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Answer 1 The civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth. A Caliph is the title which is given to the ruler or leader of… the Islamic Ummah. Answer 2 Caliph is called on the rulers after prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) death and no longer used. No Caliph is considered per Islam religion as the representative of Allah (or God in English who is worshiped also in Judaism and Christianity). This is viewed in Islam as considering a partner for God which is strictly forbidden in Islam.
Hazrat Abu Bakr Sideeq [May ALLAH be pleased with him Aameen]
When Hazrat Umar went to the mosque to lead a prayer, a Magian named Abu Lulu Feroze, who had a grudge against Hazrat Umar on a personal matter, attacked him with a dagg…er and stabbed him several times. Hazrat Umar reeled and fell to the ground. When he learned that the assassin was a Magian, he said, "Thank God he is not a Muslim." The injuries were so serious that the great Khalifa died the next morning. Full biography of the great Caliph: http://baharemadinah.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=137:hazrat-umar-farooq&catid=47:the-blessed-companions&Itemid=350
Abbasid Caliphate The first continent outside of Arabia to have an Islamic history was Africa beginning with the Hijirah to modern day Ethiopia trough modern day Eritrea (All …part of Abyssinia). Islam in Eritrea & Ethiopia can be dated back to the founding of the religion of Muhammad, was from Abyssinia (Habasha).The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the Al-Andalus region. The Abbasid caliphate was founded by the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566-653), in Kufa in 750 CE and shifted its capital in 762 to Baghdad. Within 150 years of gaining control of Persia, the caliphs were forced to cede power to local dynastic Emirs who only nominally acknowledged their authority. The gains of the Ummayad Empire were consolidated upon when the Abbasid dynasty rose to power in 750, with the conquest of the Mediterranean islands including the Balearics and Sicily. The new ruling party had been instated on the wave of dissatisfaction propagated against the Ummayads, cultured mainly by the Abbasid revolutionary, Abu Muslim. Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished. Most notable was the development of Arabic prose and poetry, termed by The Cambridge History of Islam as its "golden age. This was also the case for commerce and industry (considered a Muslim Agricultural Revolution), and the arts and sciences (considered a Muslim Scientific Revolution), which prospered, especially under the rule of Abbasid caliphs al-Mansur (ruled 754 775), Harun al-Rashid (ruled 786 809), al-Ma'mun (ruled 809 813), and their immediate successors. Expansion ceased and the central disciplines of Islamic philosophy, theology, law and mysticism became more widespread and the gradual conversions of the populations within the empire occurred. Significant conversions also occurred beyond the extents of the empire such as that of the Turkic tribes in Central Asia and peoples living in regions south of the Sahara in Africa through contact with Muslim traders active in the area and sufi missionaries. In Africa it spread along three routes, across the Sahara via trading towns such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through the Sudan up to Uganda and across the Red Sea and down East Africa through settlements such as Mombasa and Zanzibar. These initial conversions were of a flexible nature and only later were the societies forcibly purged of their traditional influences. The reasons why, by the end of the 10th century, a large part of the population had converted to Islam are diverse. One of the reasons may be that Islam had become more clearly defined, and the line between Muslims and non-Muslims more sharply drawn. Muslims now lived within an elaborated system of ritual, doctrine and law clearly different from those of non-Muslims. The status of Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians was more precisely defined, and in some ways it was inferior. They were regarded as the 'People of the Book', those who possessed a revealed scripture, or 'People of the Covenant', with whom compacts of protection had been made. In general they were not forced to convert, but they suffered from restrictions. They paid a special tax; they were not supposed to wear certain colors; they could not marry Muslim women. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. Within 150 years of gaining power across Iran, they were forced to cede power to local dynastic emirs who only nominally acknowledged their power, and had to cede Al Andalus to an escaped Umayyad royal and the Maghreb and Ifriqiya to independent entities such as the Aghlabids and the Fatimids. Their rule was ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol conqueror, sacked Baghdad. While they continued to claim authority in religious matters from their base in Egypt, the dynasty's secular authority had ended. Descendants of the Abbasids include the al-Abbasi tribe who live northeast of Tikrit in modern-day Iraq. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spread_of_Islam https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spread_of_Islam
Caliph is a title of Muslim ruler (as king, president, sultan, prince, ...) for the Islamic State in early centuries of Islam.Caliph is called in Arabic "Khalifa" that means i…n English the Successor. So, first Islam Caliph was Abou Bakr, the successor of prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in ruling the Islamic State.
he was dedicated and Muhammad liked that about him when Muhammad was alive. Answer B (shia view) he claimed Abubakr left a will letter and appointed him as Caliph. but there… are some references saying Uthman himself wrote that letter and when Abubakr died Uthman used his stamp to attribute that letter to Abubakr. Anyway he was not selected by God or prophet or people or any meeting or shura. and he was selected by Abubakr.
Those who serve Allah's religion by enjoining the doing of what is good and forbidding the doing of what is evil are called the caliphs of Allah.The Messenger of Allah has cal…iphs, too. As his caliphs are not prophets, so Allah's caliphs are not deities. Some pertinent ahâdîth declare: (A just sultan is Allah's caliph on earth.) [Bayhaqî] (Mahdî, who will be of my lineage, is Allah's caliph.) [Daylamî, Hâkim] (He who enjoins the doing of what is good and forbids the doing of what is evil is the caliph of Allah and His Messenger.) [Daylamî] Our master the Prophet describes a caliph as follows: (May Allahu ta'âlâ show mercy to my caliphs! He who revives my sunnah and spreads it is my caliph.) [I. 'Asâkir] Allahu ta'âlâ certainly has caliphs. This fact has been revealed by âyât and ahâdîth. The purport of two âyât that illustrate the point is as follows: (O Dâwud (David)! We have made you a caliph on earth. Then judge with justice.) [Sûrat-u Sâd, 26] (It is He who has made you caliphs on earth. Whoever disbelieves, it is to his own detriment.) [Sûrat-u Fâtir, 39] Dâwud 'alaihis-salâm was told to judge with justice. This means to say that prophets and sultans are caliphs. If a sultan is just, he serves Allah's religion. It is declared in a hadîth-i sharîf: (The sultan is a zillullah on earth. He who reveres him will be revered. He who betrays him will be betrayed.) [Tabarânî] Zillullah means a caliph who has the authority to implement Allahu ta'âlâ's rules and orders. This title is also applied to Hadrat Mahdî, who will come at the time period close to Doomsday, because he will spread Allah's religion.
They are usually appointed by a council known as shura, an Arabic word standing for consultation.
Abu Bakr, Omar ibn al-Khatab, Othman ibn Affan, and Ali ibn abi Talib
Ali Ibn Abou Talib was elected as the fourth Caliph.
the caliphs were Muhammad's successors, when Muhammad died there was turmoil between who had the right to succeed him...this started the sunni/ shia split
The name of the first Caliph of Islam was Hazrat Abu Bakar (RA) The name of the second Caliph of Islam was Hazrat Umer Farooq (RA) The name of the third Caliph of Islam was Ha…zrat Usman Ghani (RA) The name of the fourth Caliph of Islam was Hazrat Ali (RA)
Khalifa or Caliph is an Arabic title of the Muslim ruler. It means the successor of a previous ruler. Also, the word Khalifa is mentioned in Quran, Muslims holy book, as a tit…le for humans, allover their history and earth lifetime, who are authorized by God to work on earth for benefit of earth, nature, and humanity within the frame of God worship.
Abu Bakr (Radhiyallu-anh)
He was not killed by a single person. he was killed by a large group of Muslims together. after some times of starting his power he became a coppupted King. he took his relati…ves in governmental positions and he was eating too much and... so people hated him and finally killed him toghether. then people asked Imam Ali a.s. to get power so Talha and Zubair and Aisha who wished to get power accused Ali a.s. for killing of Uthman to use this as an excuse to fight Ali a.s. and get power. so they made the Camel war against Ali a.s.