What is the Role of Medicinal aromatic plants in Indian National Economy?
not yet clearly understood but will be available soon so wait........................
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medicinal and arometic plants are inherited with chemical constituents having power to treat infections,ailments,diseases,physiochemical imbalence,allergic conditions,hormonal… changes,behavioural and other wise stimulate bodily mechanisms.Naturopathy,aromatherpy,acupunture,ayurveda use the plants or their parts to cure or treat patients.
The role of rivers in the Indian economy is very huge. The riversform the main backbone for agriculture which is a main source ofincome for most families.
The main role of rivers in the Indian economy was being a basicnatural resource. The are also essential in diluting andtransporting waste from settlements.
MNC's plays an important role in boosting up Indian Economy. In support of this we can say, MNC's bring foreign investors to India and hence helps in globalization of Indian M…arket. - - kammam - -
Role of RBI in Indian economy . Issuer of currency - Except for issuing one rupee notes and coins, RBI is the sole authority for the issue of currency in India. The India…n government issues one rupee notes and coins. Major currency is in the form of RBI notes, such as notes in the denominations of two, five, ten, twenty, fifty, one hundred, five hundred, and one thousand. Earlier, notes of higher denominations were also issued. But, these notes were demonetized to discourage users from indulging in black-market operations. RBI has two departments - the Issue department and Banking department. The issue department is dedicated to issuing currency. All the currency issued is the monetary liability of RBI that is backed by assets of equal value held by this department. Assets consist of gold, coin, bullion, foreign securities, rupee coins, and the governmentï¿½s rupee securities. The department acquires these assets whenever required by issuing currency. The conditions governing the composition of these assets determine the nature of the currency standard that prevails in India. The Banking department of RBI looks after the banking operations. It takes care of the currency in circulation and its withdrawal from circulation. Issuing new currency is known as expansion of currency and withdrawal of currency is known as contraction of currency. . Banker to the Government - RBI acts as banker, both to the central government and state governments. It manages all the banking transactions of the government involving the receipt and payment of money. In addition, RBI remits exchange and performs other banking operations. RBI provides short-term credit to the central government. Such credit helps the government to meet any shortfalls in its receipts over its disbursements. RBI also provides short term credit to state governments as advances. RBI also manages all new issues of government loans, servicing the government debt outstanding, and nurturing the market for governmentï¿½s securities. RBI advises the government on banking and financial subjects, international finance, financing of five-year plans, mobilizing resources, and banking legislation. . Managing Government Securities - Various financial institutions such as commercial banks are required by law to invest specified minimum proportions of their total assets/liabilities in government securities. RBI administers these investments of institutions. The other responsibilities of RBI regarding these securities are to ensure - . Smooth functioning of the market . Readily available to potential buyers . Easily available in large numbers . Undisturbed maturity-structure of interest rates because of excess or deficit supply . Not subject to quick and huge fluctuations . Reasonable liquidity of investments . Good reception of the new issues of government loans . Banker to Other Banks - The role of RBI as a banker to other banks is as follows: . Holds some of the cash reserves of banks . Lends funds for short period . Provides centralized clearing and quick remittance facilities RBI has the authority to statutorily ensure that the scheduled commercial banks deposit a stipulated ratio of their total net liabilities. This ratio is known as cash reserve ratio [CRR]. However, banks can use these deposits to meet their temporary requirements for interbank clearing as the maintenance of CRR is calculated based on the average balance over a period. . Controller of Money Supply and Credit - In a planned economy, the central bank plays an important role in controlling the paper currency system and inflationary tendency. RBI has to regulate the claims of competing banks on money supply and credit. RBI also needs to meet the credit requirements of the rest of the banking system. RBI needs to ensure promotion of maximum output, and maintain price stability and a high rate of economic growth. To perform these functions effectively, RBI uses several control instruments such as - . Open Market Operations . Changes in statutory reserve requirements for banks . Lending policies towards banks . Control over interest rate structure . Statutory liquidity ration of banks . Exchange Manager and Controller - RBI manages exchange control, and represents India as a member of the international Monetary Fund [IMF]. Exchange control was first imposed on India in September 1939 when World War II started and continues till date. Exchange control was imposed on both receipts and payments of foreign exchange. According to foreign exchange regulations, all foreign exchange receipts, whether on account of export earnings, investment earnings, or capital receipts, whether of private or government accounts, must be sold to RBI either directly or through authorized dealers. Most commercial banks are authorized dealers of RBI. . Publisher of Monetary Data and Other Data - RBI maintains and provides all essential banking and other economic data, formulating and critically evaluating the economic policies in India. In order to perform this function, RBI collects, collates and publishes data regularly. Users can avail this data in the weekly statements, the RBI monthly bulletin, annual report on currency and finance, and other periodic publications. . Promotional Role of RBI - Promotion of commercial banking Promotion of cooperative banking Promotion of industrial finance Promotion of export finance Promotion of credit to weaker sections Promotion of credit guarantees Promotion of differential rate of interest scheme Promotion of credit to priority sections including rural & agricultural sector.....
eg. Cayenne, Cinamon, Mints(pep, spir) surprisingly many spices were/are used as medicines and over time as added to foods the medicanal values were forgot.
Marketing's Role In Indian Economy "Marketing's role is to ensure the continuance in growth of economies and the individual's standard of living" ( M.J.Baker, 1985). Ac…cording to the statement given by M.J.Baker, Marketing plays a vital role in the economic growth of the country periodically and sustain individuals standard of living. Marketing Definition "Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products of value with others" (Philip Kotler). Basically human need is state of deprivation or neediness where the people require food, shelter, clothing, belonging, esteem to live up their life. These needs are not created by the society or either the marketers, it is the existing nature of human biology and human condition. Even though the human needs of the people are few, their wants are many, this is because they are continuously shaped or reshaped by the social forces and their environment which include institutions, families, and business corporations. "Wants of the specific product" is the demand of the people and their willingness to buy them. Companies should not only measure how many people want to buy their product but also the people who are willing and able to buy it. This willingness should be created by the company. Here comes the Marketing principle how well the company sell their product and satisfy the needs of the customer (Narayana Rao K.V.S.S) Market- "Consists of potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want"(Philip Kotler). Marketer- "A Marketer is some one seeking one or more customers who might engage in an exchange of values". Marketers are the one who influence demands on the product by making the product attractive, appropriate, affordable, and easily available to target consumers. People living in different societies or...
Role of market in India :India's growth story has important implications for the capital market, which has grownsharply with respect to several parameters - amounts raised n…umber of stock exchangesand other intermediaries, listed stocks, market capitalization, trading volumes andturnover, market instruments, investor population, issuer and intermediary profiles.The capital market consists primarily of the debt and equity markets. Historically, itcontributed significantly to mobilizing funds to meet public and private companies'financing requirements. The introduction of exchange-traded derivative instruments suchas options and futures has enabled investors to better hedge their positions and reducerisks.India's debt and equity markets rose from 75 per cent in 1995 to 130 per cent of GDP in2005. But the growth relative to the US, Malaysia and South Korea remains low andlargely skewed, indicating immense latent potential. India's debt markets comprisegovernment bonds and the corporate bond market (comprising PSUs, corporates,financial institutions and banks).India compares well with other emerging economies in terms of sophisticated marketdesign of equity spot and derivatives market, widespread retail participation and resilientliquidity.SEBI's measures such as submission of quarterly compliance reports, and companyvaluation on the lines of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act have enhanced corporate governance.But enforcement continues to be a problem because of limited trained staff andcompanies not being subjected to substantial fines or legal sanctions.Given the booming economy, large skilled labour force, reliable business community,continued reforms and greater global integration vindicated by the investment-graderatings of Moody's and Fitch, the net cumulative portfolio flows from 2003-06 (bondsand equities) amounted to $35 billion.The number of foreign institutional investors registered with SEBI rose from none in1992-93 to 528 in 2000-01, to about 1,000 in 2006-07.India's stock market rose five-fold since mid-2003 and outperformed world indices withreturns far outstripping other emerging markets, such as Mexico (52 per cent), Brazil (43 per cent) or GCC economies such as Kuwait (26 per cent) in FY-06 In 2006, Indian companies raised more than $6 billion on the BSE, NSE and other regional stock exchanges. Buoyed by internal economic factors and foreign capital flows,Indian markets are globally competitive, even in terms of pricing, efficiency andliquidity. US sub prime crisis :The financial crisis facing the Wall Street is the worst since the Great Depression andwill have a major impact on the US and global economy. The ongoing global financialcrisis will have a 'domino' effect and spill over all aspects of the economy. Due to theWestern world's messianic faith in the market forces and deregulation, the marketfriendly governments have no choice but to step in.The top five investment banks in the US have ceased to exist in their previous forms.Bears Stearns was taken over some time ago. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac arenationalised to prevent their collapse. Fannie and Freddie together underwrite half of thehome loans in the United States, and the sum involved is of $ 3 trillion-about double theentire annual output of the British economy. This is the biggest rescue operation since thecredit crunch began. Lehman Brothers, an investment bank with a 158 year-old history,was declared bankrupt; Merrill Lynch, another Wall Street icon, chose to pre-empt asimilar fate by deciding to sell to the Bank of America; and Goldman Sachs and MorganStanley have decided to transform themselves into ordinary deposit banks. AIG, theworld's largest insurance company, has survived through the injection of funds worth $85 billion from the US Government. The question arises: why has this happened? Besides the cyclical crisis of capitalism, there are some recent factors which havecontributed towards this crisis. Under the so-called "innovative" approach, financialinstitutions systematically underestimated risks during the boom in property prices,which makes such boom more prolonged. This relates to the shortsightedness of speculators and their unrestrained greed, and they, during the asset price boom, believedthat it would stay forever. This resulted in keeping the risk aspects at a minimum and thusresorting to more and more risk taking financial activities. Loans were made on the basis of collateral whose value was inflated by a bubble. And the collateral is now worth lessthan the loan. Credit was available up to full value of the property which was assessed atinflated market prices. Credits were given in anticipation that rising property prices willcontinue. Under looming recession and uncertainty, to pay back their mortgage many of those who engaged in such an exercise are forced to sell their houses, at a time when the banks are reluctant to lend and buyers would like to wait in the hope that property priceswill further come down. All these factors would lead to a further decline in property prices. Effect of the subprime crisis on India: Globalisation has ensured that the Indian economy and financial markets cannot stayinsulated from the present financial crisis in the developed economies.In the light of the fact that the Indian economy is linked to global markets through a fullfloat in current account ( trade and services) and partial float in capital account (debt andequity), we need to analyze the impact based on three critical factors: Availability of global liquidity; demand for India investment and cost thereof and decreased consumer demand affecting Indian exports.The concerted intervention by central banks of developed countries in injecting liquidityis expected to reduce the unwinding of India investments held by foreign entities, butfresh investment flows into India are in doubt.The impact of this will be three-fold: The element of GDP growth driven by off-shoreflows (along with skills and technology) will be diluted; correction in the asset priceswhich were hitherto pushed by foreign investors and demand for domestic liquidity putting pressure on interest rates .While the global financial system takes time to "nurse its wounds" leading to lowdemand for investments in emerging markets, the impact will be on the cost and relatedrisk premium. The impact will be felt both in the trade and capital account. Indian companies which had access to cheap foreign currency funds for financing their import and export will be the worst hit. Also, foreign funds (through debt and equity) will be available at huge premium and would be limited to blue-chip companies.The impact of which, again, will be three-fold: Reduced capacity expansion leading tosupply side pressure; increased interest expenses to affect corporate profitability andincreased demand for domestic liquidity putting pressure on the interest rates.Consumer demand in developed economies is certain to be hurt by the present crisis,leading to lower demand for Indian goods and services, thus affecting the Indian exports.The impact of which, once again, will be three-fold: Export-oriented units will be theworst hit impacting employment; reduced exports will further widen the trade gap to put pressure on rupee exchange rate and intervention leading to sucking out liquidity and pressure on interest rates. The impact on the financial markets will be the following : Equity market willcontinue to remain in bearish mood with reduced off-shore flows, limited domesticappetite due to liquidity pressure and pressure on corporate earnings; while the inflationwould stay under control, increased demand for domestic liquidity will push interest rateshigher and we are likely to witness gradual rupee depreciation and depleted currencyreserves. Overall, while RBI would inject liquidity through CRR/SLR cuts, maintaininggrowth beyond 7% will be a struggle.The banking sector will have the least impact as high interest rates, increased demand for rupee loans and reduced statutory reserves will lead to improved NIM while, on the other hand, other income from cross-border business flows and distribution of investment products will take a hit.Banks with capabilities to generate low cost CASA and zero cost float funds will gain themost as revenues from financial intermediation will drive the banks' profitability. Given the dependence on foreign funds and off-shore consumer demand for the Indiagrowth story, India cannot wish away from the negative impact of the present globalfinancial crisis but should quickly focus on alternative remedial measures to limit damageand look in-wards to sustain growth! Role of capital market during the present crisis: In addition to resource allocation, capital markets also provided a medium forrisk management by allowing the diversification of risk in the economy. Thewell-functioning capital market improved information quality as it played amajor role in encouraging the adoption of stronger corporate governanceprinciples, thus supporting a trading environment, which is founded onintegrity.liquid markets make it possible to obtain financing for capital-intensiveprojects with long gestation periods..For a long time, the Indian market was considered too small to warrant muchattention. However, this view has changed rapidly as vast amounts of international investment have poured into our markets over the last decade.The Indian market is no longer viewed as a static universe but as aconstantly evolving market providing attractive opportunities to the globalinvesting community.Now during the present financial crisis, we saw how capital market stood stillas the symbol of better risk management practices adopted by the Indians.Though we observed a huge fall in the sensex and other stock marketindicators but that was all due to low confidence among the investors.Because balance sheet of most of the Indian companies listed in the sensexwere reflecting profit even then people kept on withdrawing money.While there was a panic in the capital market due to withdrawal by the FIIs,we saw Indian institutional investors like insurance and mutual funds coming for the rescue under SEBI guidelines so that the confidence of the investorsdoesn't go low.SEBI also came up with various norms including more liberal policiesregarding participatory notes, restricting the exit from close ended mutualfunds etc. to boost the investment.While talking about currency crisis, the rupee kept on depreciating againstthe dollar mainly due to the withdrawals by FIIs. So , the capital market triedto attract FIIs once again. SEBI came up with many revolutionary reforms toattract the foreign investors so that the depreciation of rupee could be put tohault
The role of Multi National Companies, otherwise known as MNC's, inIndia include the empowerment of its labor force. These MNC's alsocontribute to the government's finances by …means of taxes that areused to build more bridges, roads, public schools, and hospitals.
SEBI is the primary governing/regulatory body for the securities market in India. All transactions in the securities market in india are governed & regulated by SEBI. The …SEBI Governs the following 1. New Issues (Initial Public Offering or IPO) 2. Listing agreement of companies with Stock Exchanges 3. Trading Mechanisms 4. Investor Protection 5. Corporate disclosure by listed companies etc.
Aromatic (Aroma Producing) plants are those plants which produce a certain type of aroma. Their aroma is due to the presence of some kind of essential oil with chemical consti…tuents that contain at least one benzene ring in the their chemical configuration . 1 Volatile oil: A substance of oily consistency and feel, derived from a plant and containing the principle to which the odor and taste of the plant are due (essential oil), in contrast to a fatty oil, a volatile oil evaporates when exposed to the air and thus is capable of distillation, it may also be obtained by expression or extraction, many volatile oils, identical to or closely resembling the natural oils identical to or closely resembling the natural oils can be made synthetically. Also known as ethereal oil. 5 The essential oil industry was traditionally a cottage industry in India . Since 1974, a number of industrial companies have been established for large scale production of essential oils, oleo resins and perfume. The essential oils from plants being produced in India include ajowain oil, cedar wood oil, celery oil, citronella oil, davana oil, eucalyptus oil, geranium oil, lavender oil. lemon grass oil , mentha oil , palmarosa oil, patchaouli rose oil , sandal wood oil , turpentine oil and vetiver oil .The manufacture of turpentine oil , and resin from pine is a sizable and well established industry in India having 10,000 - 25000 tones annual production of the oil , Î± - pinine and Î´-3 carene are the two vital components produced from the oil. Î± - Ionone from lemongrass oil for perfumery and Î²- ionone for vitamin A synthesis are produced in India . Before 1960, menthol was not produced in India but the introduction of Japanese mint, Mentha arvensis and subsequent improvements therefore enabled India to produces over 500 tones of menthol and now tops the world market in export of natural menthol 4 Although the production of major oils is highly organized, a number of developing countries have volatile oil rich flora not fully utilized or cultivated and the United Nation. Industrial Development Organization has taken steps to inform on the setting up of rural based small scale essential oil industries 3 Essential Oils The chemical components of essential oils can be divided into two main categories, the hydrocarbon monoterpenes , diterpenes and sesquiterpenes , as well as some oxides , phenolices and sulphur and nitrogen containing material . Common terpenes include limonene which occurs in most citrus oils, and the antiseptic pine, found in pine and terpene oils. Important sesquterpenes include chamzulene and farnesene which occur in chamomile oil and which have been widely studied for anti inflammatory and bactericidal properties. The extensive occurrence of ester in essential oil include linalyl acetate , which is a component bergamot and lavender , and geranyl acetate found in sweet marjoram .Other common ester are the bornyl, eugenyl and lavendulyl acetate. The characteristic fruity aromas of esters are claimed to have sedative and fungicidal properties. Aldehydes are also clamed to have sedative properties, the most common being citralnellal and neral found in lemon sconted oils, citral also has antiseptic properties. Equally pungent to the aldehydes in many instances are the ketones such as jasmine and funchone found in jasmine and fennel oil, respectively. Ketones such as camphor, carnone , methone and pine comphone , found in many proprietary preparation are effective in upper respiratory tract complaints . However, some ketones are also among the more toxic components essential oils such they one found in pennyroyal and buchu. The alcohol within essential oils is generally nontoxic. Commonly occurring terpene alcohols include citronellal found in rose, lemon and eucalyptus, also geramnial, bornenol , fornenesol , menthol , nerol and linalool occurring in rose wood and lavender . Alcohol has antiseptic and antiviral properties and in aromatherapy are claimed to have an uplifting quality A wide range of oxides occur in essential oils including ascaridol , bisabolol and bisaleolone oxides and linalool oxide from hyssop . The most important oxide, however, is cineole . Also known as eucalyptus oil, it occurs extensively in other oils such as bey laurel, rosemary and cajuput. It is used medicinally for its expectorant properties. 3 Use of Essential oil Indian Scenario India is one of the few countries in the world having varied agro climatic zones suitable for the cultivation of a host of essential oil bearing plants. Due to increased awareness of health hazards associated with synthetic chemicals coupled with the increase coast of petroleum products, the use of essential oils have been gradually increasing. The consumers are showing increasing preference for natural material over the synthetic. During the last few years with the spurt in the production of essential oils it is emerging as a potential agro based industry in India. At present in India about 30b % of the fine chemical used annually in perfumes and flavors come from essential oils. The total consumption of perfumery and flavorings material in India is abut 3800 MT / annum valued at Rs 100 crores. Food, dental, Pharmaceutical flavors share is around 700 MT and te rest represents perfumery. The estimated production of perfumery raw material is around 500 tones / annum valued at Rs 400 crores. According to trade Development Authority of India the total production of fragrance excluding formulation for captive consumption by the user industry is about Rs 120 crores /annum. A number of essential oils form palmarosa , citronella ginger grass , basil , mint , lemon grass , eucalyptus cedar wood , lavender oil , davana oil , celery seed oil , fennel and other oils have been widely used in a variety of products in India . Out of these the essential oils currently being produced in India are oil of citronella , lemongrass , basil , mint , sandalwood , palmarosa , eucalyptus , cedar wood , vetiver and geranium Rose oil , lavender , davana oil , oil of khus and ginger grass are produced in small quantities . During last forty year the importance of developing essential oil bearing plants is being increasingly realized. With the introduction of Japanese mint and subsequent improvement there upon, India produces 5000 tones of menthol values Rs 100 crores and is one of the leading Menthol produced in India before 1960. Presently the areas under mint cultivation are estimated to the around 40000 hectares mainly in U.P., Punjab, Haryana and to some extent in Bihar and M.P. The expert of essential oils during the year 1991-92 ha been 53.6 crores as against to 40 crores during the year 1990-91 thereby registering an increases of 37 % over the last year. An amount of Rs 61 crores have been saved foreign exchange annually by means of production of certain oils of mint , aromatic grass , linalool , geranium , lavender and rose oil during 91-92. With the increase in production of above essential oil, it would be possible for the country to save more valuable foreign exchange in the coming years. 2 The magic items of expert are ginger oil., sandal wood oil , lemon grass oil , jasmine oil , tuberose concrete ad other essential oils . During the year 1991-92 export of sandalwood oil has registered a recorded figure of Rs 13 crores compound to Rs 6.2 crores during 1990-91. The major buyers of Indian essential oil being USSR , USA , France , UK , Netherlands, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Spain ,Morocco, Germany, Australia, Pakistan, Korea, Taiwan etc. Similarly, citronella oil production has reached 500 tons when it was totally imported 55 years ago. Also jasmine and tuberose concentrate from south India have created a marks in world marked. Thus an interesting scenario in the development of natural essential oil in India has enraged. 2 World Scenario India ranks 26 th in import & 14 in respect of export in world in the trade of essential oil. USA, France, Germany are the top three countries in the world in the trade of essential oil. India hold around .7% of import & 1.1% of export .The values of export from India during 1991-92 to 4 major countries like USA, France ,Germany has been to the tune Of rupees 21.2 core with major share going to USA (rupees 8.2 crore) &France (Rs 7.39 crore) The world trade in essential oil & its product is vast and the oil of major importance are aniseed, citronella, clove, geranium, lemon grass, peppermint oil, patchouli, sandalwood and vetiver, sand wood ,mint oil, lemongrass, palmorosa occupies prominent position in the world market. Future demand Approximately 90 % of the present requirement of essential oil in the country is met by the indigenous production and 10 % from import. In 1950 the production was hardly 75 80 tones, which has since resin to 8000 tones. This has been both vertical and horizontal growth in the production of essential oil. Peppermint and spearmint and other mint oil constitute 68% of total volume of production of essential oil in the country. Other important varieties which constitute of 28% of the total production are: basil oil, citronella oil, eucalypts oil, lemongrass, palmorosa, and sandalwood & vitever oil. The annual growth rate of pharmaceutical industry in terms of vol. & value is expected to be between 11-13 % in the next 5 years. The other important sector showing rapid expansion is the processed food industry particularly ice cream and confectionery items. Fragrance finds use in toiletries and personal care products. Volume wise toiletries constitute 90 % of all these products. The annual production of toiletries has been estimated by Toilet Makers Association from 3.5 lakhs tones In 1991 to 4.8 lakh tones in 1995 ., at an annual growth rate of 8 % . The requirement of essential oils by consumer industries under fragrances, flavour and aroma chemicals are 60 % 20% and 20% respectively. 2 The home demand for essential oils during the next five year, is given below keeping the base year 1991-92 =100 and consumption at 8100 tones. 2 . Year . Demand . 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98. 10.1 11 12.1 13.3 14.5. The association of essential oils manufactures estimated growth in export value from Rs 50 corers in 1991-92 to Rs 125 corers in 1995-96. India ranks 14 th in world export trade, share being an average 0.6 -0.8 % of the total. These are an ample room for penetration into the foreign market especially to the newly developing countries of the middle and for east. Certain Indian varieties namely Sandalwood, lemongrass, palmarosa , davana , jasmine and all mint oils are becoming popular in these countries though there is a competition from other developing countries (namely China and Indonesia 0 and the synthetics oils that are manufactures in the European countries are much cheaper than the natural oils . India is the world leader in production of mint oils . 2 Taking 191-92 as the base year = 100 and the average export of 793 tones, the estimated demand of essential oil for export and the total demand (domestic and export ) during 5 year are as under 2 . Year . Demand for export (000 tones ) . Total demands (000 tones ) . 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98. 1.2 1.6 2 2.6 3.4 . 11.3 12.4 14.1 15.9 17.9 . The total west European market for flavor and fragrance is estimated to the 100000 tones in 1991 with flavor industry accounting for 40% & fragrance industry accounting for 60%. It's therefore presented that total consumption will touch 1, 15000 tones in 1996 at an annual growth of 3 % while the sale of flavors and fragrances in USA will reach US $ billion in 1995 with the annual growth rate of 7 %. The sale of essential oils are expected to reach US $ 435 millions in 1995 2 Indian expert earning from some selects essential oils during 1989-90 . Items . Quantity (tones ) . Values ( Rs ) . Sandalwood Lemongrass Jasmine / tuberose concentrate Peppermint Eucalyptus Davana Palmorose Cedarwood Cardamon Clove oil . 15 185 - 73 17.5 0276 0.295 0.677 - - . 57.10 53.50 24.40 22.30 2.40 1.90 0.09 0.09 4.411 0426 . Foreign exchange saved from some essential oil during 1991-92 . Items . Quantity (tones) . Values ( Rs ) . Bergamot mint Citrenella oil java Ceranium oil Japanese mint oil Linalol oil Peppermint oil Rose oil Spearmint. 20 600 30 2500 50 40 0.01 80 . 30 800 300 4500 120 100 10 240 . Export of major essential oil from India Mentha aruensis and mint oil , Cedar wood oil , Clove oil, Eucalyptus oil, Tuberose concentrate , Palmarosa oil, Patchouli oil, Sandalwood oil, Lemongrass oil, Davana oil, Coriander oil, Dill oil, Spearmint oil, Rose oil, Mentha piperta , Jasmine concentrate, Jasmine oil Import of major essential oil Citranella oil, Geranium oil, Jasmine oil, Mentha aruensis , Mentha piperata , Vetiver oil, Cedarwood oil, Clove oil, Eucalyptus oil, Palmarosa oil, Patchouli oil, Sandalwood oil Lemon grass oil, Davana oil, Anise oil, Caraway oil, Coriander oil, Spearmint oil, Lavender oil Reference: 1. Kokate C.K. , Pharamacognosy Nirali Prakashan 2. Handa S.S. and Kaul M.K. , Supplement to cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants , Regional Research lab council for Scientific and industrial Research 3. Trease and Evans , Pharamcognosy Saunders 4. Handa S.S. and Kaul M.K. , Supplement to cultivation and utilization of medicinal plants , Reginal Research lab Jammu Tawi 5. www.Herbaldata.com 6. www.Wikipedia.com 7. Varsheny S.C. Export of essential oil from India. Ind
Check out the related link on LIC's role in the Indian economy.
If company advertises their product then, it affects economically to company as it is expensive. It incurs so many expenses. Thought advertisement is expensive, but it gives l…ong term benefit to the company.
SEBI is the primary governing/regulatory body for the securities market in India. All transactions in the securities market in india are governed & regulated by SEBI.