# What methods are used to estimate task duration?

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What is Activity Duration?

Activity duration is the time between the start and finish of a schedule activity. For example, if we consider walking to your nearest McDonalds for a coffee an activity, it depends on how fast we walk. Lets say it is approximately 500 meters from your house, if you walk at a comfortable pace, you will take around 10 mins to reach the place.

So, the duration of the activity of walking to your nearest McDonalds is 10 mins. Once you know this number, you can prioritize or plan accordingly to meet your needs.

Tools and Techniques for Activity Duration Estimating

The project schedule depends upon the activity duration estimates. The duration estimates of activities on the critical path will determine the finish date of a project for a given start date. However, there might be many uncertainties involved in the estimate. For example, two programmers, due to the differences in their experience, will take different amounts of time to write the same program. The good news is that there are a number of tools and techniques that you can use in activity duration estimating.

Analogous estimating - Analogous estimating techniques estimate the duration of an activity based on the duration of a similar activity in a previous project. The accuracy of the estimate depends upon how similar the activities are and whether the team member who will perform the activity has the same level of expertise and experience as the team member from the previous project. This technique is useful when there is not enough detail information about the project.
Parametric estimating - This is a quantitative technique used to calculate the activity duration when the productivity rate of the resource performing the activity is available. You use a formula such as the following one to calculate the duration:

Activity duration = Units of work in the activity / Productivity rate of the resources

For example, if you know that a team assigned to the activity of laying a road for 40 miles can lay two miles of road in one day, the duration calculation can be performed as follows:

Activity duration = 40 miles / (2 miles/day) = 20 days

Three-point estimating - This method addresses the issue of uncertainty in estimating the activity duration. The uncertainty in the duration estimate can be calculated by making a three-point estimate in which each point corresponds to one of the following estimate types:
Most likely scenario - The activity duration is calculated in most practical terms by factoring in resources likely to be assigned, realistic expectations of the resources, dependencies, and interruptions.
Optimistic scenario - This is the best-case version of the situation described in the most likely scenario.
Pessimistic scenario - This is the worst-case version of the situation described in the most likely scenario.

The spread of these three estimates determines the uncertainty. The resultant duration is calculated by taking the average of the three estimates. For example, if the duration for an activity is estimated to be 20 days for the most likely scenario, 15 days for the optimistic scenario, and 25 days for the pessimistic scenario, then the average duration is 20 days, and the uncertainty is ± 5 days, which can be expressed as:

Duration = 20 ± 5 days

It's equivalent to saying that the activity duration is 20 days, give or take five days.
However, the most likely scenario may be given more weight than the other two scenarios. Therefore, the expected duration can be calculated by using the following formula:

ED = ((N*MD) + OD + PD)/(N+2)

Here

ED = Expected Duration
MD = Most likely Duration
OD = Optimistic Duration
PD = Pessimistic Duration
N = Weightage for the Most likely Duration

Reserve analysis - Reserve analysis is used to incorporate a time cushion into your schedule; this cushion is called a contingency reserve, a time reserve, or a time buffer. The whole idea is to accommodate the possibility of schedule risks. One method of calculating the contingency reserve is to take a percentage of the original activity duration estimate as the contingency reserve. It can also be estimated by using quantitative analysis methods. Later, when more information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve can be reduced or eliminated. Usually, while estimating for large projects, managers would like to keep a buffer of 5% or so of the total estimate for the project to account for project schedule risks, like delays in procuring hardware or unexpected human resource risks (Ex: attrition) etc

Expert judgment - Expert judgment can be used to estimate the whole duration of an activity when not enough information is available. It can also be used to estimate some parameters to be used in other methods. For example, what percentage of the original activity duration estimate should be used as a contingency reserve, and in comparing an activity to a similar activity in a previous project during analogous estimation.

# Software Estimation Method - Comparison?

estimation is all about . Size and scope. Effort. Time. Schedule and Cost. for a s/w development process.. Satyajit Kumar Sethy(Wipro Technology)

# What is the importance of critical path and critical task estimation?

The importance of the Critical path is that helps you in reducing risk, contingency planning, and project planning.

# What are blood hemoglobin estimation methods?

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# What is the method used to estimate age after something died?

The dating method used to estimate age after something died is thecarbon dating method. The carbon dating method measures thehalf-life of the carbon in the organism.

# Dating method used to estimate age after something dies?

Carbon dating allows for the age estimation. This method works byusing known isotope decay rates to gauge elapsed time.

# What is the task of main method in a java program?

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# Estimate each sum or difference. identify the method you used. 312 - 287.6?

First you round 312 to 310 and then you round 287.6 to 290, which equals, 20. ;)

# What are the method of estimating microbial population in soil?

Serial Dilution Plate Technique is the method to estimate soil microbial population by Dhinga & Sinclair in 1993.

# Define estimation and explain its method?

ADD NYO KO SA FRIENDSTER AND YM. panes_cheska@yahoo.com. to form an opinion or judgment about . to judge or determine generally but carefully (size, value, cost, requirements, etc.); calculate approximately

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# Could the potassium-argon method of radiometric dating be used to date rock that is estimated to be formed 1000 years ago?

A small correction first. Radiometric dating techniques do not date the whole rock. K-Ar dating, for example, dates the last time that the particular mineral you are working with, passed through its crystallization point from a previously hotter condition. Lavas which chill quickly are good for st (MORE)

# What is the task of the main method in java program?

If you run an java file(as an .class or .jar file) there's always 1 method being called: The main(String[] args) method. The method is only called once. Example of an main method: public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException { LoggingBootstrap. bootstrap (); gui = new GU (MORE)

# What is the task of the main method in a java program?

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# Which are methods for chlorine estimation in water?

Using a indicator known as chlorotex reagent (applicable for free chlorine in a range of 0 - 1 ppm. Idometric titration for higher range of free chlorine

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Sampling makes it possible to make assumptions about the largerpopulation based on a small sample. This is beneficial in the studyof population and demographics.

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i want to tell you actually. but i also dont know the answer. just let it become a mystery....

# Significance of estimation of RNA by orcinol method?

One significance of estimation of RNA by orcinol method is the fact that it has made DNA less reactive. The test also is more sensitive with the orcinol method.

# Why cost estimation is the most challenging tasks in project management?

I wouldn't consider it the most challenging, but it is challenging. The problem is that there are lots of unknowns when it comes to costs for a project, especially a software project, where changes are always there. The Project Manager has the tough job to balance between the cost estimation and kee (MORE)

# What is a method scientists use to estimate the age of living things after they have died?

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# Methods for estimating median survival time?

Dear readers, You can use the survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the median lethal time using SAS or SPSS statistical packages. Someone would think to use Probit instead of Survival Analysis, but it is not recommended when you have not independent replicates (ex.: insects). Prob (MORE)

# Estimation of sugars by DNSA method?

DNSA reagent appears yellow due to ts nitro gp.(chromophore) an alkaline solution of Dnsa is boiled with the reducing sugar to bbe estimated Orange brown coloration result which is read colorimetrically.

# A method used to estimate a sum when all addends are close to the same value?

Hm well you can use whole numbers. Now my boy do you get it? Get that brain working!

# Method used to estimate the absolute age of a stream is to?

measure the rate at which the stream erodes its bed i think i am not sure

# Center line method in estimate?

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# What are the methods used to minimize the average flowtimes of tasks?

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# How would you estimate the cube root of 23 using Newton's method?

first we set x=23 (1/3) now set the equation equal to 0. x 3 =23 x 3 -23=0 now we can set our equation in the formula x n+1 =x n -(x n 3 -23/3x n 2 )

# Estimate 8 and one-third times 2 and four-fifths using any method you like Then find the actual product Use your estimate to show that your answer is reasonable?

Let us say that 8 and a third is approximately 8, and 2 and four fifths is approximately 3. This gives us the very simple multiplication of 8 x 3 which equals 24. The actual product of 8 & 1/3 x 2 & 4/5 is 23 and a third. This is very close to my estimated product of 24, therefore it is a reasonable (MORE)

When using task manager, it can turn off programs that locked up. like enternet explorer, or windows media player.

# DNA estimation by DPA method?

in DNA estimation by diphenylamine method, standard calf thymusDNA is digested by perchloric acid, but unkown is not digested byperchloric acid, rather rest protocol of diluting with water andtreating with diphenylamine and checking aborbance reamins same cananybody say the reason?

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when DNA is treated with DPA under acidic conditions, a blue colour complex is formed. this colour complex shows absorption maxima at 595nm. only 2'- deoxyribose of purenes will give this reaction hence the value obtained is half of the total 2'- deoxyribose present.

# Why you use 10.75ml of milk for fat estimation in gerber method?

The buyrometer graduation is so calibarated each 1% of graduation in the buty rometer will occupy 0.125ml of fat.(i.e) the weight of the fat in the area is equal to v X D =Mass; 0.125 x 093 = 0.1125. If 1 % represents 0.1125 then 100 % will represent 11.25 g. The average specific gravity of milk is (MORE)

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# What method are used for the estimation of molecular weight of protein?

ofcoz the protein migrate so long as it is charged ,once it become neutral it will stop migrating

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Try to see if a paper airplane will fly farther with 5 paperclips on the nose as opposed to 0,1,or 3. Question: Will the # of paperclips on the nose of a paper airplane cause the plane to fly farther? Hypothesis: 5 paperclips on the nose of a paper airplane will make he plane fly farther than with (MORE)

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# What are some books or websites to read to do a research task on the methods Emperor Augustus used to expand and control the Roman Empire?

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pi=3.141... C divided by D. Circumference of a circle divided by the diameter of a circle.

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# What is a good method to estimate area in geometry?

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# What is a dating method used to estimate Ages after something dies?

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# Could the potassium argon method of radiometric dating be used to date rocks that are estimated to have formed 1000 years ago?

No. Potassium decays to argon, and geologists measure argon as thedaughter material. The half life is too long for 1000 years to givesensible results.