What arguments does the Church put forth for not having women priests?

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Catholic Answer Below you will find many viewpoints and "arguments" about this topic, but the Church does not put forth any arguments for the simple reason that the Pope has ruled infallibly that only men can be ordained to the priesthood, and this is to be held as part of the deposit of faith. As such, it is considered as divinely revealed by God, and something to be held and believed by all the faithful - no arguments can be put forward either for or against - the Pope has spoken, there is NO argument. For a fuller discussion of this issue please see the "discussion" at the end of the answers.
 Agruments for Not Having Female Priests This question is subject to various viewpoints and historical details. Therefore, multiple answers are presented below:  Answer I assume by "church" you are referring to the Catholic Church. I will try to offer you a starting point for this topic. There are many deeper issues here. A good book to go to would be "Theology of The Body" by Pope JP2. Catholics believe that the ordained ministry has its origin in Jesus' own choice of the Twelve [Apostles] and that they are the foundation of the Church. Jesus himself chose twelve men, and only men. History shows that the first Christians believed that Christ intended a male-only priesthood. IN fact, those who went ahead and ordained women in those early centuries were considered heretics. Indeed, Mary herself was never ordained nor did she seek to be ordained. This is one of my favorite quotes on this topic: by Catherine Fourier: "Women aren't denied the priesthood because of a foolish law made by man but by the plan of God. There is no battle over equality in the church, women can give life, men can't and never will; men can be priests and deacons but women can't and never will." This has nothing whatsoever to do with any concept that women are "inferior"; Pope Paul VI very specifically reiterated what Vatican II had said about the absolute equality of women and men, and Pope John Paul II has been equally overt and clear in many, many places, pointing out women's equality with men. It is simply a historical fact and an unbroken tradition, making it a part of the Deposit of Faith, the body of unchangeable teachings entrusted by Christ to the apostles and handed on by them to the Church. This is now a matter of faith, any priest who declares otherwise is going directly and defiantly against the definitive teaching of the Catholic Church: women will never be priests. The teachings of Pope JP II are definitive and he has denied permission for woman priests.  Answer The Bible is the highest authority on which to build the church. According to 1 Timothy 3:1-2 "...if a MAN desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. A bishop then must be blameless, THE HUSBAND OF ONE WIFE,..." also 1 Timothy 2:12 states "But I suffer (permit) not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man..." God has established the order of the church; be content with the role God has given you and do His will. 1 Corinthians 12 speaks about the church being like a body and verses 15-18 drive the point home. "If the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? And if the ear shall say, Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling? But now hath God set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him."  Answer Men lead the church because they need it more than women do, not because they're more qualified. The role of mother comes naturally, due to nine months of carrying a child inside a mother's body. But the role of father has to be implanted and nurtured by artificial means. So the church ritualizes that role, interpreting God as the Father, and calling the spiritual leader of a community its father. That serves as an inspiration to men in the church to grow into the role of father, and it also provides a study of what that role should consist of.  Answer Various major religions of the world have long treated women as the servants and the property of men. In the beginning, male dominance was the ultimate characteristic of marriages. The male dominated leadership used the social culture and religious fanaticism to keep women loyal and servile to men. Men married women as a mark of property ownership. The use of God and religion to consecrate a marriage was done to instill fear in women and to keep them as obedient servants, producing and nurturing children for their master. A lot of religions today are still reinventing themselves to satisfy the changing worldview. Religions that denigrated women are reinventing its scriptures to make them user-friendly. Religions that practiced class discrimination and ethnic discrimination, are reengineering their scriptures to make them acceptable. Religions that practiced intolerance, violence and persecution, are now preaching of peace, love and brotherhood.  Answer The Bible says men are to be in authority over women. Some Biblical reasons are:

God says men are to rule over women: Gen 3:14 And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: Gen 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Gen 3:16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. 1Ti 2:11 Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. 1Ti 2:12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.

That man was created first, and woman came from man: Gen 2:20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. Gen 2:21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; Gen 2:22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. Gen 2:23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.

That the line of authority in the Bible is from God the Father to Christ to man to woman last of all: 1Co 11:3 But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God.

That women are more likely to be deceived: 1Ti 2:13 For Adam was first formed, then Eve. 1Ti 2:14 And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.

That a woman is not to usurp authority over man: 1Ti 2:12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. [All KJ version]

These are the Biblical reasons for men being in authority over women. The Roman Catholic church uses these verses to show why women can't be priests, and the Church of England uses them to show why women can't be bishops, but they are not the only churches which do this.
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