological advances. Online shopping, bar coding and computer aided design are all improvements to the way we do business as a result of better technology. 7. International Environment: - Another environmental factor which is fast emerging as the force to reckon with is the international environment. Implications of global or international environment are; (i) Due to liberalization, Indian companies are forced to view business issues from the global perspective. (ii) Safe and protected markets are no longer there. World is becoming small in size due to advanced means of transport and communication facilities. (iii) Learning of foreign languages is must for every business manager. (iv) Acquiring familiarity with foreign currencies is also must. (v) Facing political and legal uncertainties is inevitable. pradeepkalari (pradeep sp) (MORE)
What are the micro and macro environmental factors that have contributed to the early success of airasia?
moderately high due to almost no switching cost for customers to switch from one LCC to another. In addition, the access to the internet allows customers to have close to fu…ll information on prices charged by the LCCs. Threat of substitutes is moderately low; there are several substitutes such as cruises, rail, bus, and car. However, the archipelago geographical structure of Asia has made air travel the viable, efficient, and convenient mode of transportation. Threat of new entry is moderate; high capital requirement and government barrier such as air service agreement can act as barriers to entry. However, the deregulation of aviation industry in Asia Pacific region has resulted in more competitors entering the market. Furthermore, many full service airlines enter the LCC industry by launching their LCC version. For example, Nok Air set up by Thai Airways is a part of LCC industry in Thailand. Finally, industry rivalry is moderately high due to price as the basis of competition and high exit cost. However, market participants tend to realize that price war is destructive for them thus they avoid direct price competition and they turn into 'friendly' competitors. Appendix 3 summarises Porter's five forces specific to LCC industry. Based on the environmental scanning performed, the demand for LCC is expanding thus LCC industry will keep growing rapidly. The LCC industry attractiveness and profitability will attract many full service airlines to launch its LCC version adding the degree of rivalry in this industry. As the implication, AirAsia, current market leader of LCC in Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia, will face competition from both existing and new players. In order to sustain its competitive advantage, AirAsia needs to leverage its competency in creating cost advantages across multiple value chains. (MORE)
If you work with computers a lot, you may find that you tend to do a lot of the same actions over and over again. For example, you may have to regularly write Microsoft Word d…ocuments that need to be formatted in certain ways, or you may have to generate spreadsheets that perform certain calculations. You can manage your time much more effectively if you learn some ways to reduce the amount of repetitive work you need to do. By definition, a macro is particularly useful in this regard, as it maps a number of actions onto a single command.The term macro is short for macroinstruction. The definition of a macro is an instruction that replaces a much longer sequence of instructions. Simply put, it is a shortcut to a commonly performed action or sequence of actions. The main function of macros is to reduce redundancy. Replacing multiple actions with a single action greatly improves efficiency, reducing frustration while also improving productivity.Excel is a spreadsheet program produced by Microsoft. Quite often, working with spreadsheets involves a lot of repetitive actions. It is possible to use macros to reduce those repetitions. Creating macros in Excel is incredibly easy and does not involve any programming knowledge. You can find the options for creating macros under the Developer tab in the menu ribbon at the top of the screen.It is possible to write macros, but for people with limited experience with computer programming, the macro recorder is an easier option. This is activated by clicking the Developer tab, and then selecting "Record Macro." After defining a name and a description for the macro, the recorder will start. It will record every action you make within the spreadsheet until you click "Stop recording." From then on, calling that macro will perform all of the recorded actions.There are two ways to run a Macro from within Excel. When a macro is created, the user is given the option to define a keyboard shortcut. Pressing "Ctrl" plus the selected key will activate the macro command. If no shortcut was created, the macro can be activated from the Developer tab. To do this, select "Macros," and then select the name of the macro you want to use.Macros use Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which has access to most of the Microsoft Windows system calls. In the past, is has been known for macro viruses to be created, which activate when documents are opened. However, steps have been taken by Microsoft to minimize this risk. If you want to share your macros with other people, you can certify them with a digital signature. This will verify that the macro has come from a trusted source. Excel will ask if you want to enable macros before allowing them to run.The definition of a macro (or macroinstruction) is a single command that replaces a sequence of other commands. It can be considered a shortcut. Using macros will speed up repetitive processes, and will allow you to manage your time more efficiently. In Excel, macros can be recorded easily using the macro recorder, and they can be called at any time from the Macros menu, or by using pre-defined shortcut keys.After you have recorded an Excel macro, you can open the source code, using the Visual Basic Editor. In this way, you can correct errors, or change how the macro works. Doing this does require a certain amount of knowledge regarding computer programming. (MORE)
If you thought that only programs such as video games or other software could contain viruses, you might be surprised. One type of virus, a macro virus, does not have to be pa…rt of an executable file or program to infect your computer, but it can cause just as much trouble as any other type of virus. Most of them can be easily detected. However, there are a few that cannot. It takes something to go wrong with your system to alert you to an ongoing macro virus problem. Read this guide to learn answers to your questions about what a macro virus is and how it spreads.A macro virus is a type of virus that has been written in a macro language. This is a language that is built into an application, such as word-processing software. It is a series of actions and commands that assist the program by helping to automate some tasks. The applications are interpreted and executed by your system and allow you to easily repeat multiple sequences of commands. The step in the process that allows macros to be stored is the same step that allows a macro virus to be carried in a document.A macro virus is usually spread through email attachments or the Internet. A common way that a macro virus infects your computer is by replacing a document's normal macros with the virus. Once you open a file that contains a macro virus, the virus embeds itself in other documents and will also embed itself in future ones. It can also corrupt other parts of your computer system depending on what it can gain access to and what it was designed for. Often, a macro virus will share your documents without your knowledge and spread to other people's systems.The first step in removing a macro virus is knowing that your computer has one. Some common signs of a macro virus infection are: receiving unusual messages when you open a document, noticing that the file type has been changed without your knowledge, or being unable to save a file under anything other than a "dot" file extension. If you suspect that you have a macro virus, run antivirus software to see if it can detect and remove it. If not, you will have to delete the macros from your document by doing the following: * Go to "File," then "Open," and select the infected file. When you click on "Open," hold down the Shift key the entire time until the file is fully loaded to keep macros from starting. * Under the Tools menu, select "Macro," then select "Macros." The Macros window will appear. * Select all active templates from the Macros in field. * Click on the suspicious macro and then click "Delete." Select "Yes" when asked if you are sure that you want to delete it. Repeat this step for all the macros that you suspect are infected. * Close the Macros dialog box.The best way to deal with a macro virus is to not get one in the first place. Fortunately, this is not as difficult as it might seem. Do not open any file attachments that you are not expecting or that seem strange, even if they claim to be from someone you know. You can also enable macro virus protection in Microsoft Word by going under "Preferences" and "General" in your Microsoft Word document menu. Click on the option to enable Macro Virus Protection. Keep your antivirus program on at all times and keep it updated regularly.A macro virus may not always be as damaging as other types of viruses, but they can still cause you problems. None of your document files will be safe if you do not deal with the virus right away. They can access your macro email programs and send themselves to unsuspecting friends or co-workers. Keep your guard up to keep the risk of a macro virus infection down.It is not just computers running Windows that can get a macro virus. Macs can get them also if they run Microsoft Office or another document viewing program that uses macros. Follow the same steps for prevention and removal as outlined above to keep your system safe. (MORE)
A group of nongovernmental organizations represents the backbone of the modern environmental movement in the United States. NGOs seek to influence both the policy positions of… governmental officials and the behavior of residents of the United States. Modern environmentalism is rooted in a history of concern for the environment stemming from the 19th century.The environmentalism movement in the United States is an outgrowth of the conservation movement. The conservation movement is rooted in the late 19th century. The conservation movement, as a precursor to the environmental movement, focused on wildlife management, soil and water conservation, fishery protection and sustainable forestry.The next phase of what blossomed into the U.S. environmentalism movement is the environmental health movement. Environmental health is associated with the progressive political era from the end of the 19th century into the first two decades of the 20th century. The focus of this precursor to the environmental movement focused on urban issues like effective sewage removal, clean water and an enhancement of sanitary living conditions.Modern environmentalism came to the fore in the 1960s. Modern environmentalism initially focused on water and air pollution. Ultimately, during the course of the decade, the modern environmental movement expanded the scope of its focus to issues surrounding all natural landscapes and human activities that impact the environment.A derivation of the modern environmentalism is the sustainability movement. The sustainability movement focuses on what is known as the Gaia Theory, originating in the 1980s. Earth is viewed as a living organism. This aspect of the environmental movement centers on the interrelationship between human behavior and the overall condition of the planet.Environmental justice is another outgrowth of the modern environmental movement, also originating in the 1980s. The focus within this movement is on what activists call environmental racism. They argue that low income and minority communities face far more significant exposure to environmental hazards. This includes exposure to polluting factories and unsanitary dumps.Modern environmentalism often interconnects with other social movements. For example, the efforts of NGOs and individuals associated with the environmental movement couple with groups and persons associated with eliminating nuclear arms and power, eliminating poverty and hunger or wiping out endemic diseases. Joint campaigns between these social movements are increasingly popular.Many historians consider the famous book "Silent Spring," by Rachel Carson, as the spark that lit the environmental movement of the 1960s. The book closely documented how the widely used pesticide DDT was harming bird populations. (MORE)
The concept behind the macrobiotic diet or macro diet is based on tenets of Zen Buddhism combined with aspects of a western vegetarian diet. It is largely a vegetarian diet, b…ut can also include occasional meals of meat and fish. The concepts and rules of the diet are based on the Zen philosophy of balancing energies to achieve optimal health. Proponents believe that such a diet can strengthen the immune system and protect against chronic diseases. Use the steps in this article to adopt the macro diet in your life.To begin, understand the core principles from Zen Buddhism and Christianity that combine to provide a basis for the macro diet. They illustrate the concept of balance in the physical and spiritual aspects of life, which lead to greater healing and wellbeing. The first set of principles revolves around your approach to food and nutrition. The main idea is to enjoy a variety of high quality, nutrient-rich foods in moderate amounts. Be conscious of flavors, textures, colors, and cooking methods to ensure balance. Eat only when hungry and do not overindulge. The second set of principles concerns awareness. Along with the physical aspects of nourishing your body, you need to be aware of what is happening with your mind and your feelings in relation to your surroundings. You also need to respect other people and the environment. Specifically, make friends everywhere, respect your elders, be mindful of ecology, and take responsibility for your actions. Heightened awareness of these points leads to positive, healthful change according to the macro diet.Based on this philosophy, the macro diet focuses on nutritious, natural, unprocessed, and plant-based foods. These foods provide properties and nutrients that protect against chronic disease by strengthening the immune system. Meal planning is based on the Zen philosophy of balancing yin and yang. This refers to the opposite energies that every being and object possesses. In regard to food, yin is defined as cold, sweet, and passive. Yang is hot, salty, and aggressive. One is not as effective or healthful without the other. The macro diet calls on combining and eating foods that provide both qualities. * a) The main foods of the macro diet are called principal foods. Whole grains and vegetables make up the bulk of the plan, with brown rice, barley, and whole wheat as mainstays. The list of principal foods is rounded out by beans and bean products like tofu. Broccoli, cauliflower, and squash are just a few examples of acceptable vegetables. * b) The list of secondary foods includes fruit, nuts, seeds, and oils. A very small amount of animal proteins, especially fish, is allowed. The plan also calls for exploring new foods that you are not familiar with to expand your food choices. Try sauerkraut or a sea vegetable. You are also allotted an occasional pleasure food. This can be whatever you want as long as you control the amount and consume only the very best quality.The macrobiotic diet also has rules governing suitable beverages for living a healthy, balanced life. They are outlined here: * a) Water is a major part of any healthy diet. Drink purified, filtered, or distilled water for optimum health benefits. * b) The macrobiotic diet allows grain-based and herbal teas. According to Vitality Magazine, rice tea calms your nerves and gets rid of headaches. Barley tea may play a role in lowering cholesterol and regulating blood sugar. Woman's Day Magazine recommends herbs like chamomile and peppermint for aiding in sleep and healing stomach problems, including irritable bowel syndrome and nausea. * c) Vegetable juices are also beneficial parts of a macro diet. But note that store-bought juices generally have undesirable ingredients and additives. Make your own juice with a juicer and whole vegetables to provide the most nutrients.The list of foods you should not eat may not surprise you. Refined sugar is number one, followed by brown sugar, and sweeteners such as maple syrup. Eliminate or strictly limit dairy products under the macro diet as well. Any foods containing chemicals, preservatives, dyes, or insecticides are forbidden. You should take no medications, with the exception of prescriptions deemed necessary by a physician.For most people who live in contemporary society, abruptly changing from a modern, western style of eating to a macrobiotic diet is a great shock, both physically and mentally. A macro diet is fairly strict, and the way food is prepared involves great changes to your cooking methods and habits. The removal of caffeine alone could cause distress and physical discomfort for many. Therefore, gradually transition into this diet to be successful. Start by adding more whole grains and organic vegetables to your standard diet. Do not abruptly and completely stop eating all meat and poultry. Gradually reduce the quantities you eat, and add legumes, soy, and cereals in their place slowly. Eat according to your individual needs while at the same time following the rules for food choice and proper preparation methods. Pay attention to the cues you receive from your body and eat accordingly.Buying locally and seasonally is an important aspect of the macro diet too. It fits in with the basic tenet that it is beneficial to live in a way that shows respect for the environment and the community. Buy foods in season to mesh with the cycle of nature and to enjoy the greatest freshness and flavor. Buying locally helps your community by supporting local farmers and markets. In addition, food is only transported a short distance, which saves money and creates less of a negative impact on the environment.The rules of the macro diet also address the use of kitchen tools and utensils. The right types of utensils have minimal negative impact on the energy stored within the food, which makes digestion and absorption more efficient and help you feel more energetic. For example, the use of electric stoves and microwave ovens is discouraged; a gas stove is recommended. Using a pressure cooker for preparing grains preserves nutrients, so it is another recommended tool in the macro diet. Furthermore, utensils, bowls, and pans must be made of wood, ceramic, glass, or stainless steel. Anything made of synthetic materials should not come in contact with your food. Prepared this way, food remains in its natural, wholesome state.The Kushi Institute, established by an originator of the macrobiotic diet, compiled a list of lifestyle changes that you should implement for optimal results. Here is an abbreviated list: * a) Eat only when physically hungry and drink only when thirsty. Do not give in to cravings or indulge in eating as a reaction to stress or boredom. * b) Chew food thoroughly to ensure proper digestion. The Institute suggests chewing 50 or more times per mouthful. * c) Eat in an orderly and relaxed manner. Use good posture and be thankful for the food you eat.Frequent movement facilitates digestion and metabolism. You should add at least 30 minutes of exercise to your routine as many days of the week as you are able. Walking is highly recommended by macro diet proponents. The Kushi Institute says that yoga, dance, and martial arts are beneficial as well.Resources for continued learning about living the macrobiotic lifestyle are plentiful. Some options include taking a class at local health food stores, medical centers, or nutrition organizations. Check with community education programs for cooking classes too. If you are in an area that does not offer in-person classes, lectures are available on tape, compact disc, and DVD. Colleges and universities offer degree and certification programs in the field of nutrition. You may want to become a professional nutritionist. Lastly, you can consult a professional. Macrobiotic counselors, dieticians, holistic nutritionists, and general physicians provide a wealth of information on the macro diet and its health benefits.Adopting a macrobiotic diet is more than simply changing the foods you eat. It is a complete and long-term lifestyle change that involves learning an entirely new set of rules for what you may eat, how to prepare it, and how to achieve balance in all aspects of your life. The change requires hard work, dedication, and commitment. The reward is better physical health, increased energy, greater regard for those around you, and more concern for the environment.The term macrobiotic is from the Greek, and it means "great life" or "long life." It originates with Zen philosophies dealing with long-term health and spirituality. It began with George Ohsawa, a Japanese philosopher who combined Zen, Buddhism, Asian medicine, and Christian teachings to achieve wellbeing and cure illness. The term macrobiotic emerged around 1970, when Michio Kushi expanded on Ohsawa's ideas and founded the Kushi Institute. (MORE)
If you're looking into buying a home, know there are many things that are in order. As the purchase of a home represents a considerable investment, you'll want to make sure th…at you are properly protected every step of the way. When you are finally moving towards a purchase, it's time to think about navigating a purchase contract. Here are a few tips when doing a purchase contract.As important as other aspects of the home buying process are, the contract is perhaps the most important part. It represents the governing procedures, associated costs, and conditions for the deal you are about to undertake. The contract is your manner of protection in the event that any potential disputes should arise. Accordingly, you want to ensure that the contract is ironclad and preserving your best interests.Perhaps you've noticed that the home buying process can be difficult. It is common not to have legal training and not understand the document. There is a strong temptation to sign a contract that has been made up for you after skimming it. However, never sign a purchase contract that you haven't had sufficient influence on, unless you've had professional guidance through the document. Real estate firms are often looking out for their interests.You'll want to make sure that all documents are in state standards. You'll find that not all forms will have important information as present or easily visible as they should. Research the sections of the document that are not understood and ask for professional help if needed. Seek out any semantic vagaries and make sure they are elucidated in the contract.You'll want to have every important date, payment, and fee clearly demarcated in your contract. This means that you should have the date you will assume possession clearly detailed. You should also clearly list who will be paying any associated fees. Outline how and when title will be transferred. Depending on what county or area you are in, there are varying customs for who undertakes the process and fees associated with title, realtor fees, escrow, and taxation. Be sure to look into what is expected.If you are submitting a contract to a seller, you are submitting an offer. In order to protect yourself from being left in the lurch by uncertainty, you should include a response time limit. This will ensure that they will give you a response as promptly as you require and that you won't open yourself to legal vulnerability. A standard response time limit is usually 48 hours after delivery.Securing a good purchase contract is one of the most important steps you can take when you are buying a home. This legal document will hopefully protect you in the process and as an eventual homeowner. Make sure that you have consulted with an attorney if you are ever in doubt. This isn't a process easily navigated on one's own.Consider having environmental tests added to your contract. These will ensure that the property is tested for potentially hazardous. This could potentially save you from further costs of infestations. (MORE)
If you have been doing your homework with regard to setting up a saltwater aquarium you should have come across the terms micro and macro with regard to algae. However, if you… are new to the hobby, you may not have a clear understanding of what they are, let alone what role they play in the health of your tanks. In order to understand the role these forms of algae play in your tank, there are certain scientific terms you need to become familiar with.Both micro and macro algae are forms of living plants found in both fresh and saltwater. These plants exist in the form of single cell organisms or in huge kelps or seaweed. They range in color throughout an amazing spectrum covering almost every imaginable color. Many of them can be beneficial for the health of your aquarium. However, there are number of species which over time will become a nuisance and can cause harm to your tank or its inhabitants.Like most forms of plant life, algae require a certain amount of sunlight to survive. The way in which these plants convert light into energy is known as photosynthesis. The energy is used to convert carbon mono and dioxide, which are harmful to the health of your plants into carbon and oxygen. This process is also used to create the carbohydrates needed by the plants as a food source. Not all plant life needs the same amount of sunlight to survive. You may have to adjust the level of light in your tanks to match the type of algae you choose to grow.According to scientists chlorophyll is one or more of any collection of green colored pigments which are considered to be a vital part of the photosynthesis process. All forms of algae contain one more members of three different forms of chlorophyll. These along with a variety of different forms of photosynthetic pigments, and accessory pigments combine to absorb a range of colors from the spectrum of light. The green the plants are, the more light they need. Those that are reddish or brownish in color tend to require a much lower level of light.The term micro, even when used to describe algae typically means too small to be seen with the naked eye. It can be used to describe a single cell or a group of cells which have become joined together. Among these are phytoplankton that drifts on top of the water or can be found in your substrate. It also includes several species of slime and the calcareous forms which are very welcome in most tanks. While invisible to the naked eye in single cell size, once they form groups they often become readily visible.The difference between micro and macro algae is size, the latter being big enough to see with the naked eye. These forms of algae are always easily recognizable as members of the plant world. Marine aquarists are typically attracted to the larger plants, as most are quite aesthetically pleasing. These come in an incredible range of colors such as browns, greens, reds, and blues. Some are tall while others form a mat that can cover your substrate or float on top of the water in your tank. As long as you can keep their growth rate under control, these plants can be of great value to the health of your tank and provide hiding places for a number of different fish and miscellaneous other species.Once you have a better understanding of what micro and macro algae, it is easier to see why many of the different species can be beneficial to your tank. Many saltwater aquarists plant algae in the refugium as a way to help filter the water in their tanks. They can also serve as food for the various forms of animal life that shelter in the refugium. No saltwater tank should be without a number of different forms of algae growing in the main tank and in the sump.All forms of algae, no matter what size, produce oxygen. Those that float on top of the water release their oxygen into the air. Those that remain submerged play a vital role in the health of your tanks as they release oxygen into the water. (MORE)
Not only can environmental factors influence beliefs, they indeed influence us every day we live and breath. Commercials, classmates, friends, parents - everywhere we receive …information we are being persuaded one way or the other. It's interesting to hear how US Americans feel about a news story vs other countries. Same story, but totally different approaches. That is because our environments form our way of thinking. (MORE)
Everything from the weather to the temperature of a room, it all effects how your body releases the enzymes to make your body warmer or cooler or hard or softer. They are minu…te subtle changes but its enough to somewhat shield you from extreme conditions. ^^^ WHAT THE HECK ARE U TALKING ABOUT??! crazy dipsh*t... ok so environmental factors that affect enzyme activity are typically PH (level of acidity), temperature, heat, and concentration of substrate (substance that an enzyme works on)... PH and temperature at a convenient level for the enzyme tend to increase the activity, but at an extreme level can denature them (they unfold and become useless). Heat at higher levels also tends to denature them, and the concentration of a substrate at a high level increases activity and at a low level decreases activity. btw, the person who wrote the first answer is very annoying and does not know what the f**k they are talking about :) (MORE)
In Asian Cars
First, the bargaining power of buyers. Next, bargaining power of suppliers. Rivalry among existing competitors, threat of substitute products, and threat of a new entry.