What is the fourth caliph of Islam?
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Answer 1 The civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth. A Caliph is the title which is given to the ruler or leader of the Islamic Ummah. Answer 2 Caliph is called on the rulers after prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) death and no long…er used. No Caliph is considered per Islam religion as the representative of Allah (or God in English who is worshiped also in Judaism and Christianity). This is viewed in Islam as considering a partner for God which is strictly forbidden in Islam. (MORE)
as u know that there were four caliphs after hazrat Muhammad ( P B U H )wen there is no leader the unity is broken so after longfights the first caliph hazrat abu bakar sidduiqe razitallah anah was made r first caliph or in other words : The death of Muhammad in 632 created confusion in the nasce…nt Muslim community, for Muhammad had left no details as to who should succeed him. After a heated discussion by the senior members of the community, Abu Bakr was selected as the first caliph. (MORE)
As I believe, Qualities of four Caliphs. Abu Bakr Siddiue (R.A) - Friendship, Approach, Courage Umar (R.A) - Self-Discipline Usman Ghani (R.A) - Will Power and Determination Ali (R.A) - Kindness Answer 2 According to Shia Islam the first 3 of them have not been legimate Caliphs. becau…se in Shia Islam Caliph is representative of God on earth and only God has the right to select his representative according to Quran. and God did not elect those first 3. (MORE)
The first Khalifah after Muhammed (peace be upon him) died was his closet friend and first man to believe in his message: Abu Bakr Al-Seddeeq (his real name is Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafah) and he kept his residence in Madinah and was Khalifah for about 2 years and died 634 ad at the age of 63. The s…econd one is Umar ibn Al-Khattab, also in Madinah and lasted as Khalifah nearly 11 years, he was murdered by Abu Loloah Al-Majousi in 644 ad. The third is Othman ibn Affan, alson in Madinah and lasted as Khalifah for 12 years, he was murdered in 656 at the age of 82. The fourth is Ali ibn Abi Talib the cousin of Muhammed moved Khilafah residence to Iraq "Kufa" murdered 661 ad at the age of 63. (MORE)
The first Four Caliphs are Called the Rightful (Rashidoon) Caliphs.They were in order of seniority: Hazrat Abubakr, Hazrat Umar,Hazrat Usman and Hazrat Ali (May Allah be pleased with them).
The five pillars of Islam in order: 1. Shahada: to testify LÃ¢ ilÃ¢ha illallÃ¢h WA Anna Muhammad-ur-Rasul-Allah (none has the right to be worshiped but AllÃ¢h and that Muhammad is The Messenger of AllÃ¢h). 2. Salat: To perform ( IqÃ¢mat ) As-SalÃ¢t (5 daily prayers)* 3. To pay … ZakÃ¢t: almsgiving ** 4. To perform Hajj (i.e. pilgrimage to Makkah) 5. To observe Saum (fast) during the month of Ramadan *This deed must be done totally for AllÃ¢h's sake only without any show off or gaining praise or fame etc. ** This deed must be performed in accordance with the Sunnah (legal ways, orders) of AllÃ¢h's Messenger Muhammad bin 'Abdullah, the last of all the Prophets and the Messengers ( sallaallahu WA 'aleyhi wassallam ) (MORE)
The Umayyads moved the capital of the Islamic Empire to Damascus, Syria. 'Ali, the previous Caliph had ruled from Kufa, Iraq and the Caliphs before him had all ruled from Medina, Saudi Arabia.
When Hazrat Umar went to the mosque to lead a prayer, a Magian named Abu Lulu Feroze, who had a grudge against Hazrat Umar on a personal matter, attacked him with a dagger and stabbed him several times. Hazrat Umar reeled and fell to the ground. When he learned that the assassin was a Magian, he s…aid, "Thank God he is not a Muslim." The injuries were so serious that the great Khalifa died the next morning.. Full biography of the great Caliph: http://baharemadinah.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=137:hazrat-umar-farooq&catid=47:the-blessed-companions&Itemid=350 (MORE)
Abbasid Caliphate The first continent outside of Arabia to have an Islamic history was Africa beginning with the Hijirah to modern day Ethiopia trough modern day Eritrea (All part of Abyssinia). Islam in Eritrea & Ethiopia can be dated back to the founding of the religion of Muhammad, was from Abys…sinia (Habasha).The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the Al-Andalus region. The Abbasid caliphate was founded by the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566-653), in Kufa in 750 CE and shifted its capital in 762 to Baghdad. Within 150 years of gaining control of Persia, the caliphs were forced to cede power to local dynastic Emirs who only nominally acknowledged their authority. The gains of the Ummayad Empire were consolidated upon when the Abbasid dynasty rose to power in 750, with the conquest of the Mediterranean islands including the Balearics and Sicily. The new ruling party had been instated on the wave of dissatisfaction propagated against the Ummayads, cultured mainly by the Abbasid revolutionary, Abu Muslim. Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished. Most notable was the development of Arabic prose and poetry, termed by The Cambridge History of Islam as its "golden age. This was also the case for commerce and industry (considered a Muslim Agricultural Revolution), and the arts and sciences (considered a Muslim Scientific Revolution), which prospered, especially under the rule of Abbasid caliphs al-Mansur (ruled 754 775), Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786 809), al-Ma'mun (ruled 809 813), and their immediate successors. Expansion ceased and the central disciplines of Islamic philosophy, theology, law and mysticism became more widespread and the gradual conversions of the populations within the empire occurred. Significant conversions also occurred beyond the extents of the empire such as that of the Turkic tribes in Central Asia and peoples living in regions south of the Sahara in Africa through contact with Muslim traders active in the area and sufi missionaries. In Africa it spread along three routes, across the Sahara via trading towns such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through the Sudan up to Uganda and across the Red Sea and down East Africa through settlements such as Mombasa and Zanzibar. These initial conversions were of a flexible nature and only later were the societies forcibly purged of their traditional influences. The reasons why, by the end of the 10th century, a large part of the population had converted to Islam are diverse. One of the reasons may be that Islam had become more clearly defined, and the line between Muslims and non-Muslims more sharply drawn. Muslims now lived within an elaborated system of ritual, doctrine and law clearly different from those of non-Muslims. The status of Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians was more precisely defined, and in some ways it was inferior. They were regarded as the 'People of the Book', those who possessed a revealed scripture, or 'People of the Covenant', with whom compacts of protection had been made. In general they were not forced to convert, but they suffered from restrictions. They paid a special tax; they were not supposed to wear certain colors; they could not marry Muslim women. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. Within 150 years of gaining power across Iran, they were forced to cede power to local dynastic emirs who only nominally acknowledged their power, and had to cede Al Andalus to an escaped Umayyad royal and the Maghreb and Ifriqiya to independent entities such as the Aghlabids and the Fatimids. Their rule was ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol conqueror, sacked Baghdad. While they continued to claim authority in religious matters from their base in Egypt, the dynasty's secular authority had ended. Descendants of the Abbasids include the al-Abbasi tribe who live northeast of Tikrit in modern-day Iraq. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spread_of_Islam https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spread_of_Islam (MORE)
The Islamic Caliphate which had the greatest impact on history is the Abbassid Caliphate which reigned from the 750 C.E. up to 1258 C.E. when they were conquered by HÃ¼legÃ¼ Khan (brother of Kublai Khan and grandson of Genghis Khan).
Historically, some of the Muslims after Prophet Muhammad death were supporting that who follows the prophet should be of the prophet family. Accordingly, they were supporting that the Caliph after Prophet death should be Ali Ibn Abou Taleb (The prophet cousin and the husband of his daughter Fatima G…od be pleased with her and him). Those Muslims are called afterwards the Shiites. However, Ali (God pleased with him supported the elected first Caliph after the prophet (Abou Bakr), the elected second Caliph (Omar) and the elected third Caliph (Othman). He (Ali Ibn Abou Taleb) was the fourth elected Caliph. The rejection of those Muslims was only during the election process but never translated, after the election, into violence or protest or any kind of dissatisfaction. (MORE)
It is believed to be said as because of Marwan Ibn Hakam's wrong attitude and pressure caused the Kharijates to rebel against him. In also some sources it is said that the main cause was Marwan Ibn Hakam. (Allah knows the best)
Abu Bakr the first Khalifa of the Muslims Abu bakr was the son of abu qahafa, and made his living as amerchant in Makkah. He accepted Islam after Khadija, Ali ibn AbiTalib, and Zayd bin Haritha. It is said that Abu Bakr gave more material support to Muhammadthan anyone else. In Makkah, he freed many… slaves but there is noevidence that he gave any help to Muhammad. Muhammad, of course,did not want any help from Abu Bakr or from anyone else, but at onetime in Makkah, his clan, the Banu Hashim, was in a state of siegefor three years, and was in great distress. There is no evidence that Abu Bakr made any attempt to relieve thedistress of the beleaguered clan but there is evidence that severalunbelievers brought essential supplies to it, and they did so atgrave peril to their own lives. When Muhammad was ready to migrate from Makkah to Yathrib, Abu Bakroffered him a camel. But Muhammad refused to ride the camel withoutpaying its price. First he paid the price of the camel to Abu Bakr,and then he rode it. Abu Bakr accompanied Muhammad in the journey, and was with him inthe cave. Abu Bakr's daughter, Ayesha, was married to Muhammad, and she wasone of his many wives in Medina. Dr. Montgomery Watt writes in his article on Abu Bakr in theEncyclopedia Britannia, Vol. I, page 54 (1973), as follows: "Before the Hegira (Mohammed's migration from Mecca to Medina, A.D.622), he (Abu Bakr) was clearly marked out as second to Mohammed bythe latter's betrothal to his young daughter 'A'isha and by AbuBakr's being Mohammed's companion on the journey to Medina." According to this article, these then were the two essentialqualifications of Abu Bakr to become the "second" to Muhammad, viz.(1) his daughter was married to Muhammad, and (2) he traveled withMuhammad from Makkah to Medina! Are the heads of states and leaders of nations chosen on the basisof qualifications like these? If they are, then Abu Bakr had nofewer than sixteen competitors for the throne of Arabia. There wereat least sixteen other men whose daughters were married to Muhammadat various times; one of them was Abu Sufyan himself, and two ofthem were Jews. The second argument in this article is no less "forceful" than thefirst. According to this argument, Abu Bakr became the head of thestate of Medina because once upon a time he traveled with Muhammadfrom one city to another - a truly remarkable exercise in"scientific logic." In Makkah, the Prophet had made Abu Bakr the "brother" of Umar binal-Khattab; in Medina, he made him the "brother" of Kharja binZayd. At the siege of Khyber, Abu Bakr was given the banner, and he ledtroops to capture the fortress but without success. In the campaign of Dhat es-Salasil, Muhammad Mustafa sent Abu Bakrwith 200 other ranks under the command of Abu Obaida bin al-Jarrahto reinforce the troops of Amr bin Aas. The latter took command ofall the troops. Abu Bakr, therefore, served two masters in the samecampaign - first Abu Obaida and then Amr bin Aas. There were many battles and campaigns of Islam but there is noevidence that Abu Bakr ever distinguished himself in any of them. In the Syrian campaign, the Apostle of God placed Abu Bakr underthe command of Usama bin Zayd bin Haritha. The Apostle never appointed Abu Bakr to any position of authorityand responsibility, civil or military. Once he sent him to Makkahas the leader of a group of pilgrims to conduct the rites of Hajj(pilgrimage). But after Abu Bakr's departure, the Apostle sent Aliibn Abi Talib to promulgate, in Makkah, the ninth chapter ofAl-Qur'an al-Majid (Surah Bara'ah or Immunity), the newly revealedmessage from Heaven. Abu Bakr was not allowed to promulgate it. Alipromulgated it. The only other distinction of Abu Bakr was that just before thedeath of the Apostle, he led the public prayers. Umar I , in full Ê¿umar IbnAl-khaá¹tÄb (born c. ad 586, Mecca, Arabia [now in SaudiArabia]-died Nov. 3, 644, Medina, Arabia), the second Muslim caliph(from 634), under whom Arab armies conquered Mesopotamia and Syriaand began the conquest of Iran and Egypt. A member of the clan of Ê¿Adi of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh(Koreish), Ê¿Umar at first opposed Muá¸¥ammad but, about 615, became aMuslim. By 622, when he went to Medina with Muá¸¥ammad and the otherMeccan Muslims, he had become one of Muá¸¥ammad's chief advisers,closely associated with AbÅ« Bakr. His position in the state wasmarked by Muá¸¥ammad's marriage to his daughter Hafsa in 625. OnMuá¸¥ammad's death in 632 Ê¿Umar was largely responsible forreconciling the Medinan Muslims to the acceptance of a Meccan, AbÅ«Bakr, as head of state (caliph). AbÅ« Bakr (reigned 632-634) reliedgreatly on Ê¿Umar and nominated him to succeed him. As caliph, Ê¿Umarwas the first to call himself "commander of the faithful" ( amÄ«ral-muÊ¾ minÄ«n ). His reign saw the transformation of theIslÄmic state from an Arabian principality to a world power.Throughout this remarkable expansion Ê¿Umar closely controlledgeneral policy and laid down the principles for administering theconquered lands. The structure of the later IslÄmic empire,including legal practice, is largely due to him. Assassinated by aPersian slave for personal reasons, he died at Medina 10 yearsafter coming to the throne. A strong ruler, stern toward offenders,and himself ascetic to the point of harshness, he was universallyrespected for his justice and authority. Uthman's Life Uthman bin Affan was born seven years after the Holy Prophet (peacebe on him). He belonged to the Omayyad branch of the Quraish tribe.He learned to read and write at an early age, and as a young manbecame a successful merchant. Even before Islam Uthman had beennoted for his truthfulness and integrity. He and Abu Bakr wereclose friends, and it was Abu Bakr who brought him to Islam when hewas thirty-four years of age. Some years later he married theProphet's second daughter, Ruqayya. In spite of his wealth andposition, his relatives subjected him to torture because he hadembraced Islam, and he was forced to emigrate to Abyssinia. Sometime later he returned to Mecca but soon migrated to Medina withthe other Muslims. In Medina his business again began to flourishand he regained his former prosperity. Uthman's generosity had nolimits. On various occasions he spent a great portion of his wealthfor the welfare of the Muslims, for charity and for equipping theMuslim armies. That is why he came to be known as 'Ghani' meaning'Generous.' Uthman's wife, Ruqayya was seriously ill just before the Battle ofBadr and he was excused by the Prophet (peace be on him) fromparticipating in the battle. The illness Ruqayya proved fatal,leaving Uthman deeply grieved. The Prophet was moved and offeredUthman the hand of another of his daughters, Kulthum. Because hehad the high privilege of having two daughters of the Prophet aswives Uthman was known as 'The Possessor of the TwoLights' . Uthman participated in the Battles of Uhud and the Trench. Afterthe encounter of the Trench, the Prophet (peace be on him)determined to perform Hajj and sent Uthman as his emissary to theQuraish in Mecca, who detained him. The episode ended in a treatywith the Meccans known as the Treaty of Hudaibiya. The portrait we have of Uthman is of an unassuming, honest, mild,generous and very kindly man, noted especially for his modesty andhis piety. He often spent part of the night in prayer, fasted everysecond or third day, performed hajj every year, and looked afterthe needy of the whole community. In spite of his wealth, he livedvery simply and slept on bare sand in the courtyard of theProphet's mosque. Uthman knew the Qur'an from memory and had anintimate knowledge of the context and circumstances relating toeach verse. Uthman's Caliphate During Uthman's rule the characteristics of Abu Bakr's and Umar'scaliphates - impartial justice for all, mild and humane policies,striving in the path of God, and the expansion of Islam -continued. Uthman's realm extended in the west to Morocco, in theeast to Afghanistan, and in the north to Armenia and Azerbaijan.During his caliphate a navy was organized, administrative divisionsof the state were revised, and many public projects were expandedand completed. Uthman sent prominent Companions of the Prophet(peace be on him) as his personal deputies to various provinces toscrutinize the conduct of officials and the condition of thepeople. Uthman's most notable contribution to the religion of God was thecompilation of a complete and authoritative text of the Qur'an. Alarge number of copies of this text were made and distributed allover the Muslim world. Uthman ruled for twelve years. The first six years were marked byinternal peace and tranquility, but during the second half of hiscaliphate a rebellion arose. The Jews and the Magians, takingadvantage of dissatisfaction among the people, began conspiringagainst Uthman, and by publicly airing their complaints andgrievances, gained so much sympathy that it became difficult todistinguish friend from foe. It may seem surprising that a ruler of such vast territories, whosearmies were matchless, was unable to deal with these rebels. IfUthman had wished, the rebellion could have been crushed at thevery moment it began. But he was reluctant to be the first to shedthe blood of Muslims, however rebellious they might be. Hepreferred to reason with them, to persuade them with kindness andgenerosity. He well remembered hearing the Prophet (peace be onhim) say, "Once the sword is unsheathed among my followers, it willnot be sheathed until the Last Day." The rebels demanded that he abdicate and some of the Companionsadvised him to do so. He would gladly have followed this course ofaction, but again he was bound by a solemn pledge he had given tothe Prophet. "Perhaps God will clothe you with a shirt,Uthman" the Prophet had told him once, "and if thepeople want you to take it off, do not take it off forthem." Uthman said to a well-wisher on a day when hishouse was surrounded by the rebels, "God's Messenger made acovenant with me and I shall show endurance in adhering toit." After a long siege, the rebels broke into Uthman's house andmurdered him. When the first assassin's sword struck Uthman, he wasreciting the verse. Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Fourth Caliph of the Muslims Ali belonged to the clan of banu hashim, the most distinguishedclan in all Arabia; and in Banu Hashim, he belonged to the mostdistinguished family - the family of Abdul Muttalib. Abdul Muttalibhad ten sons. Two of them were Abdullah, the father of MuhammadMustafa, and Abu Talib, the father of Ali. Abdullah and Abu Talibwere the children of the same mother whereas their other brotherswere born of the other wives of their father. Ali's mother, Fatima, also belonged to the clan of Hashim. She wasthe daughter of Asad the son of Hashim. Asad and Abdul Muttalibwere brothers. She was thus the first cousin of Abdullah and AbuTalib. Ali's mother, Fatima bint Asad, was the second woman in all Arabiato accept Islam, the first being Khadija. Fatima bint Asad was the foster-mother of Muhammad Mustafa, theMessenger of God. She brought him up as her own son, and in fact,loved him more than her own children, and he called her his mother. Ali's father, Abu Talib, was the Defender of Islam, and he was theProtector and Guardian of Muhammad. He supported Islam and Muhammadconsistently, and he was undaunted in the face of opposition andthreats from the pagans. Both in Makkah and Medina, Muhammad Mustafa declared that Ali washis brother in this world and in the Hereafter. Ali was the victor of the battle of Badr. He alone killed half thenumber of all the Makkans who were killed in that battle. Muhammad Mustafa, the Apostle of God, gave his only daughter,Fatima Zahra, in marriage to Ali. God blessed this marriage withchildren. Those children were God's most devout servants. Theirgreatest pleasure in life was to wait upon their Lord. In the battle of Uhud, most of the Muslims fled from thebattlefield. One who did not flee, was Ali. He saved the life ofhis master, Muhammad, that day. At the siege of Medina, Ali killed Amr bin Abd Wudd, and therebysaved Medina from being overrun, and its people from beingmassacred. Ali captured Khyber. With Khyber's conquest, Islam became a statewith territory. Until the conquest of Khyber, Islam was only acity-state, confined to the walls of Medina. Ali was the secretary who indicted the Treaty of Hudaybiyya. When Makkah capitulated to the Prophet, Ali rode his shoulders, andsmashed the idols in the Kaaba. He and his master, Muhammad,purified the House of God for all time by removing all vestiges ofidolatry and polytheism from it. In this manner, Ali collaboratedwith Muhammad, the Messenger of God, from beginning to end, inconstructing the framework of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. In the battle of Hunayn, the Muslims fled once again. Ali puthimself between the Apostle and the pagan warriors who wanted tokill him. He fought against them until the Muslims rallied. In October 630 (9 A.H.) the Apostle led an expedition to Tabuk, andhe appointed Ali his viceroy in Medina. Among all the companions of the Prophet, Ali was the mostknowledgeable. He had thorough knowledge of the Qur'an, and itsinterpretation. He was the best of all judges, and he was the mosteloquent orator of the Arabs. Just before his death, the Prophet equipped and organized anexpedition to Syria, and he appointed Usama bin Zayd bin Haritha,its general. With the exception of Ali, he ordered all theMuhajireen to serve under Usama. Ali was to stay with him inMedina. In the defence of Islam, it was Ali's family which offered thegreatest sacrifices. Obaidullah ibn al-Harith who was killed in thebattle of Badr, and was the first martyr of Islam in thebattlefield, was his first cousin. Mas'ab ibn Umayr and Hamza werekilled in the battle of Uhud, and both of them were his uncles.Jafar Tayyar who was killed in the battle of Mootah was his elderbrother. When Muhammad Mustafa died, Ali performed his obsequies, and gavehim burial. He knew what the other companions were doing when hewas busy with these duties but he did not allow anything todistract him. He kept his duty ahead of his interests, and hisprinciples ahead of politics. Edward Gibbon "The birth, the alliance, the character of Ali, which exalted himabove the rest of his countrymen, might justify his claim to thevacant throne of Arabia. The son of Abu Talib was, in his ownright, the chief of the family of Hashem, and the hereditary princeor guardian of the city and temple of Mecca. The light of prophecywas extinct; but the husband of Fatima might expect the inheritanceand blessings of her father; the Arabs had sometimes been patientof a female reign; and the two grandsons of the Prophet had oftenbeen fondled in his lap, and shown in his pulpit, as the hope ofhis age, and the Chiefs of the Youth of Paradise. The first of the true believers might aspire to march before themin this world and in the next; and if some were of a graver andmore rigid cast, the zeal and virtue of Ali were never outstrippedby any recent proselyte. He united the qualifications of a poet, asoldier, and a saint: his wisdom still breathes in a collection ofmoral and religious sayings; and every antagonist, in the combatsof the tongue or of the sword, was subdued by his eloquence andvalor. From the first hour of his mission to the last rites of hisfuneral, the Apostle was never forsaken by a generous friend, whomhe delighted to name his brother, his vicegerent, and the faithfulAaron of a second Moses. The son of Abu Talib was afterwardsreproached for neglecting to secure his interests by a solemndeclaration of his right, which would have silenced allcompetition, and sealed his succession by the decrees of Heaven. But the unsuspecting hero confided in himself: the jealousy ofempire, and perhaps the fear of opposition, might suspend theresolutions of Mohammed; and the bed of sickness was besieged bythe artful Ayesha, the daughter of Abu Bakr and the enemy of Ali. The hereditary claims and lofty spirit of Ali were offensive to anaristocracy of elders, desirous of bestowing and resuming thescepter by a free and frequent election; the Koreish could never bereconciled to the proud pre-eminence of the line of Hashem." (The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire) The foregoing characterization is correct in general but somestatements in it need qualification. Gibbon has erred in stating that Ali did not secure his interestsby a solemn declaration of his right by the Prophet. The Prophethad made such a declaration, not once but many times, as notedbefore. The historian has also spoken of the Prophet's "fear ofopposition." The Prophet had no fear of anyone. He had overcomemuch more formidable enemies than those whose opposition could"frighten" him in his hour of triumph. Gibbon further speaks of "a free and frequent election." Thearistocracy of elders was desirous of bestowing and resuming thescepter but only to itself, and not by a free and frequentelection. Abu Bakr's accession to the throne was an"improvisation," and Umar was the "king-maker" in his case. WhenAbu Bakr was dying, he appointed Umar as his successor by a fiat.In doing so, he dispensed with the farce of election. Umar, beforehis death, formed a panel of six electors, and restricted thechoice of khalifa to it. No one outside this panel could be chosenas khalifa. The only election which was really free was that of Ali ibn AbiTalib. He was elected in the first and the last free election everin the entire history of Islam. Lastly, Gibbon says that Koreish could never be reconciled to theproud pre-eminence of the line of Hashem. He is right. But the sameKoreish who could not be reconciled to the proud pre-eminence ofthe line of Hashem, were very eager to be reconciled to the proudpre-eminence of the line of the erstwhile idol-worshippers and theusurers of Makkah. In their eagerness to be reconciled to thelatter, the Koreish who had resumed the scepter earlier, nowbestowed it upon them. (MORE)
omar ibn al khattab the second caliph after abu baker was the mostis influential caliph in the sense of acheivments and contrubute tothe growth of islamic empire : Please see the Related Link below for more information.
Caliph is a title of Muslim ruler (as king, president, sultan, prince, ...) for the Islamic State in early centuries of Islam.Caliph is called in Arabic "Khalifa" that means in English the Successor. So, first Islam Caliph was Abou Bakr, the successor of prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in ruling the Islam…ic State. (MORE)
The fourth pillar of faith is Sawm or Fasting from Dawn until Dusk during the month of Ramadan.
he was dedicated and Muhammad liked that about him when Muhammad was alive. Answer B (shia view) he claimed Abubakr left a will letter and appointed him as Caliph. but there are some references saying Uthman himself wrote that letter and when Abubakr died Uthman used his stamp to attribute tha…t letter to Abubakr. Anyway he was not selected by God or prophet or people or any meeting or shura. and he was selected by Abubakr. (MORE)
The 4th Caliph is Aly Ibn Abou Taleb (God be pleased with him) who is prophet Muhammad cousin and husband of the prophet daughter Fatima bent Muhammad (God be pleased with her).
Those who serve Allah's religion by enjoining the doing of what is good and forbidding the doing of what is evil are called the caliphs of Allah.The Messenger of Allah has caliphs, too. As his caliphs are not prophets, so Allah's caliphs are not deities. Some pertinent ahÃ¢dÃ®th declare: …(A just sultan is Allah's caliph on earth.) [BayhaqÃ®] (MahdÃ®, who will be of my lineage, is Allah's caliph.) [DaylamÃ®, HÃ¢kim] (He who enjoins the doing of what is good and forbids the doing of what is evil is the caliph of Allah and His Messenger.) [DaylamÃ®] Our master the Prophet describes a caliph as follows: (May Allahu ta'Ã¢lÃ¢ show mercy to my caliphs! He who revives my sunnah and spreads it is my caliph.) [I. 'AsÃ¢kir] Allahu ta'Ã¢lÃ¢ certainly has caliphs. This fact has been revealed by Ã¢yÃ¢t and ahÃ¢dÃ®th . The purport of two Ã¢yÃ¢t that illustrate the point is as follows: (O DÃ¢wud (David) ! We have made you a caliph on earth. Then judge with justice.) [SÃ»rat-u SÃ¢d, 26] (It is He who has made you caliphs on earth. Whoever disbelieves, it is to his own detriment.) [SÃ»rat-u FÃ¢tir, 39] DÃ¢wud 'alaihis-salÃ¢m was told to judge with justice. This means to say that prophets and sultans are caliphs. If a sultan is just, he serves Allah's religion. It is declared in a hadÃ®th-i sharÃ®f : (The sultan is a zillullah on earth. He who reveres him will be revered. He who betrays him will be betrayed.) [TabarÃ¢nÃ®] Zillullah means a caliph who has the authority to implement Allahu ta'Ã¢lÃ¢'s rules and orders. This title is also applied to Hadrat MahdÃ®, who will come at the time period close to Doomsday, because he will spread Allah's religion. (MORE)
They are usually appointed by a council known as shura, an Arabic word standing for consultation.
The Caliphs played three major roles in the growth of Islam: 1) Political Expansion: The Caliphs physically expanded the Islamic Empire, ordering conquests of neighboring regions and political expansion. These conquests did not result in massive civilian casualties and were usually quickly resol…ved (in the early years). The Caliphs served as the political leaders in charge of this expansion. 2) Religious Leadership: The Rightly-Guided Caliphs provided singular Religious Leadership in much the same way as the Pope in Rome provides singular Religious Leadership to the Catholics. The Caliph served as the final arbiter and interpreter of the Divine Will. 3) Support for the Religion: Even after the rise of the Umayyad and Abbassid Caliphates, the Caliphs made agreements with religious and spiritual leaders to make Islam the dominant religion in the region. They increased taxes on non-Muslims, authored much religious propaganda, and made conditions favorable to Islamic interests. (MORE)
A Caliph is a religious position and represents the direction and purpose of Muslims. Shiites have not had a caliph since 'Ali's passing and the slaughter of his two sons Hussein and Hassan. The Sunnis had a Caliph until 1923 when the Republic of Turkey abolished the position. In many respects, the …Caliph is similar to a Pope in function. Sultan comes from the Arabic "Salat" which means control or power. A sultan is a strictly earthly ruler, like a king. It is important to note that many Caliphs ran theocratic states combining earthly and heavenly domains, while Sultans almost always differed religious matters to a Caliph or to Religious Scholars (Ulemaa) or both. (MORE)
Most of them either engaged in or supported the military expansion of their empires. Additionally, they promoted trade with their neighbors leading to the spread of the religion of Islam beyond the political borders of Islam.
North and South America, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, Europe, and most parts of Asia, especially the far east.
because the followed the right Quran and prophet Muhammad (PBUH) teachings and they understood/interpreted it correctly and wisely.
Caliph is an Arabic word that means successor in English. So, it was called on the successor, to the former ruler, in ruling the country or the state.
the caliphs were Muhammad's successors, when Muhammad died there was turmoil between who had the right to succeed him...this started the sunni/ shia split
Because it was the age of enormous importance to the development of world knowledge and technology. It came in a time when Islam and the People of the Book living under the nation of Islam were politically united and lived in harmony. As usually said, our unity has always lead to our strength and on… the other hand fitna is the source of our weakness. The golden age of Islam brought about wonders to the world whether scientific, educational, architectural, medical and or any other subject one can think of. (MORE)
The Caliphs were the functional equivalent of Kings and did many of the things we would expect a king to do, such as declare wars, set legislation, organize the state, direct religion, etc.
The name of the first Caliph of Islam was Hazrat Abu Bakar (RA) The name of the second Caliph of Islam was Hazrat Umer Farooq (RA) The name of the third Caliph of Islam was Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) The name of the fourth Caliph of Islam was Hazrat Ali (RA)
Khalifa or Caliph is an Arabic title of the Muslim ruler. It means the successor of a previous ruler. Also, the word Khalifa is mentioned in Quran, Muslims holy book, as a title for humans, allover their history and earth lifetime, who are authorized by God to work on earth for benefit of earth, nat…ure, and humanity within the frame of God worship. (MORE)
They obeyed Allah and Rasool , preached Islam ,conquered new areas , treated non Muslims so well that they embrased Islam ,thus they spread Islam to far off areas .
How was the Indigenous Culture of those who were incorporated into the Islamic Caliphates affected by the arrival of Islam?
There are a number of different ways that Pre-Islamic Culture(often called Thakafat 'Usr al-Jahiliya - Ø«ÙØ§ÙØ© Ø¹ØµØ± Ø§ÙØ¬Ø§ÙÙÙØ© - inArabic) changed significantly on account of the Rise of Islam. Hereis a non-exhaustive list of those changes: 1) Arab Brothe…rhood: The Arab Tribes inPre-Islamic Times were nearly constantly at war with each other foreconomic, religious, political, social, and ethnic regions. Theconcept we have today of Arabs being one people is a direct resultof the unifying culture that Islam brought with it. Mohammed wasfamous for saying "divided by birth, but united in faith" as arallying cry for Islam. (This is similar to how the Post-World WarII Culture in Europe produced the modern sense of European Unity.) 2) Arab Civilization: The Arabs up until the timeof Islam lived in tribal groupings outside of the major Empires andpolitical institutions. At their most culturally sophisticated,they controlled cities and watering holes, but they had nothinglike the infrastructure of contemporaneous civilizations. The unitythat Islam provided allowed the Arabs to build their firstCivilization: The Rightly-Guided Caliphate. 3) Loss of Southern Christendom: Tunisia wasrenowned in the 300s and 400s as one of the centers ofChristianity. When Tunisia became part of the Islamic Caliphate,the vast majority of the Tunisian people converted to Islam andabsorbed Arab cultural traditions. 4) Ethnic Hierarchy: In the Mawali States (IslamicStates with a preponderance of non-Arab Moslems), such as NorthAfrica, Persia, India, and Indonesia, traditions arose veneratingthose of Arab ancestry as having a better sense of Islamic tenetsand having the Right to Rule. This eventually subsided in favor ofindigenous Mawali, but the idea of Arab Superiority in IslamicMatters still continues to this day. 5) Arabization (Ta'arib): Many Mawali societieswere completely reorganized (politically) because of the arrival ofIslam. Especially in places like India, they brought a new sense ofhow laws should be codified and who should be in charge ofenforcing those laws. In North Africa, Arabic became the primarylanguage, usurping the indigenous Berber languages (which stillexist but are only tacitly recognized). Persian and Turkiclanguages were rewritten in Arabic Script (Turkic Scripts havesince been rewritten again in Roman and Cyrillic Scripts) andengorged with Arabic loanwords. 6) Andalucian Cultural Blending: Southern Spainprovided the opportunity for Moslems to come into direct contactwith the heart of Christendom and exchange cultures, beliefs,technology, and science. The Jews of Southern Spain had a markedincrease in their status (they were still not equal, but no longerpersecuted) and saw their culture flower. (MORE)
1- Shahada- declaration of the faith in one god and mohammad being the final prophet 2 - Salah - five daily prayers 3 - Zakat - Charity to poor 4 - Sawm/Siyam - Fasting in ramadhan 5 - Hajj - pilgrimidge at the holy mosque in mecca, saudi arabia
632 years after the death of Mohammed, his first four successor. ABU "Kerr (632 ~ 634 in) the mayer ibn sina HaDaBu (634 ~ 644 in) the Ottoman ibn sina all o (644 ~ 656 in) ali ibn sina than Â· tower by the o (656 ~ 661 in) * hassan ali ibn sina (661 ~ 662, the half a year's transition, ali was …assassinated by its temporary hassan after any of the caliphs, a 6 months after taking power above, so he and orthodox caliphs time get 30 years) ____________________________________________________ They were chosen by consultation that is called in Arabic "Shoura" and then voting among all people. (MORE)
If I understand your question correctly, you are asking "If 'Ali did not worry about becoming the fourth Caliph, then why did the Shii'at 'Ali exist?" This question is based on a false supposition that 'Ali "created" the Shiites. The Shiites existed as a political front throughout the reigns of A…bu Bakr and 'Omar and solidified their opposition during the Caliphate of 'Othman. When 'Ali became Caliph, the Shiites were naturally ecstatic and their movement became more popular when it was clear just how pious 'Ali was as leader. Shiite Islam became a separate religious movement when the Shiites began to form their own separate Caliphates such as the Idrissid and Fatimid Caliphates which saw 'Ali as the hallmark against which all rulers should justify themselves. (MORE)
In oreder: . Abou Bakra Assedik . Omar Ibn Alkhattab . Othman Ibn Affan . Ali Ibn Abi Taleb
1. Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique (RAU) 2. Hazrat Umar Farooq ibn-i-Khattab (RAU) 3. Hazrat Usman (RAU) 4. Hazrat Ali -ul- Murtaza (RAU)
They spread several things such as: the Religion of Islam, advances in Astronomy, Chemistry, Algebra, Medicine, and Geometry, various forms of visual arts, music, poetry, historical records, and philosophical treatises.
He was not killed by a single person. he was killed by a large group of Muslims together. after some times of starting his power he became a coppupted King. he took his relatives in governmental positions and he was eating too much and... so people hated him and finally killed him toghether. then pe…ople asked Imam Ali a.s. to get power so Talha and Zubair and Aisha who wished to get power accused Ali a.s. for killing of Uthman to use this as an excuse to fight Ali a.s. and get power. so they made the Camel war against Ali a.s. (MORE)
in Sunni view The Othman Ibn Affan and in Shia view Hussain Ibn Ali a.s. the grandson of prophet Muhammad SAWW
The first four Caliphs were called the Rightly-Guided Caliphs. After that, the dominant Caliph-line followed the Umayyads, the Abbassids, the Seljuks, and finally the Ottomans. The Fifth Caliph was the First Umayyad Caliph: Mu'awiya I. _____________________________________________________________ … The fifth orthodox Caliph is the Caliph Omar Ibn Abd El Aziz (MORE)
Those who accepted Islam in the beginning are listed as under: 1. Woman: Ummul Momineen Hazrat khudeeja (RAU). 2. Slave (set free) : Hazrat Zaid bin Harsa (RAU) 3. Boy: Hazrat Ali (RAU) 4. Free Man: Hazrat Abu Bakar (RAU) 5. On the preaching of Hazrat Abu Bakar: Hazrat Usman Ghani (RAU) …6. Hazrat Zubair bin Awam (RAU) 7. Abdul Rahman bin Auf (RAU) (Ref: Seerat un Nabi by Ibn-i-Hasham) Hazrat Ali (MORE)
Yes. It was during the Rightly-Guided Caliphate that many of thecore texts of Islam, especially the Qur'an, were codified.Additionally, upon Mohammed's death, Islam was only an Arabianfaith. With the conquests made during Omar's and Othman'sCaliphate, Islam became a multi-regional and multi-ethnic f…aith. (MORE)
Given that most states in the Islamic World are opposed to ISIL, they will have a strongly uphill battle in trying to do this. However, ISIL is more patient and dogged in its objective, so it remains a possibility, even though an extremely unlikely one.
"Islamic" means that it is related to the religion called "Islam". Such countries had, and still have, a population which, in their majority, was islamic.
Hazrat Abu Bakar rau, the best friend, and father -in-law of theholy Prophet-saw, was chosen the first Caliph by the majority ofthe holy Companions of the Prophet saw.
The fact that they all were Muslims. Today Shi'ite and SunniteMuslim countries and clans are fighting a bitter power struggle,using Syria as their battlefield and are murdering each otherwholesale, but until only a few decades ago, Shi'ite an SunniteMuslims generally lived peacefully together and re…gularlyintermarried. Exept for the ages-old matter of who in the 7thcentury was the rightful successor of the Prophet Muhammad,religious differences between the two are few and mostly minor. (MORE)
The death of the Prophet Muhammad. It was then decided that as areligious and community leader he should be succeeded, and such areligious successor was called a Caliph; the region and communityhe ruled over, a Caliphate. This immediately led to the firstschism, namely between Shi'ite and Sunni Musl…ims. The Sunni Muslimsconsidered Muhammad's father-in-law the rightful successor andfirst Caliph, the Shia Muslims considered his son-in-law therightful successor. (MORE)
Islam spread in Egypt, Iran, Rome, Yemen, Syria and many otherareas. Muslim traders took Islam far and wide.