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What special effects were used in 'The Wizard of Oz'?

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Asbestos lining made it possible for the Scarecrow's arm to catch fire, without harm to actor Ray Bolger [January 10, 1904-January 15, 1987].
Chunks of white gypsum were used as snow in the poppy field scene. Actors and those on the set were told to hold their breaths as much as possible, for it's dangerous to inhale. Subsequently, its use was banned.
Compressed air and talcolm powder simulated smoke coming out of a hat.
An elevator platform built into the floor lowered the Wicked Witch of the West as she gradually melted, from Dorothy having thrown water on her.
A fishing line, from a fishing pole held by a man in the stage rafters, moved the Cowardly Lion's tail.
Foam rubber prostheses were used to create the look of such special characters as the Scarecrow. For example, the face was really a rubber bag with holes for the eyes and the mouth, and with a burlap-like textured look. The Wicked Witch of the West was given a false chin and nose to exaggerate and lengthen those features, under green make-up.
A front projection screen was used in the scenes of the crystal ball with the Wicked Witch of the West, and of the Throne Room with the Wizard of Oz.
Harnesses were used to move actors around in the flight scenes, such as the flying sequences of the Winged Monkeys, and the broom ride of the Wicked Witch of the West.
A hypodermic needle spreading black ink across the bottom of a glass tank that had been filled with tinted water achieved the Wicked Witch of the West's message in the skywriting scene.
A 35' muslin stocking was used to simulate the funnel-shaped cyclone that carried Dorothy, Toto, and the family farmhouse, from Kansas to Oz.
A rear projection screen was used for Dorothy's window inside her family's farmhouse when the cyclone strikes, and then the building lands in Oz.
A silver ball served as the bubble by which Glinda the Good Witch [of the South in the book version, North in the 1939 film version] got around Oz.
Jell-O Powder for the "horse of a different color" scenes. Using six white horses, Jell-O powder was sponged on (but it became complicated when the horses started to eat the powder).
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