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conversion of amines into halogen groups. this process called sand mayer reaction. mainly preparation of dyes. amines replaces with hydroxylation

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1. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons which do not contain a benzene ring. Examples - Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes 2. Aromatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons which contai…n one or more benzene rings. The name of the class comes from the fact that many of them have strong, pungent aromas. Examples - Benzene, Benzoic acid, Phenol (MORE)

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Fortified wines have had brandy or wine alcohol added to them. Aromatized wines are fortified and flavored with herbs, roots, flowers and barks.

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aromatic diazo compounds are stabilize by resonance where as in alifati it is not found

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Aromaticity doesn't require a compound to have a detectable olfactory response although some aromatic compounds do have a smell. Ethanol is an aliphatic compound because it …has a chain like structure with no benzene ring. (MORE)

In Definitions

In organic chemistry, some compounds are called "aromatic." The definition of an aromatic compound depends on a variety of characteristics. At a non-chemical level, aromatic c…ompounds get their name because most of them are identifiable by smell. By definition, an aromatic compound contains one or more benzene rings and is thus uniquely stable, as a benzene ring has an equal number of evenly spaced single and double bonds. Read on to learn about benzene rings as well as the characteristics and classifications of aromatic compounds.A benzene ring consists of six carbon (C) atoms connected in a ring or hexagon with one hydrogen (H) single-bonded to each carbon. Benzene's chemical formula is C6H6. The bonds between carbon atoms in the ring are evenly spaced and alternate between double and single bonds, making benzene quite stable. A benzene ring is also unsaturated.As stated above, aromatic compounds are built off of benzene rings. They often have their hydrogens replaced with side-chains or functional groups, such as methyl (CH3) or nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Two examples of these such aromatics are toluene (C6H5CH3) and benzoic acid (C6H5CO2H). Aromatics can also have more than one benzene ring fused together, as in naphthalene anthracene (C14H10).Aromatic compounds fall into one of two classifications. The first is nuclear substituted compounds, which is when the compound's functional group(s) is attached directly to the benzene ring. These are named as derivatives of benzene. The second classification group is side-chain substituted compounds; these are aromatics in which the functional group(s) occur in the benzene ring's side-chain. They are named as phenyl derivatives.Aromatic compounds can be arranged in three different ways and are named based on such orientations. If an aromatic compound has two functional groups attached to adjacent carbons or sites, it is called "ortho," "o-," or "1,2-." So a dimethylbenzene with the two methyls on adjacent carbons will be named 1,2-dimethylbenzene, ortho-dimethylbenzene, or just o-dimethylbenzene. The second arrangement is when two functional groups are attached on alternate sites; this makes a "meta," "m-," or "1,3-" compound. If the two functional groups of an aromatic compound are attached diagonally opposite each other, it is a "para," "p-," or "1,4-" compound.At the most basic level, the definition of an aromatic compound is a compound that contains at least one benzene (C6H6) ring. Most aromatic compounds also have an aroma of some kind. Chemically, aromatics can get very complex, with many functional groups attached directly to the benzene ring and/or as part of the side-chain. A compound's name will, in part, depend on where the functional groups are attached.There are detailed rules for numbering carbon atoms in an aromatic compound's ring(s). If there are two more functional groups attached to the ring, you must number the carbons based on alphabetical order of the functional groups. In some compounds, the carbon containing the main functional group is numbered as "1." (MORE)

Solvents for polystyrene come in three categories: Aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and other solvents that will work on polystyrene. Polystyrene is …a synthetic aromatic polymer compound made from the monomer styrene. Polystyrene can be foamed, rigid, clear, hard, and brittle. It is used to make things like clamshell packaging, packing peanuts, lids, bottles, and plastic cutlery. Knowing the solvents for polystyrene will help you in your chemistry experiments with it.Aromatic hydrocarbons are those compounds that contain one or more benzene rings. Six carbon atoms in a ring configuration make up the benzene ring. Each carbon atom has four electrons. Two of the electrons link up with neighboring carbon atoms, one goes to a hydrogen atom, and the fourth is not directly connected to any atom. Aromatic hydrocarbons' name came about because these often have strong, sharp odors. Hydrocarbons that do not contain benzine rings are called aliphatic hydrocarbons. The aromatic hydrocarbons that are solvents for polystyrene are benzene, toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene. Many of these compounds are toxic, and are some of the widest spread pollutants. Benzene rings are often drawn as a circle with a hexagonal shape around it. This represents these electrons that are not attached to any atom. Benzene is one of the really toxic forms of aromatic hydrocarbons.Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons are also carbon and oxygen molecules, but without the benzene rings. These compounds can be saturated, joined by single bonds, such as alkanes, or unsaturated which have double bonds such as alkenes, or triple bonds such as alkynes.. Carbon atoms can be joined in straight chains, branched chains, or non-aromatic rings. Other elements can be found bonded to the carbon chain like oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons that act as solvents are: Methylene chloride, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride.There are other chemicals and compounds that will act as a solvent with polystyrene. They are pyridine, acetone, dioxane, dimethylformamide, methyl ethyl ketone, diisopropyl ketone, cyclohexanone, tetrahydrofuran, n-butyl phthalate, methyl phthalate, ethyl phthalate, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, 1-nitro-propane, carbon disulfide, tributyl phosphate, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and ethycyclohexaneThe aliphatic hydrocarbons that do not act as solvents for polystyrene are butane, pentane, hexane, and iso-oxane. The three alcohols that do not act as solvents are methanol, ethanol, and propanol. The other chemicals that do not act as solvents are water, phenol, and ether.Polystyrene is a compound that is used for packing materials. When it burns, it gives off carbon dioxide and water vapor.Although polystyrene is an aromatic hydrocarbon, there are four aromatic hydrocarbons that can act as a solvent on polystyrene, three chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and 20 other compounds that will act as a solvent. Using a solvent on the polystyrene does not get rid of the polluting effects of it.When trying to find a solvent for polystyrene, do not try acids and bases. Both have no effect on the compound. You have to have one of the solvents above to have it work on polystyrene. (MORE)

In Interest

There are two main types of interest, compounding interest and simple interest. Most loans and investments use compounding interest. The difference is that compound interest f…actors in interest earned, in the total interest calculation. This means that when the interest compounds, the next cycle accumulates interest on the amount including the additional interest. This can be beneficial if you are making money on an investment, but less beneficial when interest compounds on a loan that you eventually have to pay back. Though this may seem somewhat difficult to understand, figuring out compounding interest is actually fairly simple. If you take the process step-by-step, it becomes much more manageable.In order to understand compounding interest, you must start with an initial amount. This could be an amount of money that you invested in a bank account that gains interest. However, it could also be a loan with an interest rate that you take out to help you afford a serious purchase, such as a car or a new home. These loans accumulate interest that you end up having to pay back, as well as the original amount. An example could be $1,500 that you invested in a bank account that accumulates interest. The interest rate is the amount of interest that accumulates on the original amount. The larger that the original amount is, the more overall interest you will end up with. When taking out a loan, it is better to find the lowest interest rate possible. However, when you are investing your money, it's the exact opposite. A higher interest rate means you make more money on your investment. When attempting to understand the interest rates in your situation, it's important to remember to turn the percentage into a decimal. To do this you divide the interest rate percentage by 100, or move the decimal place two places to the left. For example, if your investment has a seven percent interest rate, that would be divided to equal .07. The compounding rate is how many times per year your interest is compounded. There are many different rates at which interest is compounded. It's common for interest to be compounded yearly, bi annually, or quarterly. This means once, twice, or four times per year. Interest can also be compounded monthly, which means 12 times a year. How often your interest is compounded, can affect the rate at which your investment gains interest. Therefore, it is an important factor to consider. For example, the interest on your investment could be compounded twice a year.The best way to gain an understanding of compounding interest is to spend some time calculating it. You can practice calculating various compounding interest scenarios or use this process to calculate your own deals involving interest. To begin this calculation, you first have to divide your interest rate in the form of a decimal by the amount of times per year that it is compounded. In this example, that would mean dividing .07 by two. This ultimately equals .035. Now that you have figured out the interest rate for each period of compounding per year, you are ready for the next step in the process. For this next step you have to add the number one to the end result that you came up with in the last step. This one, doesn't really seem to come from anywhere, but it's actually an important part of the process of calculating interest. In order to complete this step, the .035 from the last step becomes 1.035. If you remember to do this at this stage, you will be able to successfully continue the process of understanding your compounding interest. The next step toward understanding your compound interest is to multiply the number of years in which the loan will be taken out, by the number of times per year that it compounds. You can use this step to experiment and figure out how much interest you will end up earning for different amounts of time. This is a great way to increase your understanding of how compound interest works. If you insert different numbers of years and calculate the overall interest, you can begin to have a greater understanding of how interest rates accumulate over time. For example, if you made an investment that lasted five years and compounded twice a year, you would multiply five and two to get 10.This step requires a good deal of multiplication and it is easier to complete if you have a scientific or graphing calculator that is capable of calculating exponents. Such a calculator can be found online. If you do not have such a calculator, you can still work this step out by hand, though it may take you longer. In this step you multiply the figure you came up with in step five, by the power of the number you got in step six. For this example, you would multiply 1.035 by the power of 10. This means that you multiply 1.035 by itself 10 times. In this example, you would come out with 1.4105987606. It's easier to understand how compounding interest works if you have a smaller and more manageable number to work with. To accomplish this, you can round the number from the last step to either three or five places past the decimal point. If you round to three places, you will get the dollar value of your investment including interest. If you round to five places, you will get the dollar and cent value of your investment. Depending on how accurate you want your calculation to be, you can do it either way. For this example, you could round it to three places and have 1.411. The last mathematical step you need to take in order to understand how all these various factors affect your compounding interest is to multiply the rounded number from step eight, by the amount that you originally invested. In this case, 1.411 multiplied by 1,500 comes out to the total dollar amount of $2,116.5. As you can see, this number is significantly larger than the number you started with. This difference is due to the accumulation of compounding interest. To find the amount of interest that was accumulated over this amount of time, simply subtract the original amount you started with, from the amount with interest that you ended with. In this case, 2,116.5 minus 1,500 comes out to $616.5. That means that if you invested $1,500 with a 7 percent interest rate that compounded twice a year for ten years, you would gain $616.5 dollars on your investment. This is a significant amount. To gain a better understanding of compounding interest, you can go through these steps and change any of the factors to see how the ultimate amount of interest is affected. Understanding compounding interest is an excellent life skill that you will likely use in your lifetime. Many important purchases involve this type of interest and having an understanding of how it works will help you to succeed in these situations. Though the concept of compounding interest may seem confusing, it is actually fairly straightforward, when you look at it one step at a time and understand the different factors that affect how interest accumulates. Having this understanding will definitely give you an edge when it comes to making deals that involve interest rates. If you want to learn more about the ideas behind compounding interest, it may help to check out a book from your local library that deals with where the concept of compounding interest comes from. Getting some background information about the history of compounding interest might give you a better understanding of how it is used today. (MORE)

In Interest

Compound interest is simply the process of accruing interest on interest. The longer an amount sits in an account, or the longer a loan goes on, the more interest will accrue.… Compounding can occur in a variety of frequencies. Interest can be compounded quarterly, monthly, annually, and daily. This guide will show you how to set up a simple Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to calculate compounding interest using Excel formulas. This should work with Excel 2007 and newer versions.First, it helps to have an understanding of how compound interest is calculated. There are two main formulas used: * The first calculates compound interest on an initial value: A = P(1+i)^n. * The second computes compound interest on monthly payments: A = P((((1+ i)^n)-1)/i) The variables used are: * A is the principal plus interest over the time period. * P is the starting principal amount or the payment amount. * i is yearly interest rate per compounding period. * n is the number of compounding periods. Don't worry, Excel will make the calculations simple. It simply helps to know how the process works.Open Microsoft Excel and create a new spreadsheet. You may want to save it, so that you can be saving periodically as you work on it. You can title it "Compound Interest Calculator" or something similar.In row one, enter the titles for the values we'll be using. Enter the following titles: * In A1, enter "Bank." * In B1, enter "Principal." * In C1, enter "Yearly Interest Rate." * In D1, enter "Years." * In E1, enter "Payments."* In F1, enter "Compounding Period." * In G1, enter "Final Value." You may need to resize the columns to accommodate the text. Here, you'll be using an Excel function known as Final Value, or FV. Excel can do compound interest calculations, known as Time Value of Money (TVM) calculations. The FV calculation takes the rate, periods, payments, present value (optional), and the type. For our spreadsheet, you do not need to worry about the type. Now, while you can enter values into the formula, its real power comes when you use reference cells to do the work.Now select cell G2. Push the equal key to create an equal sign, and type 'FV', Excel should recognize and list the formula. Press the Tab key when you see it, which will create the formula and place you in position to enter the first variable. Follow the steps below to create the exact formula: * a) Your cursor should start in the position for the interest rate. Type "C2/F2" which tells excel to take the value in cell C2 (interest) and divide it by F2 (periods), which will calculate the periodic interest rate. * b) Enter a comma, and then "F2*D2," which tells Excel to calculate the number of periods (F2 is periods, and D2 is years). * c) Enter a comma, and type "E2" (payments). * d) Enter a comma, and type "B2" (principal). * e) Close the equation by typing a closing parenthetical bracket.Right now the cell will probably say "#DIV/0!" which means there are no values to compute. Enter some sample values to see if the formula works. Starting in B1, enter the following (each comma signifies the next cell): test, 1000, 0.03, 1, 10, 12. This tells Excel to calculate the final value of an amount of $1,000 at 3 percent interest, compounded monthly, with a $10 addition to the principal each payment period, for one year. The answer you get should be -$1,152.08.The negative value may surprise you. Note that the TVM functions require either the principal amount or the final value to be negative. Payments should match the principal to add to it, or be the opposite to deduct from it. For example, if you wanted to calculate adding a regular amount to a savings account, you might want the principal and payments to both be positive numbers. The final value will be negative, representing a theoretical withdraw. Alternatively, if you are calculating a loan, you may want the principal to be positive, and the payments to be negative. This tells Excel to reduce the amount of the principal. The best way to see this in action is to try different numbers. You may want to set an interest rate of 0 to simplify it while you experiment.Remember that interest rates should be a fraction of 1. So a 3 percent interest rate should be entered as 0.03. Alternatively, you can program the number formatting in the cell to be percents. Excel will then convert a whole number to a percent automatically.Once you have made the formula and understand how it works, you can copy it to additional rows. Select cell G2, and click and drag from the bottom right corner of the cell. Drag it down as many rows as you wish to create and release the mouse button.Copying the formula onto additional rows allows you to easily compare different rates, compound periods, principal amounts, payment amounts, and time periods. You can do this to compare different loans, savings accounts, or to see how your savings will increase with a larger amount.Microsoft Excel makes calculating interest compounded quarterly, monthly, or otherwise, both easy and fun. Plus, by creating a spreadsheet, you can easily compare different variables, such as different providers. Though it may seem complicated, compound interest is simply the interest on accruing on interest. Combined with regular contributions to a savings account, this is a great way to accrue wealth. Alternatively, the spreadsheet will demonstrate how interest on a loan will add up over the years.One advantage to using reference cells in Excel, rather than entering the numbers directly into the formula, is that it allows you to easily try different values. For example, you can see the difference between interest compounded daily, monthly, or yearly. (MORE)

Chemistry Supervisor

In Science

it is an aromatic compound bcoz it is an exception to huckels rule.where internal pi bonds are neglected.

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In Uncategorized

In aromatic aldehyde C6H5- group decrease electrophlicity by resonance. Due to this reactivity will be decrease

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Open chain hydrocarbons and derivaties which consist of C toC single bond in the molecule.

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In Chemistry

Aromatics contain a six-member ring, in which the majority of the atoms are (usually) carbon, where the bonds between adjacent atoms alternate as single-covalent and double-co…valent. Cycloalkanes contain only single-covalent bonds, and can refer to any size ring. (MORE)

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In Chemistry

Aliphatic compounds are typically comprised of carbon and hydrogen atoms joined together straight chains, branched chains, or non-aromatic rings. They can also contain oth…er elements such as oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, or nitrogen and are often flammable. Methane is the simplest aliphatic compound. (MORE)