What is the history of land reform in the Philippines?

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"The New Republic" After the establishment of the Philippine Independence in 1946, the problems of land tenure remained. These became worst in certain areas. Thus the Congress of the Philippines revised the tenancy law.

President Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) enacted the following laws:
  • Republic Act No. 34 -- Established the 70-30 sharing arrangements and regulating share-tenancy contracts.
  • Republic Act No. 55 -- Provided for a more effective safeguard against arbitrary ejectment of tenants.
President Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953) enacted the following law:
  • Executive Order No. 355 issued on October 23, 1950 -- Replaced the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) which takes over the responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation and the Rice and Corn Production Administration.

President Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) enacted the following laws:
  • Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954 -- Abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers. It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan and Mindanao.

  • Republic Act No. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) -- governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing share-tenancy and leasehold system. The law provided the security of tenure of tenants. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations.

  • Republic Act No. 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955) -- Created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations.

  • Republic Act No. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) -- Provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent.

President Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961)

Continued the program of President Ramon Magsaysay. No new legislation passed.

President Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965) enacted the following law:
  • Republic Act No. 3844 of August 8, 1963 (Agricultural Land Reform Code) -- Abolished share tenancy, institutionalized leasehold, set retention limit at 75 hectares, invested rights of preemption and redemption for tenant farmers, provided for an administrative machinery for implementation, institutionalized a judicial system of agrarian cases, incorporated extension, marketing and supervised credit system of services of farmer beneficiaries.

The RA was hailed as one that would emancipate Filipino farmers from the bondage of tenancy.

President Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1986). Proclamation No. 1081 on September 21, 1972 ushered the Period of the New Society. Five days after the proclamation of Martial Law, the entire country was proclaimed a land reform area and simultaneously the Agrarian Reform Program was decreed.

President Marcos enacted the following laws:
  • Republic Act No. 6389, (Code of Agrarian Reform) and RA No. 6390 of 1971 -- Created the Department of Agrarian Reform and the Agrarian Reform Special Account Fund. It strengthen the position of farmers and expanded the scope of agrarian reform.

  • Presidential Decree No. 2, September 26, 1972 -- Declared the country under land reform program. It enjoined all agencies and offices of the government to extend full cooperation and assistance to the DAR. It also activated the Agrarian Reform Coordinating Council

  • Presidential Decree No. 27, October 21, 1972 -- Restricted land reform scope to tenanted rice and corn lands and set the retention limit at 7 hectares.

President Corazon C. Aquino (1986-1992)

The Constitution ratified by the Filipino people during the administration of President Corazon C. Aquino provides under Section 21 under Article II that "The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform."

On June 10, 1988, former President Corazon C. Aquino signed into law Republic Act No. 6657 or otherwise known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL). The law became effective on June 15, 1988.

Subsequently, four Presidential issuances were released in July 1987 after 48 nationwide consultations before the actual law was enacted.

President Corazon C. Aquino enacted the following laws:
  • Executive Order No. 228, July 16, 1987 - Declared full ownership to qualified farmer-beneficiaries covered by PD 27. It also determined the value remaining unvalued rice and corn lands subject of PD 27 and provided for the manner of payment by the FBs and mode of compensation to landowners.

  • Executive Order No. 229, July 22, 1987 - Provided mechanism for the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP).

  • Proclamation No. 131, July 22, 1987 - Instituted the CARP as a major program of the government. It provided for a special fund known as the Agrarian Reform Fund (ARF), with an initial amount of Php50 billion to cover the estimated cost of the program from 1987-1992.

  • Executive Order No. 129-A, July 26, 1987 - streamlined and expanded the power and operations of the DAR.

  • Republic Act No. 6657, June 10, 1988 (Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law) - An act which became effective June 15, 1988 and instituted a comprehensive agrarian reform program to promote social justice and industrialization providing the mechanism for its implementation and for other purposes. This law is still the one being implemented at present.

  • Executive Order No. 405, June 14, 1990 - Vested in the Land Bank of the Philippines the responsibility to determine land valuation and compensation for all lands covered by CARP.

  • Executive Order No. 407, June 14, 1990 - Accelerated the acquisition and distribution of agricultural lands, pasture lands, fishponds, agro-forestry lands and other lands of the public domain suitable for agriculture.

President Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998) When President Fidel V. Ramos formally took over in 1992, his administration came face to face with publics who have lost confidence in the agrarian reform program. His administration committed to the vision "Fairer, faster and more meaningful implementation of the Agrarian Reform Program.

President Fidel V. Ramos enacted the following laws:
  • Republic Act No. 7881, 1995 - Amended certain provisions of RA 6657 and exempted fishponds and prawns from the coverage of CARP.

  • Republic Act No. 7905, 1995 - Strengthened the implementation of the CARP.

  • Executive Order No. 363, 1997 - Limits the type of lands that may be converted by setting conditions under which limits the type of lands that may be converted by setting conditions under which specific categories of agricultural land are either absolutely non-negotiable for conversion or highly restricted for conversion.

  • Republic Act No. 8435, 1997 (Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act AFMA) - Plugged the legal loopholes in land use conversion.

  • Republic Act 8532, 1998 (Agrarian Reform Fund Bill) - Provided an additional Php50 billion for CARP and extended its implementation for another 10 years.

President Joseph E. Estrada (1998-2000) "ERAP PARA SA MAHIRAP'. This was the battle cry that endeared President Joseph Estrada and made him very popular during the 1998 presidential election.

President Joseph E. Estrada initiated the enactment of the following law:
  • Executive Order N0. 151, September 1999 (Farmer's Trust Fund) - Allowed the voluntary consolidation of small farm operation into medium and large scale integrated enterprise that can access long-term capital.

During his administration, President Estrada launched the Magkabalikat Para sa Kaunlarang Agraryo or MAGKASAKA. The DAR forged into joint ventures with private investors into agrarian sector to make FBs competitive.

However, the Estrada Administration was short lived. The masses who put him into office demanded for his ouster.

President Gloria Macapacal-Arroyo (2000-present) The agrarian reform program under the Arroyo administration is anchored on the vision "To make the countryside economically viable for the Filipino family by building partnership and promoting social equity and new economic opportunities towards lasting peace and sustainable rural development."
  • Land Tenure Improvement - DAR will remain vigorous in implementing land acquisition and distribution component of CARP. The DAR will improve land tenure system through land distribution and leasehold.

  • Provision of Support Services - CARP not only involves the distribution of lands but also included package of support services which includes: credit assistance, extension services, irrigation facilities, roads and bridges, marketing facilities and training and technical support programs.

  • Infrastrucre Projects - DAR will transform the agrarian reform communities (ARCs), an area focused and integrated delivery of support services, into rural economic zones that will help in the creation of job opportunities in the countryside.

  • KALAHI ARZone - The KALAHI Agrarian Reform (KAR) Zones were also launched. These zones consists of one or more municipalities with concentration of ARC population to achieve greater agro-productivity.

  • Agrarian Justice - To help clear the backlog of agrarian cases, DAR will hire more paralegal officers to support undermanned adjudicatory boards and introduce quota system to compel adjudicators to work faster on agrarian reform cases. DAR will respect the rights of both farmers and landowners.
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Philippine music history?

hello how simple is the answer,........... . Filipinos are known to be great musicians worldwide. This is due to their dedication and intense love for music. Even from its pre-Hispanic life, Filipinos expressed themselves through their ethnic musical instruments. These early settlers in fact played variety of musical instruments including flutes, nose flutes, and guitars to play appropriate songs in celebration of courtship, marriage, harvest and offerings. Many of their songs have been interpreted recently to pay tribute to Filipino traditional music. From ethnic rhythm to contemporary pop of the present times, Filipino musicians are thriving according to their levels of creativity. Danceable tunes delight party goers, melodious folk songs hit the radios of patriotic listeners, and romantic ballads exclusively magnetize poignant hearts.. Far from what everyone knows about music in the Philippines, the country in fact has abundant musical talents that have established themselves in the international scene. Despite the thriving influences of high-tech produced music nowadays, Filipinos kept their music roots in the family and schools. Not necessarily those ethnic ritual compositions but those original compositions formatted through adaptation of Classical music of the west produced by Filipino talents who received their trainings from the clergy during the Spanish colonial period.. The earliest foreign-influenced Filipino entertainment is the Awit and Kurido or Corrido- a musical show of dances and songs replacing the ancient epics during the conversion of early Filipinos to Christianity. Local talents adapted and performed this musical form into several dialects such as Pampango, Ilokano, Ilongo, Tagalog and Bicol.. Another form commonly known for its sophistication is Sarswela (Zarzuela), a pleasing show of combined acting and singing introduced by the Spanish in the late 19th century along with the arrival of American productions. That time, Zarzuelas were performed as a means of political protest and criticism against the colonizing Americans. Today, Zarzuelas are common festival shows taking part in commemorating the country's rich traditions.. The most romantic of all is Kundiman , a combination of romantic words and mellow tunes interpreted through songs. Its musical structure derived basically from Kumintang or well-adored Tagalog songs composed to express romantic feelings and admiration for someone.. Below are examples of Philippine folksongs popularized according to the country's ethno-linguistic groups:. Tagalog :. Bahay kubo . Bahay kubo, kahit munti. Ang halaman doon ay sari-sari,. Singkamas at talong Sigarilyas at mani. Sitaw, bataw, patani. Kundol, patola, upo't kalabasa. At saka meron pang. Labanos, mustasa. Sibuyas, kamatis. Bawang at luya. Sa paligid nito puno ng linga.. Paruparong Bukid . Paruparong bukid na lilipad-lipad. Sa gitna ng daan papagapagaspas. Isang bara ang tapis. Isang dangkal ang manggas. Ang sayang de kola. Isang piyesa ang sayad. May payneta pa siya -- uy!. May suklay pa mandin -- uy!. Nagwas de-ohetes ang palalabasin. Haharap sa altar at mananalamin. At saka lalakad na pakendeng-kendeng.

What are the advantages of land reform?

Advantages of land reform is that it will give property rights tothe poor people who live on and farm land, and this will allow themto take better care of that land.

History of nutrition in the Philippines?

The Philippines has a history of nutritional problems due to risingcost and lack of resources. Government and private organizationsare working to improve the overall health of children and adultassisting in providing programs for nutrition.

What is the history of public relations in the Philippines?

Public relations in the Philippines started when the Americans returned to our country after World War II. A key personnel attached to the U.S. Army was the Press Information Officer whose primary task was to effectively disseminate information to the public.

What is the history of gymnastics on the Philippines?

To the Ancient Greeks, physical fitness was paramount, and all Greek cities had a gymnasia , a courtyard for jumping, running, and wrestling. As the Roman Empire ascended, Greek gymnastics gave way to military training. The Romans, for example, introduced the wooden horse. In 393 AD the Emperor Theodosius abolished the Olympic Games, which by then had become corrupt, and gymnastics, along with other sports declined. Later, Christianity , with its medieval belief in the base nature of the human body, had a deleterious effect on gymnastics. For centuries, gymnastics was all but forgotten. [1] . In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, however, two pioneer physical educators - Johann Friedrich GutsMuth (1759 - 1839) and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778 - 1852) - created exercises for boys and young men on apparatus they designed that ultimately led to what is considered modern gymnastics. In particular, Jahn crafted early models of the horizontal bar , the parallel bars (from a horizontal ladder with the rungs removed), and the vaulting horse . [1] . By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. However, from then on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric gymnastics that would seem strange to today's audiences: synchronized team floor calisthenics , rope climbing , high jumping , running , horizontal ladder , etc. During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events, and the first women's Olympic competition - primitive, for it involved only synchronized calisthenics - was held at the 1928 Games in Amsterdam.. By the 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 10) had been agreed upon. At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues to inspire. The new medium of television helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, and excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. Nadia Comaneci received the first perfect score, at the 1976 Summer Olympics held in Montreal , Canada . She was coached by the famous Romanian, Bela Karolyi . According to Sports Illustrated , Comaneci scored four of her perfect tens on the uneven bars, two on the balance beam and one in the floor exercise. [2] Unfortunately, even with Nadia's perfect scores, the Romanians lost the gold medal to the Soviets . Nadia will always be remembered as "a fourteen year old, ponytailed little girl" who showed the world that perfection could be achieved.. In 2006, a new points system was put into play. Instead of being marked 1 to 10, the gymnast's start value depends on the difficulty rating of the exercise routine. Also, the deductions became higher: before the new point system developed, the deduction for a fall was 0.5, and now it is 0.8. The motivation for a new point system was to decrease the chance of gymnasts getting a perfect score. The sport can include children as young as three years old and sometimes younger doing kindergym and children's gymnastics, recreational gymnasts of all ages, competitive gymnasts at varying levels of skill, as well as world class athletes

How did geography affect Philippine history?

for me, geography greatly affects history in a sense that geography is not only focusing on the physical features of a land but also in human activities which according to my research belongs to human geography.

History of region 13 in the Philippines?

Region 13 in the Philippines first came in to existence onSeptember 24, 1972. The provinces of the Philippines were organizedinto 11 regions by Presidential decree as part of the IntegratedReorganization Plan.

History of hotel industry in the Philippines?

Hotel industry is a place often times visited by travelers and with a large number of population who love to rest and relax by lodging, taking reception in parties, anniversaries celebration, birthday, weeding, business meetings and seminars for they are looking for a nice and convenient location where they can hold the event By this hotels are mushrooming in the City. Hotel is first being establish in 1850's the first hotel build in the Philippines name Hotel Del Oriente in Binondo Manila. the hotel was two story building with an 83 rooms fronting the plaza De Carlos III it was the first class hotel which is beside the famous land mark, la Insular Cigarettes and cigar factory but during Japanese time Hotel Del Oriente and Insular are both burned down and former site now was being occupied by the Metro bank. And the oldest surviving hotel in the country is the Manila hotel which built in 1917. Until they reach the year 2010 hotels was already ranging for a total number of 28 Hotels. According to National Statistics Office the population of Iloilo city as of August 1,2007 is about 418,710. find difficult on choosing a variety of hotels in which of them has an excellent level of service to satisfy their needs and with a cheaper price in any occasions, complete hotel amenities, hotel availability for reservation and location which can easily be seen. As of these years also the number of travelers is about 1,415. This country includes Asians, East Asians, South Asians, North Americans and South Americans. By this it gives reason for researchers to conduct a study entitled "An In-Depth Study of Hotel Industry in Iloilo City". This study will be able to determine the class B hotels which includes La fiesta Hotel is a 2 star hotel is connected with a blend of convenience of modern facilities and comfort of old values and traditions. Has a fully air condition spacious room for travelers as of regular room, deluxe room and superior rooms with a hot and cold shower,21 inch colored TV with cable, Refrigerator, room service, car rentals, and telephone and laundry service. harbor town Hotel is a four star Hotel which has card lock system, IDD telephone system, cable TV, deposit box, laundry service, coffee shop and bars, function rooms, foreign currency exchange, 24 hours service, with a standard, superior, junior suit, and additional person beds. Sport Front Hotel is a 3 star hotel. they have a café, bar, spa for therapeutic massage, quick back massage, regular massage, scrub, manicure, pedicure, foot spa, foots spa combo and hair cut with a function room available for meetings, seminars and review classes that could accommodate 15 to 50 persons and also caters like seminars.

What are the pros of land reform?

Land reform has a positive effect on the rate of employment withina country by providing more jobs than large farms. This alsocontributes to the increase in the income of both the people andthe country.

What is the difference between agrarian reform and land reform?

Land reform is the change of laws, regulations or customs regardingland ownership. That can include government-initiated propertyredistribution, transfer of ownership and the rights of the land. Agrarian reform entails everything that land reform does and more.Agrarian reform focuses on broader sets of issues like the overallredirection of the Agrarian system like relationship betweenproduction and distribution.

Historical background of land reform in the Philippines?

It is the most important aspect in the economy.where we may able to produce our agricultural product.agrarian reform law was made by our own republic president before,MR.RAMON M. MAGSAYSAY he implement this law to help our farmer to produce an abundant product in the philipine s.He is the president who focus in theagricultural aspect such as,fishing,farming and aquatic resource

Why is Germany called the land of the Reformation?

because Martin Luther, generally regarded as father of the reformation, was a german catholic priest and wanted to reform the catholic church! he started this process in germany resulting in the different protestant churches we know today!

Differentiate land reform from agrarian reform?

Land reform deals with the apportionment of lands usually in transferring lands from upper class owners to lower class while agrarian reform deals with the general agriculture practice like introducing crop rotation or mechanization

Difference between land reform and agrarian reform?

Land reform deals with apportionment of lands - usually transferring lands from upper class owners to the lower classes. Agrarian reform deals with general agricultural practice - like introducing crop rotation or mechanization.

What is the Reformation and why is it significant to American history?

The Reformation had nothing to do with American History. It was English history and it was the reforming of the English church. It began when Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife and he got into an argument with the Pope over the divorce. He left the Catholic church and started theChurch of England. When this happened he began to close Catholic churches and monasteries and take the property. The churches were torn apart and statues, stain glass windows, and other art were removed. Much of it was destroyed. Clergy was arrested and many Catholics had to go into hiding to have services. Services were held in basements and attics.. Thomas Cromwell was sent to make sure that all of the dissolution was getting done. He shut many monasteries because he deemed the monks "corrupt" and "full of vice." The vast wealth of the church went to Henry. On the death of Henry in 1547 the king was the head of the church, there was an English bible, and English priests were not allowed to marry.

Issues of land reform in the Philippines?

Land reforms in the Philippines has been reformed with the currentlaw the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program recently extended to2014. This law was signed on June 10, 1988 by Aquino, and statesthat all land exceeding 7 hectares are bought by the government andsold to landless farmers who pay installments for 15 years. Theissue with data submitted is the information is reported byindividuals therefor there is no real accuracy.

What are the importance of land reform?

Land form is important because it is able to achieve politicalstability in the country. It also helps to avoid the conflictbetween tenants and landlords. It would help to reduce disparity inwealth.

Importants of land reform program?

The importance of land reform programs is that it helps inconservation of land and the environment at large. These willinclude things like land reclamation, afforestation and much more.

Meaning of history to know Philippine history?

HISTORY -comes from the word " historia " -the discovery, collection, organization and presentation of information about recent and past events. ELEMENTS OF HISTORY: 1. Historians -people who investigate about history 2. Sources of History- based on materials and documents a.) primary source-testimonies b.)secondary source-copy of past events c.)written-documents, books and write-ups d.)unwritten-fossils, remains, artifacts, language.. etc..... IMPORTANCE OF HISTORY > for knowledge- to learn >skill[s]- investigate, experiment and research >attitude - appreciation and respect

History of region 5 in Philippines?

Facts about Region V Hazardous Materials Response Team How did the hazardous materials agreement come to exist in Region V? The Region V Hazardous Materials Response Team did not exist prior to 1994. The local counties in Region V relied on the local fire departments and industries in the area to provide response for the public's safety. Because of extensive training requirements and high costs associated with starting and maintaining a ready response group, the local departments or industries could not afford to meet this challenge alone. The Region V Hazardous Materials Response Commission and Local Emergency Planning Committee was formed. This unique organization through its membership formed a vision and used proactive actions to enter into an agreement with the Fort Dodge Fire Department to allow Hazardous Materials Response to all citizens in the region. The region has an excellent record of safe and successful responses dealing with hazardous materials, through the agreement this will only continue. The agreement has built strong working relationships and cooperation while providing a much-needed service in the interest of the public. Who pays for this service? Nine counties represent Region V. Each County contributes one dollar per capita each year for membership. This membership not only allows for emergency response capabilities, but also includes hazardous materials planning and training for first responders in each county. A chemical emergency response is typically funded from the local tax base and the responsible parties are asked to reimburse local taxpayers when they spill chemicals. Through cost recovery ordinances or agreements, chemical spillers share in the cost communities incur as they develop specially equipped and trained staff to safely and effectively handle these emergencies. Is there a cost to businesses and industry for this service? Yes. The cost of a hazardous materials emergency response program that is OSHA compliant is substantial. The cost of required medical monitoring, specialized training and equipment, along with liability exposure, result in a substantial demand on community resources. These costs are passed on to users of the service which is allowed by law since the average tax-paying citizen has no need for the services of a hazardous materials team. Additionally, fire department hazardous chemical emergency response represents a "value added" service to the community -one not traditionally funded. How do communities benefit from Region V Hazardous Materials Teams? . Immediate response to chemical emergencies to insure public protection. . Professional emergency management with public safety as its primary concern. . The availability of public emergency responders trained to meet OSHA safety requirements, avoiding the need for the private sector duplication for this costly effort. . Public protection with cost recovery from chemical spillers and users of the service.

Land reform in Philippines and economic development?

Land reform has been difficult in large part because land owners and tenant farmers have been in conflict. Owners will give up the land but only at a high price. Tenants, on the other hand, want the land for free along with agricultural support services. The tax payer is caught in between because reform requires public funds. Does reform have to be so difficult and expensive? One solution comes from the Bible. Consider the land in the same light as the baby claimed by two "mothers" who asked King Solomon to intervene. Solomon had to know who the real mother was. He ordered the baby cut in half, and the one who objected got back her baby. It turns out that Solomon's approach can be recycled, if we view the problem as one of ending a co-ownership between the land owner (O) and his tenant farmer (F), while also improving economic performance. The land reform puzzle is one of learning which of the two would make the land more productive. The experts are divided. One school of thought believes that O neglected the productivity of the land (he had too much land anyway). A second school claims that F would acquire the needed skills when he becomes an owner. Yet another view considers that O has the expertise, but that he should not simply evict F. Borrowing some wisdom from King Solomon, I suggest the following arrangement. First, give O and F equal undivided shares in the land. Second, let them bargain so that the land would end up in the hands of the more productive party. How should such bargaining be conducted? It may be set up so that either party could set a price on the land, while the other has two options at that price: he can buy the share that is not his, or he can sell out to the first party. The land is thereafter "set free," salable to others without further restrictions. The bargain has the desirable feature of making the correct price of the land discoverable. If O sets too high a price, he has to pay that to F. If F sets too low a price, O can buy him out. In his self-interest, whoever sets the price will choose one that correctly values the land. O and F should know this value, just as the two women knew, in their hearts, who was the real mother. What are the flaws of this bargain? One is that F might not be able to buy out O. But this can be surmounted since the government would lend him money for the purchase. The government gets a good deal, as the loan covers only half the land, instead of the whole. F could also borrow from any source since he can re-sell the "freed" land later on. This leads to the objection that the bargain unduly favors F, who gets a half-share for free. It looks like a taking without just compensation. But there is just compensation, particularly if the land had been with O and F for generations. An enlightened land owner should also see the bargain as intrinsically fair because he can now keep the entire land if he wishes. One lesson from other countries is that reform should be a one-time event. If nothing is done to resurrect the expired land reform law, this could benefit the economy, as the land market would no longer be "frozen." Why does our farm productivity lag behind that in other countries like Thailand, Vietnam, or Japan? The answer lies in the perverse incentives in our land market. Land owners traditionally viewed land as status and power symbols, and not just a factor of production. Farmers would not take the effort to increase productivity if they had to share the gains with someone else. A Solomonic bargain would promote social justice while also making the agricultural sector a driving force for economic growth.

Why did Chiang neglect land reforms?

The Nationalist period began with high hopes and much promise. More could have been accomplished had it not been for the problems of Comintern corruption and Japanese aggression. In his efforts to combat them both, Chiang neglected the land reform needed to improve the lives of the peasants.

Objective of land reform in India?

India is a socialist country and object of the socialism is wealth should not be concentrated only in few hands,it should be distributed among all the citizens equally. To achieve this noble object of the Constitution the Government of India introduced the abolition of Intermediary system by enacting Zamidari, Inamdari, and Jagirdari abolition laws, which was introduced during the British Period. The main objects of these laws are abolish the intermediary system and collect the land from these people and the same should distributed to the landless poor in achieving and establishing the egalitarian society in India.

History of marketing in the Philippines?

The history of marketing in the Philippines dates back to the oldendays when trade started. The marketing trends have changed over theyears but the concept remains the same; to persuade consumers tobuy goods or services.

Who is the father of Philippines history?


What is the history of drug abuse in the Philippines?

Drug abuse has become a mojor issue in th Phillipines over the past30 years. While in 1972 there were only 20,000 reported drug usersin the Philippines, by 2004, 6.7 million users were reported. Themost popular illegal drugs are marijuana and a product known as shabu , a mix of Methamphetamine hydrochloride and caffine.While the complete reasons for this spike in drug popularity areunknown, it likely was in part caused in part by the leniency indrug laws until the enaction of the Comprehensive Dangerous DrugsAct of 2002.

The history of criminology in the Philippines?

The Philippine College of Criminology was established in 1954. Theschool is in Manila, and there are three programs offered tostudents. Those programs are Doctor of Philosophy, Master ofScience, and Bachelor of Science.

History of Tae Kwon Do in the Philippines?

Taekwondo is a Korean unarmed martial arts that has been enexstences for more than 2,300 years ago along with the silla dysnasty.Taekyun was the first name given to an art which means foot movement.Through constant study and training, Korean came up with an exercise that is adoptable to all ages.It is the combination of hand and foot movements which is now known as taekwondo....:)

Drug addiction in philippines-history?

Drug addiction in the Philippines is increasing, especially withyoung people. Commonly abused drugs are LSD, marijuana, opiates,and barbiturates. The increase has been connected to youthemulating the United States.

What is the history of family planning in the Philippines?

Family planning is the planning of when to have children, [1] and the use of birth control [2] [3] and other techniques to implement such plans. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, [3] [4] prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections, [3] pre-conception counseling [3] and management, and infertility management. [2] Family planning is sometimes used in the wrong way also as a synonym for the use of birth control, though it often includes more. It is most usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known as spacing children ). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as abortion. [5]

What is the history of native delicacies in Philippines?

The Philippines has a reputation for their delicious delicacies andsnacks. Most of the popular traditional delicacies, about 80percent, originate from the Spanish. Various other cultures havecontributed as well due to the blend of cultures.

What are the influences of Reformed Churches in the Philippines?

It must be remembered that even Reformed churches in thePhilippines come in varieties. A Reformed church is basically achurch that adheres to the ideals of the Calvinistic Reformation incontinental Europe and the British Isles. Two families are to beconsidered as Reformed churches: The Presbyterians which originatedin England through John Knox who was student of John Calvin and theReformed (or Continental Reformed) which originated from Calvin'slabors in Geneva spreading to France, Belgium, the Netherlands,Germany, Bohemia, etc. Reformed Churches stand by the FiveDoctrines of Sovereign Particular Grace (T.U.L.I.P.: TotalDepravity, Unconditional Election, Limited Atonement, IrresistibleGrace, Perseverance of the Saints) and the 5 "Solas" of theReformation: the Bible alone, Faith alone. Grace alone, Christalone, God's Glory alone. There are certain Baptists who claim toadhere to these tenets but cannot be technically called "Reformed"or "Calvinistic" since they deny the Biblical doctrine of theCovenant in their rejection of infant baptism. A true historicallyReformed church condemns the error and heresy of Arminianism, thatis also "Free-willism" and "conditionalism." Sadly most of theso-called Reformed churches in the Philippines have abandoned thesedoctrines and tolerated the damnable errors of Arminiansim. It maybe said that the influence of these unfaithful churches is sadly toadd only to the wide corrupting spiritual influences of the modernArminian evangelical, Pentecostal-Charismatic, Methodist and othergroups in the Philippines. Other Reformed churches pride themselvesin holding to historic Reformed tenets but tolerate Arminians andextend sacred Christian fellowship to them. Sadly, they also add tothe Arminian crowd except that they have an elitistic attitudeconcerning themselves. True Reformed churches fight the old battles of faith against thefalse gospel of "free-willism" and "conditionalism" in salvation.They are misunderstood as "hypers", "extremes" and even "cults"because of their abiding "anathema" against that old Pelagianerror, Arminiansim. The influence they exert in the Philippinereligious world which is unnoticeable is that they "divide"Arminian churches in their faithful adherence to the Gospel of pureGrace. They don't join ecumenical prayers and don't pray for aso-called "world peace." They don't produce noticeable influence inthe Philippines for they are unpopular. One important influencethough emanates from these unpopular churches: they sow the seedsof the true and unadulterated Gospel.

What is the history of aeronautical engineer in the Philippines?

There was no specific date when this profession was started to invade the Filipino community. Based on the brief history of Society of Aerospace Engineers of the Philippines also known as SAEP, Filipino pioneers of Aeronautical Engineering were gained their knowledge overseas. They studied in foreign schools like University of Michigan and Sorbonne University in Paris. And it also stated in the history of the organization that no law is regulating for the practice of Aeronautical Engineering in the country. Only the school which made the first aeronautical class on 1946 at FEATI University and SAEP as the first organization of Aeronautical Engineers established on 1950 was considered as the origin of Aeronautical Engineering in the Philippines. from prc.gov.ph The need for a law that would regulate the practice of aeronautical engineering as a profession was strongly felt in the late 1960's when aeronautical engineering and the jobs available for them had increased tremendously. Through the efforts of the Society of Aerospace Engineers of the Philippines (SAEP), Presidential Decree No. 1570, otherwise known as the "Philippine Aeronautical Decree" was enacted on June 11, 1978. Subsequently, the first Board of Aeronautical Engineering was constituted on April 6, 1982 with Brig. Gen. Recaredo R. Albano as Chairman and Engrs. Timoteo A. Cordova, Jr. and Teofilo P. Alberto as Members. It conducted its first licensure examination in July 1983. Successful examinees took their oath in November of the same year. - shaine david, Philsca, BSATC

What is the connection of Philippine Literature to Philippine history?

The Philippine literature is part of the Philippine history suchthat the literature is part and parcel of what the history of thePhilippines is. It is in literature that the old and new era meetand even emerge into unforgettable writings, poems, songs andsonnets that speaks of what history the Filipinos have gonethrough.

Who wrote the history of Philippine literature?

The Philippine literature was not written by a single person. It is composed of works of famous Filippino writers coming from different eras or periods of its development. Those authors wrote in varied styles and genres, ranging in very wide topics from love to freedom.

Why there's a need of land Reform?

Need for land reform is of paramount importance, as itprovides land title to marginalised landless farmers. These farmerswork in the lands of big landlords, jotdors and get a paltry wageagainst day's hard toil. They find it hard to make both ends meet.After getting land title right,they will be able to get bankfinance to buy seeds, fertilizers and at the end of the season,they get surplus money for their sustenance.

How can the land reform from a tornado?

Tornadoes generally do not cause damage to the ground itself. Onvery rare occasions a tornado may scour away the soil. On at leastone occasion two feet of soil were removed. Such scouring onlyoccurs over fairly small areas, though, and soil will eventuallyfill in from adjacent areas. Trees and vegetation will regrow fromseeds in the soil and from plants and trees that survived. Man-madestructures can, of course, be repaired or replaced with new ones.