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Weimar Germany 1918-1923: Creation and Crisis
- The Weimar Republic was set up in the aftermath of Germany's defeat in WWI. It was burdened with the blame for the much resented Treaty of Versailles [TOV.] The nationalist Right also blamed the government for the defeat in World War 1 and frequently referred to it as a 'Jewish republic' and many of its leaders as 'November criminals' meaning that they had signed the armistice in November 1918.
- Although it had a new, democratic constitution creating parliamentary government, key structures in Germany were not changed in the 1918-19 German Revolution was very limited.
- Between 1919-23 the Republic faced a series of revolts from the extreme Left and Right and a major inflationary crisis, but managed to somehow survive.
- From 1924 the economy recovered and moderate parties gained more support in elections.
- Stresemann's conciliatory foreign policy brought Germany back from diplomatic isolation, but it aroused opposition from nationalists.
- Weimar Germany became famous for its cultural experimentation but this alienated many traditionalist.
- Germany's economy was already suffering difficulties before 1929 and was heavily dependent on American loans, many of which were recalled.
- From October 1929, Germany was badly hit by the effects of the Wall Street Crash.
- Between 1929 and 1932 production nearly halved and unemployment rose to 6 million.
- Governments were terrifies of sparking off inflation if they spent extra money and so it took little action to counter the Depression.
- The slump led to growing support for extreme parties in the 1930 and 1932 elections.
- After the failure of the Munich Putsch of 1923, Hitler reorganised the Nazi Party on the Fuhrerprinzip.
- The Nazis used skillful propaganda techniques and exploited Hitler's ability as a speaker.
- In 1928, The Nazis were still on the fringe of politics.
- in 1930, as a result of the slump, the Nazis became the second largest party.
- The Wall street Crash led to a major depression, with 6 million unemployed The Depression made it harder for parliamentary government to work, and created a mood of despair.
- The Nazis gained particular support from the petty bourgeoisie, but were also a broadly based party, gaining support from ALL groups. For some their appeal was emotional; others were attracted for reasons of material self-interest. They made least impact amongst groups that had a strong sense of community i.e. the Catholics and Socialists.
- In 1930, Muller's SPD-led coalition fell; it was the last government to be based on support in the Reichstag. This can be seen as the real end to Weimar Parliamentary democracy.
- Extremist parties did well in the 1930 elections; in July1932 they obtained a majority of Reichstag deputies, with the Nazis gaining 37%; success had built up momentum.
- After 1930 Parliamentary government declined, as a series of presidential governments tried to solve Germany's mounting economic and political problems. Chancellors Bruning, Papen and Schleicher had to rely on presidential decrees under Article 48. In January 1933, influenced by sections in the elite, President Hindenburg reluctantly appointed Hitler Chancellor.
- Thus under the dual challenge of the masses who voted for radical parties and the elites who disliked democracy, the Weimar republic declined and Hitler took over.
- The Nazis offered a solution to Germany's problems, were well organised, and rallied around an charismatic leader with a sense of mission.
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It is because both the private sector and public sector have a say in answering the basic economic questions, thus there will be a degree of high efficiancy (due to the priv…ate sector involvement) and social welfare too (due to the public sector involvement). It allows the Government to intervene when the economy faces market failure. The mixed economic system allows markets to operate freely until it fails to allocate resources efficiently, after this, the government agencies, such as the EU Competition Commission, are able to correct for these failures. If this had been a completely free economic system, Government agencies wouldn't have the means of power to be able to intervene. Furthermore, if it was a centrally planned economic system (communist systems), the Government wouldn't have any drivers behind the intervention which may cause government failure for the market. (Mobeen Iqbal, Bahrain) Writes ModelCitizen:. Government bodies are an amazingly consistent display of their failure to utilize resources efficiently. In fact because they do not face monetary profit or loss, they have no idea if what they are doing is efficient. Questions such as what is an acceptable time for people to wait for medical treatment are unable to be answered efficiently by government, and people suffer for their failures. Extreme examples include North Korea when compared to South Korea - there is no difference between the two countries except for the choice of South Korea to all more freedoms to their people. Governments create propaganda of 'market failures' which typically can only be defined as the price being higher than in the past, so they can 'intervene' to be able to provide an excuse for their existence, and to gain power at the expense of individuals. Societies that have greater government interventions such as regulations, subsidies, taxes, etc, are much worse off economically than those with less interventions.
The German republic established in 1918-19 that lasted until Hitler came to power in 1933, is called The Weimar Republic because the new German Constitution was worked out at …Weimar in 1919. Actually, the term is nickname that was only devised after the republic had collapsed. Germany was governed from Berlin throughout this period (except for a spell of about ten days in March 1920, when the government fled to Stuttgart during the unsuccessful Kapp-Putsch).
Some of the problems Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the treasury) had to face were that the new government had to pay off their war debts,raising government revenues,a…nd creating a national bank.
Gustav Stresemann provided workable solutions to many of the problems the Weimar Republic faced. He worked hard to regain the trust that Germany had lost during the war. H…e used diplomacy to persuade the French to leave the Ruhr when Germany failed to make a Reparation payment. To curb the country's inflation, he replaced Germany's old money with the Rentenmark.
opposition from the sparticists proportional representation article 248
The Weimar were weak. They lacked support because, despite only coming into existance the day before World War I ended, they were blamed for it and all the suffering caused by… the Treaty of Versailles that the Weimar were the ones to sign. Unlike Britain and France, who had just increased taxes and sold war bonds, Germany had printed more money, making the Germany mark worth less. The Weimar did that again to pay off the war reparations the treaty demanded. In 1923, 3 trillion marks had the same value as one American dollar. The American Dawes Plan bailed Germany out of that crisis, but when the stock market crashed in the US, Germany's economy collapsed into the Great Depression as well.
three problems faced by the weimar republic was the treaty of Versailles, inflation and defeat.
Heavy reparations ordered by the Treaty of Versailles. Runaway inflation after the assassination of the Finance Minister, Walter Rathenau.
The Weimar Republic faced many problems. Perhaps the greatest danger was 'the weakness within' - the constitution gave the President, the states and the army too much power, w…hilst proportional voting meant that the Reichstag was divided and weak. In 1919-23, extremists on both the Left (especially the Spartacist revolt) and the Right (especially the Kapp Putsch) tried to overthrow the government. The worst crisis occurred in 1923, when the French invaded to try to force Germany to pay reparations. This led to hyperinflation and a number of rebellions (particularly Hitler's Munich Putsch)..
Health care costs Economic crisis Social Security Immigration North Korea nuclear crisis Iran election crisis Afghanistan war Iraq war Middle East peace cri…sis European missile shield dependency on oil national debt Medicare Poverty
They inherited all the problems that a largely backward and autocratic form of government( The Tsars) bequeathed them. A general failure to industrialise and educate its peopl…e. The single biggest problem was Russia's disastrous involvement in World War One.
Money and civilian control mostly
The Weimar republic was Germanys attempt at Democracy after WWI. Actually America donated over 200 million dollars for this attempt. However, they were not used to rule by the… people and were to used to monarchs. Not to mention the inflation and Global depression. So this slick guy named Adolf Hitler came in and well that's another story.
Three problems faced by the Weimar Republic were huge reparation costs, soaring inflation, and high unemployment.
In Ancient Rome
plebeians did not have enough rights so they protested
Bribbery and corruption
The National Deficit Unemployment Rate