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What is Meaning nature and scope of geography?
Geology is studying the physical features of the Earth's surface. This includes studying plants, animals, the climate, and human life.
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Comparative politics is a subfield of political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. When applied to specific fields of study, comp…arative politics may be referred to by other names, such as for example comparative government (the comparative study of forms of government) or comparative foreign policy (comparing the foreign policies of different States in order to establish general empirical connections between the characteristics of the State and the characteristics of its foreign policy). Sometimes, especially in the United States, the term "comparative politics" is used to refer to "the politics of foreign countries." This usage of the term, however, is often considered incorrect while sometimes political research must be conducted by analysing the behaviour of qualitative variables in a small number of cases. The case study approach cannot be considered a scientific method according to the above definition, however it can be useful to gain knowledge about single cases, which can then be put to comparison according to the comparative method Comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena. Peter Mair and Richard Rose advance a slightly different definition, arguing that comparative politics is defined by a combination of a substantive focus on the study of countries' political systems and a method of identifying and explaining similarities and differences between these countries using common concepts . Rose states that, on his definition: "The focus is explicitly or implicitly upon more than one country, thus following familiar political science usage in excluding within-nation comparison. Methodologically, comparison is distinguished by its use of concepts that are applicable in more than one country. The comparative method The comparative method is - together with the experimental method, the statistical method and the case study approach - one of the four fundamental scientific methods which can be used to test the validity of general empirical propositions,[ i.e. to establish empirical relationships among two or more variables while all other variables are held constant.In particular, the comparative method is generally used when neither the experimental nor the statistical method can be employed: on the one hand, experiments can only rarely be conducted in political science; on the other hand the statistical method implies the mathematical manipulation of quantitative data about a large number of cases, Some major works in comparative politics. Aristotle: In his work The Politics, Aristotle compares different "constitutions", by introducing a famous typology based on two criteria: the number of rulers (one, few, many) and the nature of the political regime (good or corrupt). Thus he distinguishes six different kinds of "constitutions": monarchy, aristocracy, and polity (good types), versus tyranny, oligarchy and democracy (corrupt types). Montesquieu: Alexis de Tocqueville: Democracy in America Seymour Martin Lipset: Barrington Moore: In Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (1966) Moore compares revolutions in countries like England, Russia and Japan (among others). His thesis is that mass-led revolutions dispossess the landed elite and result in Communism, and that revolutions by the elite result in Fascism. It is thus only revolutions by the bourgeoisie that result in democratic governance. For the outlier case of India, practices of the Mogul Empire, British Imperial rule and the Caste System are cited. Samuel P. Huntington: Robert A. Dahl: Arend Lijphart: Patterns of Democracy (1999), an unrivaled, comprehensive study of democracies around the world. Giovanni Sartori: Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into Structure, Incentives and Outcomes Theda Skocpol: In States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China Theda Skocpol compares the major revolutions of France, Russia and China: three basically similar events which took place in three very different contexts. Skopcol's purpose is to find possible similarities which might help explain the phenomenon of political revolution. From this point of view, this work represents a good example of a research conducted according to the Most Different Systems Design. WHAT IS COMPARATIVE POLITICS Why are some countries poor and others wealthier? What enables some countries to "make it" in the modern world while others remain locked in poverty? Why are the poorer countries more inclined to be governed autocratically while the richer countries are democratic? What accounts for the regional, cultural, and geographic differences that exist? What are the politics of the transition from underdevelopment to development and what helps stimulate and sustain that process? What are the internal social and political conditions as well as the international situations of these various countries that explain the similarities as well as the differences? What are the patterns that help account for the emergence of democratic as distinct from Marxist-Leninist political systems? These are the kinds of questions that lie at the heart of the field of Comparative Politics. COMPARATIVEPOLITICS DEFINED AND its SCOPE Comparative Politics involves the systematic study and comparison of the world's political systems. It seeks to explain differences between as well as similarities among countries. It is particularly interested in exploring patterns, processes, and regularities among political systems. It looks for trends, for changes in patterns; and it tries to develop general propositions or hypotheses that describe and explain these trends. Comparative Politics covers a broad range of topics. The field has no one single focus. Different scholars have different preferences. There are several different kinds of studies. Among the types of studies that students of Comparative Politics actually do are the following: 1. Studies of one country -- or a particular institution (political parties, militaries, parliaments, interest groups), political process (decision making), or public policy (e.g., labor or welfare policy) in that country. When we focus on a single country or institution it is necessary to put the study into a larger comparative framework. That means we should tell why the subject is important and where it fits in a larger context. 2. Studies of two or more countries -- Provides for genuine comparative studies. (usually harder and more expensive in terms of research and travel costs). 3. Regional or area studies -- This may include studies of Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Europe, or other subregions. Such studies are useful because they involve groups of countries that may have several things in common -- e.g., similar history, cultures, language, religion, colonial backgrounds, an so on. Regional or area studies allow you to hold common features constant, while examining or testing for certain other features. 4. Studies across regions -- Often expensive and difficult to carry out. Such studies might involve comparisons of the role of the military in Africa and the Middle East, or the quite different paths of development of the East Asian countries and Latin America. 5. Global comparisons -- With the improved statistical data collected by the world bank, the UN, and other agencies, it is now possible to docomparisons on a global basis. 6. Thematic studies -- Comparative politics focuses on themes as well as countries and regions. E.g., themes such as dependency theory, corporatism, role of the state, process of military professionalization. Thematic studies are often complex and usually carried out by more senior scholars. WHY STUDY COMPARATIVE POLITICS? NATURE There are a number of reasons for studying Comparative Politics. 1. First, it's fun and interesting, and one learns a lot about other countries, regions, and the world. 2. Second, studying Comparative Politics will help a person overcome ethnocentrism. All peoples and countries are ethnocentric, but Americans seem to be particularly afflicted. 3. Third, we study Comparative Politics because that enables us to understand how nations change and the patterns that exist. 4. A fourth reason for studying Comparative Politics is that it is intellectually stimulating. Consider these questions: Why do some countries modernize and others not? Why are some countries democratic and others not? 5. Fifth, Comparative Politics has a rigorous and effective methodology. The comparative method is sophisticated tool of analysis and one that is always open to new approaches.6. Finally, Comparative politics is necessary for a proper understanding of both international relations and foreign policy. Without an intimate knowledge of the other countries with which we conduct foreign relations, we cannot have an informed, successful foreign policy. HISTORY OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS Comparative politics has a long and very distinguished history dating back to the very origins of systematic political studies in ancient Greece and Rome. Comparative Politics is about 2,500 years old -- and maybe older. One could argue that the study of Comparative Politics goes all the way back to humankind's first recorded history. Even the most ancient of peoples, organized as clans, tribes, or extended families, compared their situations with those of other peoples with whom they came in contact. The Bible is perhaps one of the first written statements of Comparative Politics. Particularly in the Old Testament the prophets are constantly comparing the people of Israel with other peoples: Egyptians, Persians, etc. The earliest systematic comparisons of a more modern, secular sort -- with almost all the ingredients of today's Comparative Politics -- were carried out by the ancient Greeks. The two foremost political scientists in ancient Greece were Plato and Aristotle. Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics, are really the beginning of political science as we know it today -- and among the great books of all time. In these two books the authors cover almost all the key issues of politics: the nature of power and leadership, the different forms of government, public policy, and so on. For our purposes, what is important about Aristotle and Plato is their analysis of Comparative Politics. Aristotle -- more a "scientist" -- collected approximately 150 constitutions of his time, mainly from the Greek city-states but from other areas as well. He studied these constitutions extensively. He wanted to know which form of government was most stable, so he began looking at the causes of instability. Both he and Plato arrived at a system or scheme for classifying the then known world's political systems. A modified form of this classification of systems is still used today. Montesquieu, the 18th century French philosopher, is the next great comparativist. Unlike Hobbes and Locke who focused on one country, but assumed it had universal validity, Montesquieu was a true comparativist. In his book The Spirit of the Laws Montesquieu attempted to move beyond the constitutional procedures of a country to examine its true culture and "spirit." His greatest contribution to the field was his model for the separation of powers that influenced the U.S. system. COMPARATIVE POLITICS: HISTORY AND APPROACHES -- Comparative politics in the early days concentrated on only a handful of countries in Western Europe (Britain, France, and Germany; the Soviet Union was included later. -- The approach was INSTITUTIONAL. -- WW II and the Nazi genocidal policies brought about a wave of European emigration to the U.S. --- included among the immigrants were thousands of intellectuals. -- Many of these intellectuals achieved top positions in U.S. universities. They included some top comparativists -- Friedrich, Loewenstein, Franz Neumann, and Hannah Arendt. -- WWII had a profound ethical and moral effect on their writings and teaching, particularly in their efforts to dissect the Nazi system, to analyze the root causes of fascism, to study totalitarianism comparatively. -In the 1960s a combination of factors -- the cold war, the sudden surge of a host of newly independent nations onto the world stage, and the internationalist posture of the kennedy administration, a global preoccupation with "development," availability of federal grants and opportunities for travel -- helped make comparative politics an attractive field. The cold war and the fear of the spread of communism and Soviet totalitarianism was the impetus for some very important works in comparative politics. -- W.W. Rostow's The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960). -Another path-breaking book was Almond and Coleman's The Politics of Developing Areas (1960). -Many of the new leading scholars in the field began to be strongly critical of the institutional approach. They had been caught up in the broader revolution then sweeping political science, which called for an emphasis on interest group behavior and on the more informal aspects of political behavior. THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH Other scholars were strongly influenced by the Parsonian revolution in sociology, particularly Talcott Parson's structural- functionalism, his presumption of a universal social science of development, his notion of a system of social and political life and change, and his "pattern variables," which seemed to offer a convenient way of contrasting developing and developed societies. The view that comparative politics should be nonparochial, nonformalistic, nonlegalistic, analytic, and genuinely comparative became the prevailing position among scholars. Gabriel Almond, influenced by Parson's structural-functionalism and applied it to the study of comparative politics. The approach was strongly represented Almond and Coleman's The Politics of the Developing Areas. THE FUNCTIONAL APPROACH POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT BECAME THE MOST POPULAR AREA IN THE 1960s. New and exciting studies analyzing political development were conducted. Seymour Martin Lipset's Political Man (1959) showed the interrelations between social modernization and political democracy and implying that the two went hand in hand. As countries achieved greater literacy, were more strongly mobilized, and acquired more radio and television sets, they would also tend to become more politically developed -- i.e., liberal and democratic, just like the United States. In the 1960s the political development approach was very attractive. It was neat, coherent, intellectually and emotionally satisfying. The problem with this approach was that it presumed that Western institutions and policies both would and ought to be present in developing nations. When they were not, it was the local developing nations that were usually thought to be problematic, not the theory of development. Because these countries had few and weak parties, trade unions, and similar institutions, they were frequently declared "dysfunctional." While they may be dysfunctional in terms of the particular institutional arrangements of the West, they may be quite viable in their own terms. Thus political and moral preferences began to distort scholarly analyses. In 1968, in what many have called the last great integrating book in the field, Samuel P. Huntington provided a critical evaluation of the modernization literature and offered an alternative perspective. Huntington argued that social mobilization and modernization, rather than being supportive of and correlated with democracy and institutional development, in fact served often to undermine them in developing nations. Huntington's critique of the theories of modernization came to be generally accepted in the field, though his alternative proposal for an emphasis on orderly stable institutions such as political parties or armed forces as the key agencies of development was often criticized as a conservative formulation. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, criticism of the dominant developmentalist paradigm was widespread. The developmentalist approach was criticized as being biased, ethnocentric, and less than universal. It was accused of ignoring the phenomena of class and class conflict, the play of international market and economic forces, and dependency. As the developmentalist approach began to loose its dominant position in comparative politics, a variety of alternative approaches began to emerge. They included: the corporatist approach; the political economy (which emphasized the economic constraints on politics) and the dependency approach. THE METHODOLOGY OF COMPARATIVE POLITICS: Many studies employ quantitative methods such as opinion surveys and aggregate analysis, and the use of time-series data has also increased. Comparative politics has developed a greater awareness of the usefulness of combining quantitative and nonquantitative materials.
Nature of geography:- 1. Geography is a bio-physical science:- geography studies on the principals of geology, climatology, natural vegetation and botany. 2. Neo-environme…ntalism or neo-determinism in geography:- during the 19th century, it was admitted by the German geographers that environment plays a vital role in determining human life and human activities. This principal was known as environmentalism. The same principal has been defined as determinism as well. Along with natural environment, the modern geographers consider human choice and human capacity as influential determining elements. That is why environmentalism or determinism has been re-named as neo-environmentalism or neo-determinism. 3. Geography is human ecology. 4. Geography is the science of earth space. 5. Geography is an applied science. 6. Geography is the science of distributions. 7. Geography studies regions of landschaft. 8. Geography is the study of resources. Scope of geography:- After assessing the concept and wide range of geography, the vital scope of geography automatically comes at the fore. Modern geography, now has become inter-disciplinary science, which further has added to its scope. It includes both the physcial sciences and the social sciences dealing with the physicsl and cultural elements, their powers' action and reactions. Its main aim remains to learn about the natural environment available at the surface of the earth and to know the interaction of the human beings. In this way geography has become a linking chain to bind physical, humans and social sciences.
Political sociology discusses how politics influence the society. Each type of ruler and political system will influence the people in different ways.
nature and scope of population geography
The nature of educational technology is that of a shared experience while still having limitations and rapid changes. The meaning and scope of the technology is to create …ways of teaching material that can be personally engaging to each student.
Scope Human geography broadly differs from physical geography in that it has a greater focus on studying intangible or abstract patterns surrounding human activity and is more… receptive to qualitative research methodologies. It encompasses human, political, cultural, social and economic aspects of the social sciences. While the major focus of human geography is not the physical landscape of the Earth (see physical geography), it is not possible to discuss human geography without going into the physical landscape, on which human activities are being played out and environmental geography is emerging, as an important link between the two. Human geography is methodologically diverse, using both qualitative methods and quantitative methods, including case studies, survey research, statistical analysis and model building, among others. Thematically, human geography may be concerned with an array of human enterprises, from villages and cities, schools, health, commerce and trade, to name a few. The spatial human architecture of a variety of institutions and practices unites these entities within the discipline. For example, a human geographer might be concerned with the geographic patterns of communicable diseases, school performance in rural versus urban school districts or the rise of innovative technology clusters.
Commercial geography has assumed an international importance today. The global market has paved a significant scope for a new subject such as Commercial Geography. The etymolo…gy of the term itself defines the scope of the term - Commercial Geography. Commerce relates to the buying and selling of goods, services and commodities. It is on profit basis. It assumes a larger scale with international standards. Commerce can be articulated as profit based business. It is a buying and selling activity to gain profit. Commercial Geography refers to the location where the different branches of trade and commerce are located. Once even the most profitable business was carried out without shifting the mother country. Today if one wants to establish a remarkable reputation for his firm, or business he must learn the geographical places suited for the production, storing for exporting and importing and marketing. In order to recruit the apt personnel one has to travel a lot and even abroad to get the competent personnel. Certain countries are specialized in certain skill. Certain locations have the international standards. Certain locations have the licensing offices. So when one is in the field of commerce and business he has to learn the geography suited for his needs and demands. Knowing the commercial geography he spares, time money and fatigue. A business man needs to know the commercial geography also for the reason of similar languages to locate the apt personal when he expands his business abroad.
The nature and the scope of education is meant to help people deal with various challenges that they come across in life. It is also meant to help them come up with soluti…ons to various problems that the world faces at large.
Cultural Geographies publishes scholarly research and informed commentaries on the cultural appropriation and politics of nature, environment, place, and space. The journal re…ceives contributions from both scholars and practitioners within the fields of arts, humanities and social and environmental sciences who are interested in Cultural Geography.
Settlement geography focuses on people and where they stay on particular maps. It regards the number of people per capita over a given area and the human activities that t…hey engage on (including occupation).
scope of geography after graduation
Geography is the study of natural and non-natural distribution of things on earth. Geography comes from the Greek meaning drawing of earth. We map out where natural land/ocean… resources occur (i.e. oceans and mountains) as well as human resources occur (i,e cultures, nations, languages) So in quick, Geography is the study of the distrbution of resources and human culture throughout the earth
the scope of geography is to make people aware about their environment and all phenomenas that exist in the earth
Geography is an interesting subject.South America has vast resources of forests,water,minerals and land but many of its resources have not been fully untilized.let us consider… each of these resources and see to what extent and in what manner they have been used.The largest forests of the continent are the selva.