What are the major achievements of early Mesopotamian civilizations?
Mesopotamians were the first to create writing. It was called cuneiform. One leader whose name was Hammurabi, created the first Code of Laws. They were the first to us irrigation for agriculture. And also Judism
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wheel roads plows cuneiform (writing ziggurats (pyramids) calendars makeup jewelry Sewers under the city bronze for weapons math science Hammurabi's Code Judism
Answer I think they hunted fish, goat and deer. Or at least that's what i read Answer They hunted exotic wild and aggressive animals like lions tigers and bears, oh Pie! Answer Wild goats, rabbits, gazelles, birds, and deer. They also fished. Berries, wild animals, Goats, Rabbits, Bir…d, and deer and Gazelles. They fished for themselves, tooo. lol i just copied (MORE)
The characteristics of civilization in Mesopotamia are a well organized central government, separation in labor, religion, social class, arts and architecture, writing, cities, and public works (healthcare and building).
Mesopotamian civilization develped by Egypt(and included some of its land) and between the Mediterranean Sea and Persian Gulf. The civilization was centralized in the fertile cresant between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers because of the fertile land, hence the name 'fertile cresant.
I think they hunted fish, goat and deer. Or at least thats what i read.
Agriculture had an effect on all of civilization, not just Mesopotamian! The adoption of agriculture on our world was an immense step towards the building of cities. Prior to agriculture, we were hunters and gatherers. We moved with the herds and the seasons, going where it was green when it was gre…en, and moving on when it came time to do so. We were nomadic, but all of that changed when we learned that we could plant seeds and simply wait for them to grow! A whole new world opened up for us, literally. We were able, then, to create villages that all worked towards the planting/harvesting of crops, and also the domestication of animals. This cooperative effort in farming freed time up for people - we didn't need to spend all of it hunting and gathering, and so we had time on our hands to do things like establish an organized society. We created public works projects, like roads and irrigation. Small villages grew into big villages, and big villages into cities. Before we knew it, we had walls around these cities to fortify them against marauding invaders. Aside from freeing up our time, agriculture allowed us to remain in one place for long enough to establish order among the people. With the free time we began to earnestly produce art - music, paintings, pottery, and more. Civilization as we know it would not exist without the adoption of agriculture; it is what many scholars view as the most important contributing factor to civilization's rise. (MORE)
The major rivers played a huge part in the development of early civilizations due to the fact that they helped fertile the soil, which made it easier to grow crops. When the crops began to grow so did the population and this made farming become more and more common to all civilizations. With this fa…rmers grew and grew and in order to keep the water under control they created a irrigation system to help regulate the movement of the water so that it was evenly distributed across the civilizations who had become a part of the agriculture regions. In order to help the irrigation system someone was needed to control the distribution, which formed governments and specializations. Floods damaged the crops at certain points in time. Workers began to build to help control that, which means that they often built walls and buildings to keep everything under control. (MORE)
wheel . mortal and pestle for grinding foods . astronomy . cultivation of grains . pottery . writing (cuneiform) . irrigation,canals,dams . measuring and surveying materials . religion . polytheistic
Mesopotamian civilization started when the rivers in Mesopotamia would flood. The two rivers that surrounded the area were the Tigris and Euphrates rivers . When the water would flood, it created fertile soil. The soil provided a great surplus of food. With this surplus, people could settle in th…e village. When people realized that they could depend on this food source for food, the settlements started to get bigger and bigger. They started to turn into towns and cities. With this surplus of food came an increase in the population. Later, the civilizations began to organize themselves by job. This city started off as a small farming village and then it started irrigation. Villages that were far from the rivers now had a stable food supply. This, allowed increases in the number of people who lived in each settlement. The technology of irrigation was a big part of Mesopotamian civilization. (MORE)
China based mainly their culture on traditional form. In pottery, technical skill as well as experimentation led to the production of high-quality ceramics, including porcelain.
3500 BC is one estimate, however, archaeologists point to the early Sumerians in 4,000BC. It arose appropriately in Sumer in the area now known as Iraq. The Sumerian civilization consisted of independent and fortified city states. These cities were often at war with each other. Agriculture was the e…conomic basis of the Sumerians. (MORE)
The Chinese made progress in many areas during the Shang and Zhou periods. For example, astronomers studied the movement of planets and recorded eclipses of the sun. Their findings helped them develop an accurate calendar with365 1/4 days. The Chinese also made remarkable achievements in the art an…d technology of bronze-making. The major achievements were silk-making and making the first books. (MORE)
1.frying pans 2.razors 3.cosmetic sets 4.Shepard's pipes 5.harps 6.kilns to cook bricks and pottery 7.bronze hand tools like a hammers,axes,plow,and seeder plow 8.chariots 9.glass 10.daggers 11.wheel 12.writing called cuneiform 13.spears 14.sailboat 15.cylinder seal 16.…the first library 17.battering ram (MORE)
confucianism . taoism . civil service exam . calligraphy . pagoda . silk . gun powder . paper ink . printing . great wall . porcelain . confucian classic BY IRA VIVA
The Persian society . It suffered a religious reform sometimes in the 6th century BC (by some accounts it was the 4th century BC) after prophet Zoroaster ( Zartosht in Persian) proclaimed that the old Assirian gods awere not real and started the cult of Ahura Mazda, which eventually evolved in an a…lmost complete form of monotheistic religion. When the new cult was initiated there were two gods, opposing eachother, Ahura Mazda - the good guy and the maker of all things and all creatures, and Angria Mainiu - the bad guy, the promoter of chaos but still a necesary presence in order to preserve an equilibrium of the celestial power. Because Zoroaster emphasised from the very begining the superiority of Ahura Mazda over Angria Mainiu, the latter gradually lost his position as god and Ahura reigned supreme as beneficiary of the first almost-monotheistic cult. (MORE)
The Egyptian civilization around the Nile river, the Mesopotamian/Sumerian civilization around the Tigris and Euphrates, the Indus Valley civilization of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro around the Indus river, and the Chinese/Shang civilization around the Yellow river.
The major rivers played a huge part in the development of early civilizations due to the fact that they helped fertile the soil, which made it easier to grow crops. When the crops began to grow so did the population and this made farming become more and more common to all civilizations. With this fa…rmers grew and grew and in order to keep the water under control they created a irrigation system to help regulate the movement of the water so that it was evenly distributed across the civilizations who had become a part of the agriculture regions. In order to help the irrigation system someone was needed to control the distribution, which formed governments and specializations. Floods damaged the crops at certain points in time. Workers began to build to help control that, which means that they often built walls and buildings to keep everything under control.. (MORE)
The Ancient Romans achieved great success in architecture as even today we still design buildings after theirs, and they also had a superior infrastructure to any other country or empire at the time. They had paved roads that went on for miles and miles stretching across their empire.
Cities were important in Mesopotamia civilizations, because it ledto the development of urban populations. Abundance was created as aresult of the cities.
1. Water is a necessity of life 2. animals/food that are around the water source (river) 3. Fertile soil for agricultural needs 4. transportation is much easier and faster over river routes
Some of them would include a numeric system that had the zero, one of the most precise solar calendars in the world (Mayans had very advanced knowledge in astronomy) and weren't conquered until the late 17th century (unlike the Aztecs, who were conquered at the early 16th century).
They created the sundial, chisel, lever, saw, pulley, cuneiform (their for of writing), and the wheel.
You cant really define when it started but i guess it started in the paleolithic age
One major trend in early civilization and lifestyles was the organization of a complex institutional government and a definite social hierarchy.
Cuneiform wich is their writing system, 360 degree circle, 60-second minute, 60-minute hour, number system, calendars, sundial, chisel, lever, saw, and pulley.
Civilization emerged in Mesopotamia because the soil provided a surplus of food. With this surplus, people could settle down to village life and with these new settlements, towns and cities began to make their appearance, a process known as urbanization
Sumer (land of the civilized kings) was the first civilization inthe Mesopotamian region. Sumerian writing dates back to 3500 BCEwith the possibility that the region was settled between 5500 and4000 BCE. The Sumerians developed and used an ancient form ofwriting called cuneiform. The Sumerians were …eventually conquered,but had a lasting impact on the area. (MORE)
The long, rich history of Judaism gives the western world much ofits shape today. Many of the laws, traditions, culture and valuesare directly attributable to Judaism. 1) The Jews' monotheistic religious tradition shaped the Westernbeliefs about God. 2) The 7-day week, including a day of rest for ev…eryone. 3) The concept of morality was also the work of the Hebrews,including the dignity and value of a person. Women's rights alsowere carefully maintained in this ancient culture. Israelite womencould own property, could initiate court cases, could have theirown servants, and could own fields and businesses; and the Torahspecifies marital rights for women (Exodus 21:10). Today's lawsgiving women equal rights under the law are a by-product ofJudaism. 4) Under Israelite law, everyone had recourse to the courts. Achild, widow, wife, etc., could initiate legal action against anycitizen to redress perpetrated harm. Compare this to thosesocieties in which only mature, land-owning males had any legalstatus. 5) What is customary to be eaten in Western society is a reflectionof much of the Judaic dietary law. With the exception of the pig,Western society does not eat species not contained in kosher law.Owls, mice, insects, rats, snakes, cats and dogs are not eaten bymost Westerners and it is a direct result of Jewish culture. 6) Parents are responsible for teaching children. Illiteracy amongIsraelites, in every generation, was rare. Universal education inthe Western world is taken for granted today, yet this is a recentdevelopment. In Judaism, however, it goes back 3300 years. Judaismhas always maintained that education is the highest goal of man inhis pursuit of Godliness. This tradition has now been passed on toWestern culture. 7) Infants are to be protected and cared for, whether or not theyturned out to be the gender you were hoping for. Compare this tosocieties in which unhealthy babies, or females, were killed. 8) Cruelty to animals is not acceptable. 9) Government is accountable to a higher authority. In otherancient societies, the monarch was all-powerful. Among theIsraelites, however, the king was under the constant scrutiny ofthe Divinely-informed prophets, who didn't hesitate to castigatehim publicly for any misstep in the sight of God. And, other thanfor the crime of rebellion, the king couldn't punish any citizen byhis own decision. He was obligated by the Torah-procedures likeeveryone else. 10) A robber repays double to his victim, or works it off. Cuttingoff the hands of a robber is a punishable crime. Debtors are notimprisoned or harmed. They are made to sell property and/or work torepay what they owe. Compare this to the Roman practice by whichanyone could accuse a man of owing them money and the debtor couldbe killed. Western jurisprudence in general is based in part upon Judaic Torahobservance. A quick look at the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20) andthe laws that follow (Exodus ch.21-23) gives a very good summary ofmost modern law. 11) It is the responsibility of the community to support the widow,the orphan, the poor, and the stranger passing through. It is important to note that every one of the above was institutedamong the Hebrews (a.k.a. the Israelites) thousands of yearsearlier than in other nations. Here's just one example: Aristotle,who was among the greatest of the Greeks, and Seneca, the famousRoman, both write that killing one's young babies is perfectlyacceptable. (MORE)
The Mesopotamian civilization has never ended. Over the milinia various cultured and conquerors lived there, one replacing the other. The present day civilization is that of Iraq.
achievements* and mine would probably be not allowing the media to affect or change my opinions in any way.
The Phoenicians were famous for their purple cloth and they used shellfish for their purple dye in order to dye the cloth which is created only for the robes of the kings. hope this can help :)
What were the major achievements of the early American civilizations as well as India and China and Japan?
well i know for a fact that in china at its early stages constructed the "great wall o china" and was diversely religious with the religions of "Buddhism, Confucianism, and dowinsm" among with the facts that they were builsy writing poetry and perfecting the martial arts.
Wow! The question stuns me. The list is long. In fact it is too long to give credit to everyone and everything deserving. Have you heard of Beowulf? The Hagia Sophia? Dante? Chaucer? Castles, Counterpoint? Byzantine icons? Gothic architecture? Troubadours? Fiddles? Universities? The scientific m…ethod? There is a link to a related question below. I gave a sort of a wise crack as an answer, but provided some links that a person could look at to see the scope of medieval culture. Try taking a look, if you are interested. And if you do, bear one thing in mind, all the links go to generalized articles on things that involved many people doing many things - not a single one deals with a specific person or work. (MORE)
"M" influenced the world bc/ they invented the wheel, cuniform, H code Alot to be short
I believe that would be the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. This is the area where the ancient Chinese people first started to use agriculture as opposed to hunting and gathering.
In the 6th century bc it became part of the Persian Empire Contribute by pressing "trust".
well the laws of Hammurabi were written on an break resistant slab of clay (written when wet, displayed when dried) but others were just spoken or written on normal, natural clay made from resources found in the ground. also they wrote every word in there writing called kunea form. hope i helped!
As far as the architecture of Mesopotamia is concerned, theSumerian civilization was the first to act on any real townplanning. They were the first to create the city with an actualform.
You have asked a wide-ranging question with many hundreds of details in its answer. I'll provide a few examples. 1) The Jews' monotheistic religious tradition shaped the Western beliefs about God. 2) The 7-day week, including a day of rest for everyone. 3) The concept of morality was also the …work of the Hebrews, including the dignity and value of a person. Under Israelite law, everyone had recourse to the courts. A child, widow, wife, etc., could initiate legal action against any citizen to redress perpetrated harm. Compare this to those societies in which only mature, land-owning males had rights. Also: 4) Parents are responsible for teaching children. Illiteracy among Israelites, in every generation, was rare. 5) Infants are to be protected and cared for, whether or not they turned out to be the gender you were hoping for. 6) Cruelty to animals is not acceptable. 7) Government is accountable to a higher authority. In other ancient societies, the monarch was all-powerful. Among the Israelites, however, the king was under the constant scrutiny of the Divinely-informed prophets, who didn't hesitate to castigate him publicly for any misstep in the sight of God. And, other than for the crime of rebellion, the king couldn't punish any citizen by his own decision. He was obligated by the Torah-procedures like everyone else. 8) A robber repays double to his victim, or works it off. Cutting off the hands of a robber is unacceptable. Debtors are not imprisoned or harmed. They are made to sell property and/or work to repay what they owe. Compare this to the Roman practice by which anyone could accuse a man of owing them money and the debtor could be killed. 9) It is the responsibility of the community to support the widow, the orphan, the poor, and the stranger passing through. It is important to note that every one of the above was instituted among the Hebrews (a.k.a. the Israelites) thousands of years earlier than in other nations. Here's just one example: Aristotle, who was among the greatest of the Greeks, and Seneca, the famous Roman, both write that killing one's young babies is perfectly acceptable. (MORE)
The most enduring legacy of the Phoenicians is their phonetic alphabet. Instead of using pictograms like other ancient alphabets, such as the cuneiform alphabet of Mesopotamia and the hieroglyphs of the Egyptians, the Phoenician alphabet used symbols which represented sounds. A pictogram is an ideog…ram (a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept) which conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. The Phoenician alphabet only had symbols for the sounds of consonants. This alphabet is believed to be the ancestor of almost all modern alphabets. The Phoenicians (together with the Greeks) were originally the main traders in the Mediterranean. They spread the use of their alphabet through their trading travels and their establishment of colonies (settlements) in the western Mediterranean. It was successful because of its phonetic nature. It only had one symbol for one sound, which made it easier to use. It was adopted and adapted in Anatolia (the area of present day Turkey) and the earliest scripts in Spain. The Greeks adopted and adapted it and added symbols for sound of vowels. The Greeks developed two alphabets which have been called eastern and western. The former was the ancestor of the modern Greek and the Cyrillic (Russian) alphabets. The latter was adopted and adapted by the Italic peoples of ancient Italy, including the Etruscans and the Latins. The Latin alphabet then became the alphabet of western European languages. Because of their extensive trade, the Phoenicians developed a large fleet and had very skilled sailors. They are credited with the invention of the bireme, an oared warship (galley) with two decks of oars. They exported cedar wood: cedrus libani (cedar of Lebanon) a type of cedar which grows in Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, northwest Jordan, western Syria, and south central Turkey. The Phoenicians lived in what is now Lebanon. The Lebanese flag as a cedar tree on it. This wood was important to various civilizations. The Egyptians used its resin in mummification. The Jews burned Lebanese cedar wood on the Mount of Olives to celebrate the new year. This wood was also used by the Persians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks and Romans. The Phoenicians also had a monopoly of the production and trade of Purple dye (Tyrian purple or royal or imperial purple). This die was so expensive that purple clothes were reserved for kings and emperors and very high dignitaries or priests and were worn only for ceremonial occasions. It required the use of thousands of glands from Murex sea snails (found in the eastern Mediterranean) which produced an enzyme which created the colour when soaked in water. (MORE)
They established it between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Thename Mesopotamia means "Between the Rivers".
The provision of water to facilitate the agriculture on which thedevelopment of civilisation depended. The organisation of communal facilities and activities on whichcivilised activities depended. The organisation of security to protect the civilisation frompredators on it.
The land fertility and river water allowed the production ofsurplus food. This surplus provided the basis for spending time andmoney on building, leisure and cultural activities. This includedthe beginnings of writing, codes of law, effective government,urbanisation, and unfortunately seriously orga…nised warfare. (MORE)
It extended through the Tigris-Euphrates River basins. Its time extent began in with the Pre/Proto historical period ofabout 10,000 BCE. The classical period was 6th Century BCE(Persian) to 2nd Century CE (Roman).
There are more than 4 river civilizations. he 4 main rivers areNile river, Indus river, Yellow river and Harappa river.
In the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys. In Greek meso = middle,potomos =river, middle of the two rivers.
They were in the field of literature : literacy was highlyregarded, and many towns and temples had libraries. TheMesopotamians produced a lot of literature, the Epic of Gilgameshbeing still famous today, later 'translated' in the Bible as thestory of Noah. In mathematics they invented a numerical… system based on60s, which even today is the reason we have a 60 minutes' hour anda 360 degree circle, among others. In astronomy the Mesopotamians made very importantdiscoveries with the most primitive of means and they worked outthe movement of planets. Their very systematic and scientificapproach to astronomy is now called 'the first scientificrevolution'. In medicine , they were first with a systematic approach toillnesses, enabling them to diagnose and predict the probablecourse of illnesses. Effective treatment by the way of mostdiseases would have to wait for the late 19th and (mostly) 20thcentury discoveries. They were also probably the first to discover weaving, andirrigation techniques. (MORE)
Mesopotamian civilization wasnt offically discovered until the 19thcentury. However there were reports and descriptions of Mesopotamiaas early as the 12th period but the 19th century is when it wasonce properly discovered. Hope this helps x
The earliest civilizations developed near rivers because they needed drinking water and irrigation for their crops.
Some of these would include domesticating corn, beans and chilies;the 365-day calendar, the number zero and complex irrigationsystems to support cities with higher population densities thanthose found in Europe at the time.