What was the 'sealed train' Lenin used to return to Russia from Germany in 1917?
It was a diplomatically-sealed train originating in Switzerland and bound for Russia, traversing Germany and Sweden. The Germans allowed the transit, not taking any chances that Lenin would disembark in Germany to spread his Communist propaganda, but fully welcoming the idea of him inciting revolt in Russia, which was at war with Germany.
For this, Lenin's foes in Russia had denounced him as a "German spy". While he most likely was not anybody's spy, the revolution he eventually led certainly played into Germans' hands.
For this, Lenin's foes in Russia had denounced him as a "German spy". While he most likely was not anybody's spy, the revolution he eventually led certainly played into Germans' hands.
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What other name was used by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanof the socialist revolutionary who returned to Russia in April 1917 after seventeen years in exile?
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov was a Russian politician, revolutionary andstatesman who was the leader of Soviet Socialist Republic from 1917till 1922. He is better known by his other name, Vladimir Lenin.
Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of large numbers of people. Instead of impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. The most effective propaganda is often completely truthful, but some propaganda presents facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subj Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of large numbers of people. Instead of impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. The most effective propaganda is often completely truthful, but some propaganda presents facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audienceect in the target audience.. The story Animal Farm By George Orwell helps to better understand propaganda in communist russia during 1917-1943 if you have the time to read it, its very short though. Hope I helped.
Vladimir Lenin was already the leader of the Bolshevik Party when Germany shipped him to Russia in the famous diplomatically sealed train. Thus, Lenin did not "become the leader of the Bolsheviks "after" Germany sent him to Russia. Lenin had formed the Bolsheviks in 1903 and was their leader even while he was living in self-imposed exile in Switzerland. Germany sent him back to Russia in April 1917.
The February 1917 Russian Revolution brought Lenin back to Russia. He had been living in Switzerland at the time and the revolution took him by surprise. The German High Command arranged for Lenin to be transported from Switzerland to Russia in a diplomatically sealed train. The Germans wanted Lenin to create more revolutionary disruption in the hope that a new Russian government would get Russia out of World War I.
Lenin was the new Communist Leader of the new Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics (USSR) and used purging as a way of retaining power; as did Stalin later.
Lenin formed the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party at the Party's Congress in Brussels in 1903. He was preeminent in the Bolshevik faction because of his forceful personality. After the February 1917 revolution, he and his Bolsheviks continued to agitate against the new Provisional Government that had assumed power when the Tsar abdicated in March 1917. Lenin had been in exile in Switzerland when the Tsar abdicated the throne in March 1917. He returned to Russia in April and began his campaign of agitation against the government. He promised to get Russia out of World War I, stop food shortages and give land back to the peasants. The PG did not do any of those things and eventually lost the support of the people and even the military. The Bolsheviks converted more and more soldiers to their cause and formed its own military force known as the Red Guard. The Bolsheviks swooped in in a coup now known as the October Revolution and took power from the PG. After the October Revolution, the Russian Civil War broke out because many Russians were dissatisfied with Bolshevik rule. The Bolsheviks then created the Red Army to fight the more conservative dissidents which had formed the so-called White Army. By 1920, Lenin's Red Army had wiped out all White Army opposition and the Civil War ended with the Bolsheviks in full control. The country was governed by high level members of the Bolshevik (now named Communist) Party. Lenin was the acknowledged leader of the Party but did not have dictatorial control over it. Lenin stamped out opposition to his policies by ruthless means using the army, his secret police and other methods. He banned all other political parties then even banned factions within the Communist Party. Lenin did not have autocratic control of the party, but he was the major force within it, therefore matters were usually taken care of the way he wanted them taken care of.
One reason Lenin appealed to the people of Russia was because hepromised to end the war. He also promised to give land to thepeasants.
Vladimir Lenin was in control of Russia from the beginning of therevolution in 1917 until his sudden death in 1924.
It was smart for Germany to sneak Lenin back into Russia because they were currently at war with Russia. Germany wanted Lenin to take Russia out from the inside, creating a rebellion that would collapse the government and lead to German victory.
Germany sent Lenin back to Russia hoping that he would foment further revolutionary activity in Russia so that Russia would withdraw from fighting Germany in World War I. The February Revolution of 1917 had already taken place while Lenin was in Switzerland. Despite this revolution overthrowing the Tsar, the Provisional Government acting in place of the Tsar was still committed to fighting Germany in the war. The Germans knew that most Russians wanted to end their involvement in the war, so the German High Command sent Lenin back to Russia hoping he would destabilize the government and disrupt the army and perhaps even lead another rebellion. Germany even funded Lenin and his Bolshevik Party to some degree. Lenin led the October Bolshevik Revolution, ousted the pro-war Provisional Government and entered into the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers ending Russia's involvement in the war. Germany got what it wanted: an end to the war on the Russian front and the ability to move many divisions of soldiers to fight the French, British and Americans on the western front.
In 1917, the revolution transferred their support of Alexander Kerensky to Valdimir Lenin. The Russian people despised the war that the tsar had gotten them into because it created starvation and misery. Thus, Lenin promised to the end the war with Germany, so when he came into power, the first thing he did was sign an armistice that released thousands of Germany troops from Russia.
Lenin returned to Russia in April after living in exile in Switzerland after the February Revolution toppled the Tsar. Then he planned and led the Bolshevik coup known as the October Revolution, deposed the Provisional Government and took over control of Russia.
No, WW I continued until 1918. I should also point out that Lenin pulled Russia out of the war, which made it easier for Germany to keep fighting. They would hardly surrender because one of their main enemies withdrew from the fight.
No; the Socialist Revolutionary Party pre-dates the Bolsheviks and was the largest party in Russia at the time of the 1917 October revolution. The Mensheviks were an orthodox Marxist organization that existed alongside the Bolsheviks (which were Leninist). The Naradoniks and Popular Socialists were other socialist organizations that existed since the mid-19th century. Vladimir Lenin and his Bolsheviks established the first socialist state in Russia, but did not establish a socialist economy. Vladimir Lenin described the economy of Soviet Russia as a "state-monopoly capitalist" economy that was not yet advanced enough for socialism, which could only exist on a worldwide scale beginning in the most advanced capitalist nations.
Vladimir Lenin was sent back to Russia by the German government in April 1917 in the hopes that he would disrupt the Russian war effort or even cause a revolution to get Russia out of the war.
Lenin was isolated in neutral Switzerland during the beginning of World War I. After receiving news of the February 1917 Revolution in Russia, he wanted to return there immediately to give instructions to the Bolsheviks about how to continue with the revolution and to defeat the Provisional Government. A Swiss Communist convinced the German government to send Lenin safely to Russia on a sealed train. The German government hoped that Lenin would provoke political unrest in his homeland, forcing Russia to surrender to the Germans, which would allow Germany to pull troops away from the Eastern Front to focus on the war in the Western Front.
It was in Switzerland in early 1917 watching the revolutionary nature of the strikes from a distance with the help of other leading Bolsheviks. He went through Germany in a locked train-the Germans didn't want him in their country but at the same time they realised that the Bolsheviks wanted to end the war.
The Germans knew perfectly well that Lenin was opposed to Russian involvement in WW I, and sure enough, the first thing the Bolsheviks did when they gained power was to pull Russia out of the war, which of course made things easier for their former enemy, Germany (and the Central Powers to which Germany belonged). Although Germany lost the war anyway.
Lenin was in Switzerland when the February 1917 revolution broke out. He was taken completely by surprise that it had happened as were virtually all of the various Russian revolutionaries. This was because that revolution was not a planned event. The uprising began as a spontaneous uprising by the people in St. Petersburg as they suffered with shortages of food due to World War I and the Russian Tsarist government's inability or unwillingness to take care of its people. The German High Command wanted Russia out of the war, so it transported Lenin from Switzerland through Finland to Russia in the hope that Lenin would cause a revolution which would take Russia out of the war. It worked.
The "ruler" before Lenin was Tsar Nicholas II. Actually, the government before Lenin was the ProvisionalGovernment, which was headed first by Prince Georgy Lvov and thenby Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky, before it was overthrown in theOctober Revolution by Lenin and his Bolshevik Party.
Russia broke out into the Russian Civil War, which pitted the Bolshevik Red Army against the Tsarist/monarchist/anti Bolshevik White Army forces. The war lasted from 1918 to 1921, but some histories say it lasted till 1923 when the very last of the fighting stopped.
They thought it would create chaos in Russia which would back them off from continuing to fight against Germany.
No Lenin was a murderous despot. he built the foundations to a regime that was responsible for the false imprisonment and murder of literally millions of people but still has an effect on the world from an ecological point of view.
Lenin and Communism was a complete diaster for Russia that it is only now recovering from.
Because the Germans knew Lenin would bring about a Communist revolution in Russia, thereby eliminating Russia as an immediate threat in the war, and allowing Germany to focus its war efforts on only one front.
German authorities helped Vladimir Lenin return to Russia so hecould encourage further revolutionary activity in Russia and agreeto a treaty ending Russia's involvement in WW 1. The treaty was aharsh one for Russia, but Lenin convinced his Bolshevik partycomrades to accept it, as they had little choice. There was no clueas to when the war would end at that time.
After Lenin seized the control of Russia he killed a lot of people, did a lot of reforms, took everything from people and nationalized all property. He closed the borders, made religion illegal in Russia, connected the peripheral countries to one union and spread the people from some of those countries to other parts of Russia so they would make war against him. Lenin was like an idol in those times, people praised him even though they didn't know what good he did. The 1920's was bad time for hardworking wealthy people because Lenin took all their land, stores, and belongings and sent them to Siberia and other uninhabitable parts. He also sent a lot of people to prisons and camps where they work really hard in gold and coal mines to make the communists rich. There were a lot more things going on but you would have to read the Russian history in whole. Russia almost immediately broke out into the Russian Civil War after Lenin took control in 1917. Some historians date the Russian Civil War from 1918, bur some believe it truly began with the Bolshevik Revolution. On October 25, 1917, Lenin and the Bolsheviks took control of Petrograd in a virtually bloodless coup. In Moscow, things were different. The fighting between Provisional Government and Soviet supporters included small arms and artillery fire leaving hundreds dead. Lenin had just deposed the Provisional Government and put all of its ministers and military authorities out of power. But those authorities, generals of armies included, were not going to give up their power so easily. They used the armies they had under their commands and fought back to retain their power. While large scale fighting did not begin until 1918, the two sides in the Civil War were pretty clearly drawn as of the day after the Bolshevik Revolution.
First of all, I would like to comment on the question itself. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was not one man seizing control, but a popular uprising of the Russian people against the Tsar headed by Vladimir Lenin (the leader of the Bolsheviks, or Communist Revolutionaries) and Leon Trotsky (commander of the Red Army). After Lenin became the leader of the Russian Provisional Government, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formally established. This was a grouping of states including Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and others. The Soviet Union became a self declared Socialist state (Socialist implying equal pay, fair hours, free education, etc). However, the political and economic situation deteriorated rapidly following Lenin's death, as a power struggle took place between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Stalin took power with disastrous consequences.
If you mean during WW1, while the Provisional Government was in control of Russia, Lenin returned to Petrograd on the 16th April with the help of the German government (because the Germans figured that if the Bolsheviks were in power of Russia, they'd withdraw from the war and even if they failed to seize power, the turmoil in Russia could only help Germany's war aims).
Germany returned to its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in1917 because they hoped that by doing so they would be able todeprive Great Britain of food and war materials. Great Britain washeavily dependent on imports in order to maintain its war effort.By attacking Britain's shipping, Germany hoped that it could starveBritain into submission or weaken its war effort enough that theGerman army could defeat it on the Western Front.
The German government is the member of the Central Powers of World War 1 that put Lenin on a train back to Russia.
After Lenin was returned to Russia he played a role inorchestrating the October Revolution. He returned to Russia in 1917after the Tsar was ousted.
Lenin used several slogans to get his message across. One was "Peace! Bread! Land!". This was a promise that he would end Russia's part in the war, end the food shortages and redistribute land from the owners to the peasants working the lands. Another was "All Power to the Soviets." This meant that all governmental power should be in the hands of the soviets (which were councils of workers, soldiers and peasants that existed in virtually every large city) rather than in the hands of the Tsar or the Provisional Government after the Tsar was overthrown. Lenin conveniently forgot this promise once he realized that if power really was in the soviets, it would not be in his hands. Yet another was "Turn imperialistic war into civil war." This meant that disgruntled soldiers who were already armed and massed as an army should now turn on their commanders and other non-revolutionary authorities and overthrow them.
There are two main reasons for American's involvement in WWI. The first one was the Russian Revolution, which caused Russia to pull out. Before Russia pulled out, Germany was fighting a two-front war against France and Russia. Once Russia pulled out, Germany was going to be able to focus all of their energy and men on capturing France. America didn't want Germany to have so much power. The second reason for America's involvement was Germany's attacks on American neutrality. German U-boats kept attacking American ships after America and Germany had agreed on the end of the submarine warfare. There was also the infamous Zimmerman Telegram when Alfred Zimmerman contacted Mexico trying to convince them to attack the US, and in return, Mexico would get Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and all the land they lost, back. America was able to get their hands on this telegram, and when confronting Zimmerman, he didn't deny it. These factors convinced America to finally enter the war after a few years of attempted neutrality.
Lenin fled from Russia to Finland to avoid being arrested by the forces of the Russian Provisional Government. There had been an attempted revolution by other political parties and soldiers against the Provisional Government in early July 1917. It failed and many of the revolutionaries were arrested, imprisoned or exiled. To avoid this, Lenin left the country for a short time then snuck back into Russia disguised as a railway worker. Lenin even had Joseph Stalin shave his beard off so he would not be recognized.
Lenin was the Bolshevik leader when coditious were ideal for a takeover of the government
Lenin entered Russia on April 3, 1917, courtesy of the German High Command, returning from living in exile in Switzerland.
You mean not liked by Russian feudalists and capitalists - I guess. Because he wanted to free the Russian people from feudalists and capitalists supression. Of course they did not want this. But he was liked very much by the majority of the people - especially workers and socialists. Democracy and the socialist ideas were forbidden in feudalist times of course in any European countries. The kings roled - not the people. Meanwhile the capitalists have taken over and are using the model of democracy because due to ownership of the media they control public opinion and what people are voting for. When media control of people's mind does not longer work and people want socialism as e.g. in German revolution 1917/18 they build up fashism - as done in Germany, Spain, Italy. Search in Google for the full text of the book e.g "wallstreet and the rise of Hitler". This shows that even US capital financed Hitler - his task was to crush down German and Spanish Socialists and finally the UDSSR Socialism.
Lenin returned to Russia on April 3, 1917, courtesy of the German government, which wanted Lenin to create revolutionary disruptions in order to cripple Russia's war efforts in World War I. At first Lenin agitated against the Provisional Government and almost sparked a premature Bolshevik revolution. The Provisional Government tried to arrest Lenin, but he fled to Finland. The major event was the October Revolution of 1917 in which Lenin's Bolshevik party took control of and ousted the Provisional Government that had been in place since the February Revolution of 1917. This was the beginning of Red Communist rule over Russia and the USSR. After that the Russian Civil War broke out and Lenin's Bolshevik followers overcame the opposition to their policies and solidified Red Communist rule completely.
Germany Released Lenin so that he would go back to Russia and start a revolution. Now known as the Bolshevik revolution which took Russia out of the war. It also released thousands of German P.O.W's back to the front lines.
Immediately after Lenin, the USSR was ruled by a triumvirate of Joseph Stalin, Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, while a power struggle over supremacy went on among Leon Trotsky, Nikolai Bukharin, Grigory Zinoviev and Stalin. Eventually Stalin won over the others and became sole dictator.
How did Lenin get through the battle lines between Germany and Russia when he went back to Russia in 1917?
Lenin did not have to cross battle lines. He was allowed through Germany and travelled on to Russia by way of Finland, where there was no fighting at the time.
It was hard to send Lenin back because Lenin was in Switzerland at the time and Germany was at war with Russia. Germany couldn't just send him through the font lines because of the fighting. In addition, Germany did not want to be seen as provoking rebellion in Russia lest its own people in Germany decided to make their own revolution against the Kaiser.
Do you mean, "sue for peace"? That phrase just means to try to get a peace treaty. They were undergoing a revolution, the country was in tatters, the people were fed up, the communists were against the war, and enough was enough. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was badly against the Russian interests, losing 1/3rd of their European territory but they gambled that Germany would soon lose the war anyway, and the treaty would be voided.
Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev and the German government all aided Lenin in 1917.
When Lenin died in 1924, Alexei Rykov succeeded him as Premier (equivalent of Prime Minister) of both Russia (RSFSR) and the Soviet Union (USSR). By 1930 Premier was nothing more than a title, having been completely overshadowed by leader of the Party, General Secretary . Joseph Stalin had held that title since 1922.
He strongly believed in what he was doing; despite all the things that had happened to him he was still motivated. He was also extremely good at speeches, he gripped the audience. He told them what they wanted to hear.
Because they knew he wanted peace with germany and that if he went back to russia he would cause a problem for the Tsar
The Germans. They figured that Lenin would cause a revolution. If he succeeded, it didn't matter. Either way it would cause chaos and force Russia to remove itself from the war.
How did Lenin and then Stalin use economic policies to further an authoritarian dictatorship in Soviet Russia?
All private property was expropriated, that is, land, real estate, transport and industry. The whole economy fell into the hands of the bureaucracy, which had directly managed by the Bolshevik Party. The leader stood at the head of the party, first Lenin and then Stalin. A person could eke out a living only by working under the control of the party and the state. Disobedience of the party or government officials for the person meant a life of poverty and hunger, at best. At worst, he could go to the Gulag and there to work for the party and the state for free, but under pain of death.