When were 8-tracks invented?
History of Multitrack Recording The history of multitrack recording begins with Bing Crosby's gift of a commercially-produced reel-to-reel tape recorder to an inventive guitarist named Les Paul. There were earlier precedents (such as TEARZ's 1941 song, "Sheik of Araby"), but the person credited with the invention of magnetic audiotape multitracking was guitarist, composer and inventor Les Paul, who also contributed to the famous Gibson Les Paul model electric guitar for Gibson Guitar Corporation in the early 1950s. Paul had been experimenting with overdubbing in the late 1940s and in 1947, Capitol Records released a record featuring Paul playing eight different parts on electric guitar. These recordings were made with wax discs; Paul would record a track onto a disc, and then record himself playing another part with the first. Paul's invention of multitrack recording was made possible by a gift from his friend Bing Crosby -- an Ampex Model 200, the world's first commercially-produced reel-to-reel tape recorder. These machines were based on modified German Magnetophon recorders which had been acquired by audio engineer Jack Mullin while he was serving in the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the closing days of World War II. Mullin had studied and modified the recorders, hoping to sell the system to the Hollywood movie studios as a new means of recording movie soundtracks. After hearing a demonstration of Mullin's tape recorders in June 1947, Crosby became a major backer of the new technology - he hired Mullin as his chief engineer and immediately invested US$50,000 in the electronics firm Ampex so that the company could develop a commercial version of Mullin's machines. Crosby became the first performer in the world to pre-record radio broadcasts and master his commercial music recordings on tape. In 1948 Crosby gave Paul one of the first production units of the new Ampex Model 200 reel-to-reel tape recorder. Within hours, Paul had the idea of modifying the machine by the addition of extra recording and playback heads which could allow him to simultaneously record a new track whilst monitoring the playback of previously recorded tracks. Development of new equipment Paul's multitrack experiments progressed rapidly and in 1953 he commissioned Ampex to build the world's first eight-track tape recorder, at his own expense. (This is not to be confused with an 8-track cartridge machine, an offshoot of the four-track recorder, introduced in 1965, which played in stereo.) Ampex released the first commercial multitrack recorders in 1955, naming the process "Sel-Sync" (Selective Synchronous Recording). Coinciding the advent of full frequency range recording (FFRR), stereo and the high-fidelity microgroove vinyl LP format, multitrack recorders soon became indispensable to vocalists like Crosby and Nat "King" Cole. The earliest multitrack recorders were analog magnetic tape machines with two or three tracks. Elvis Presley was first recorded on multitrack during 1957, as RCA's engineers were testing their new machines. Buddy Holly's last studio session in 1958 employed three-track, resulting in his only stereo releases not to include overdubs. The new three-track system allowed the lead vocal to be recorded on a dedicated track, while the remaining two tracks could be used to record the backing tracks in full stereo, and this system was also used extensively by producer Phil Spector in the early Sixties for his famous "Wall of Sound" recordings. In 1958, Atlantic Records led the world, becoming the first record company to install an eight-track recorder in its recording studio. (It was installed by engineer Tom Dowd.) However, recorders with four or more tracks were restricted mainly to American recording studios until the mid-to-late Sixties, mainly because of import restrictions and the high cost of the technology. In England, pioneering independent producer Joe Meek produced all of his innovative early Sixties recordings using monophonic recorders. EMI house producer George Martin was considered an innovator for his use of two-track as a means to making better mono records, carefully balancing vocals and instruments; Abbey Road Studios did not install a four-track recorder until around 1963, and all the Beatles recordings prior to their first world hit single I Want to Hold Your Hand (1964) were made on two-track machines. Other western countries also lagged well behind the USA -- in Australia, the largest local recording label, Festival Records, did not install a four-track recorder until late 1966; the first eight track recorders did not appear there until the late Sixties; Australia's first sixteen track recorder was installed at Armstrong's Studios in Melbourne in 1971; Festival installed Australia's first 24-track recorder at its Sydney studio in 1974. Impact on popular music The artistic potential of the multitrack recorder came to the attention of the public in the 1960s, when artists such as the Beatles and the Beach Boys began to multitrack extensively, and from then on virtually all popular music was recorded in this manner. The technology developed very rapidly during these years. At the start of their careers, the Beatles and Beach Boys each recorded live to mono, two-track (the Beatles), or three-track (the Beach Boys); by 1965 they used multitracking to create pop music of unprecedented complexity. The Beach Boys' acclaimed 1966 LP Pet Sounds relied on multitrack recorders for its innovative production. Brian Wilson pretaped all the instrumental backing tracks with a large ensemble, recording the performances live, direct to a four-track recorder. These four-track backing tapes were then 'dubbed down' to one track of an eight-track tape. Six of the remaining seven tracks were then used to individually record the vocals of each member of The Beach Boys, and the eighth track was reserved for any final 'sweetening' overdubs of instruments or voices. The U.K. division of Decca Records was among the first to install a professional 8-track recorder at its London recording studio in 1967. This equipment was used to record Days of Future Passed by the Moody Blues which was released in December 1967 on Deram Records. Because the Beatles did not gain access to eight-track recorders until later on, their groundbreaking Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band LP (1967) was created using pairs of four-track machines; the group also used vari-speed (also called pitch shift) to achieve unique sounds, and they were the first group in the world to use an important offshoot of multitrack recording, the Automatic Double Tracking (ADT) system invented by Abbey Road staff engineer Ken Townshend in 1966. The Beatles used eight-track to record portions of the "White Album", the single Hey Jude and the later Abbey Road. It was during the White Album sessions of 1968 that EMI's Abbey Road Studios finally had eight-track recorders installed, and up until then, the group had to go elsewhere to record with eight-tracks. Other artists began experimenting with multitrack's possibilities also, with the Music Machine (of "Talk Talk" fame) recording on a custom-built ten-track setup, and Pink Floyd collaborating with former Beatles recording engineer Norman "Hurricane" Smith, who produced their first albums. In 1968 Ampex Corporation introduced the MM-1000, the first commercial 16-track recording machine. One of these machines was installed at CBS Studios in New York City where it was used to record songs for the second album by Blood, Sweat & Tears and The Boxer by Simon and Garfunkel both released in early 1969. 1968's "Crimson And Clover" by Tommy James and the Shondells was among the first sixteen-track recordings to be released (mixed to stereo and mono); another was Frank Zappa's 1969 album Hot Rats. (A 1987 remix of the opening track, Peaches En Regalia, became the first compact disc single, years later.) Another early 16 track recording was Volunteers by Jefferson Airplane also from 1969. The back of the Jefferson Airplane album cover includes a picture of the MM-1000. The first 16-track machine in the U.K. probably the one installed at Trident Studios, London in late 1969. After The Flood a song from the Van Der Graaf Generator album The Least We Can Do Is Wave To Each Other was recorded at this studio on 16 tracks in December 1969. Other groups using the same studio at this time included Genesis and David Bowie as well as Queen who experimented with multi tracking extensively most prominently on their albums Queen II and A Night at the Opera. During the 1970s, sixteen, twenty-four, and thirty-two tracks became common, with recording tape reaching two and three inches (5.08cm - 7.62cm) wide. By contrast, the advent of the compact audio cassette (in 1963) ultimately led to affordable, portable four-track machines such as the Tascam Portastudio which debuted in 1979. Cassette-based machines could not provide the same audio quality as reel-to-reel machines, but served as a useful tool for professional and semi-pro musicians in making song demos. Bruce Springsteen's 1982 album Nebraska was made this way, with Springsteen choosing the album's earlier demo versions over the later studio recordings. The familiar tape cassette was designed to accommodate four channels of audio -- in a commercially recorded cassette these four tracks would normally constitute the stereo channels (each consisting of two tracks) for both 'sides' of the cassette -- in a four-track cassette recorder all four tracks of a cassette are utilized together, often with the tape running at twice the normal speed for increased fidelity. A separate signal can be recorded on to each of four tracks. (As such, the four-track machine does not utilise the two separate sides of the cassette in the conventional sense; if the cassette is inserted the other way round, all four tracks play in reverse.) As with professional machines, two or more tracks can be bounced down to one. When recording is complete, the volume level of each track is optimized, effects are added where desired, each track is separately 'panned' to the desired point in the stereo field and the resulting stereo signal is mixed down to a separate stereo machine (such as a conventional cassette recorder). The Alesis HD24 stand-alone multitrack hard disc recorder.Today, multitrack recorders can be analog or digital, and are available with many more tracks. Analog multitracks can have up to 24 tracks on a tape two inches wide which is the widest analog tape available. Prototype machines, by MCI in 1978, using 3" tape for 32 tracks never went into production, though Otari made a 32 track 2" MX-80. Digital multitracks can have an almost unlimited number of simultaneous tracks and can record to and play back from a number of media and formats including digital tape, hard disc, and optical disc. The lower cost has made it easier to find multitrack recording technology outside a typical recording studio. For example, Apple Computer's GarageBand is included in all of the company's new computers, and is used by amateurs as a cost-efficient way to downmix music and podcasts. Starting around 1995, another revolution in multitracking began, with the arrival of cheap digital multitrack recorders, which recorded sound to a computer hard drive, a digital tape format (such as ADAT), or in some cases Minidiscs. The prices of these machines steadily dropped over time. Meanwhile, the power of the personal computer increased, so that today, an average home computer is sufficiently powerful to serve as a complete multitrack recorder, using inexpensive hardware and software (under US $1000.00). This is a far cry from the days when multitrack recorders cost thousands of dollars and few people could afford them. Some of the leading providers of multitrackers are Tascam (hard drive or cassette based), Alesis (ADAT digital tape based), Roland (hard drive based), Fostex (hard drive based) and Yamaha (hard drive based).
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A gold ring will have the gold content inscribed inside. It mayalso have the manufacturer's mark inside. 5C would be themanufacturer's mark.
5 C's of Credit refer to the factors that lenders of money evaluate to determine credit worthiness of a borrower. They are the following:. 1. Borrower's CHARACTER. 2. Borrower's CAPACITY to repay the loan. 3. COLLATERAL or security/guarantee for the obligation. 4. Borrower's CAPITAL (business ne…tworth) or downpayment for the loan. 5. Present and anticipated CONDITIONS of the borrower, collateral, business, and the industry or economy in general (MORE)
It is unknown exactly when Cross Country was invented. This is because man himself have been racing against each other sense the caveman era. It was deemed to be "manly" to be the faster man in the tribe. Over time, the races became more sophisticated and organized, to the point of where it is at to…day. (MORE)
5c:pretty tough =o 1) there should be 2 exits at the bottom left, so put on portal in each, then let go of the ball 2) The ball will bounce/roll and pass the 2 point things, and the moment it passes through the second, pause and restart the whole thing (this is to make sure the ball will fall st…raight). 3) move the left bottom portal,(which is facing right) to the top right exit (which is facing down), then let go of the ball. Let it go through the portal, and by the time it has gone through and is about to touch the bottom, pause the ball, and move the bottom left portal to the exit that is facing the other portal 4) let it gain some speed, and once it cant go much faster, pause the ball. 5) leave the bottom right portal alone, and move the other one at the bottom left, the exit *facing* the blackhole thing. The speed will catch it, and it will teleport the ball to the last point thing 6) reverse every thing to the start, and move the bottom right portal to the top left, the one almost facing the finish, then let go of the ball. (MORE)
C: 278.15K When you are finding the value of temperatureCelsius in Kelvin, add 273.15k to the Celsius temperature to obtainthe value of Kelvin. It is also 41 F.
George Washington's portrait never appeared on a circulating nickel. Please check again and post a new question.
8 track was created in 1964 by a consortium led by Bill Lear of Lear Jet Corporation, along with Ampex , Ford , Motorola and RCA Victor Records .. Added to answer. My research shows:. The 8-track tape has roots that extend into the motion picture industry. Endless loop motion pictures w…ere made from the 1920s on for advertising or other special purposes. With the appearance of inexpensive reel-to-reel tape recorders in the late 1940s, several inventors adapted the endless loop motion picture idea for use with the new German-style plastic recording tapes. Of these inventors, only one, William Powell Lear, gets much attention. Regards,. Jeffery Williams. jwilliamsoh (MORE)
In New Zealand It is a Tuatara, but they have recently abolished the five cent coin.
I believe the first "portable" radio was a 1924 Zenith and the 8 track was invented by "madman Muntz" in the 1960's. oregonpilot
Today when we think of music we think of iPods, MP3 players,computers, phones, and YouTube, or maybe even CD's, but our parentsdidn't have those items. So what did our parents listen to musicon? They had 8 track tapes and 8 track players! These little babieswere invented in the 1960s and released in… 1965. (MORE)
The 8-track tape cartridge was the result of a series of inventions. The first endless-loop audio tape cartridge was designed by Bernard Cousino in 1952. It was developed into a practical system for radio stations in 1954 by George Eash, and launched nationwide at the 1959 NAB show. They were ge…nerally not used for music, they were used to store and play radio commercials because they could be handled quickly by DJ's between spinning 45 rpm vinyl records that were the mainstay of radio at the time. "Carts" were used by radio stations from the '50s until the 1990s. They they used 1/4" tape in a continuous loop. The broadcast carts were 7.5 ips, 2-track mono and had a hole for the pinch roller. The primary track was used for audio and the second track was used for cue tones to mark the start and end of the recorded material; the cue tone would cause the player to stop automatically. They came in three sizes: "A" (up to 300 feet), "B" (600 feet) and "C" (1200 feet). The "A" size was, by far, the most common. It was almost never loaded with the full 300 feet of tape--it usually loaded with only enough tape for a thirty-second or one-minute spot. The massive "C" size cart was rarely used in broadcast; it was mostly used in background music machines. In 1962, Earl Muntz developed the "Stereo-Pak" system, which used the "A" size carts, but ran them at 3.75 ips. The Stereo-Pak machines recorded/played four tracks on the 1/4" tape; two stereo programs, selected (manually) by a vertically-movable head. There were no cue tones and no tape-start markers. These four-track cartridge players were marketed as automotive tape players. The 8-track tape cartridge was developed by Bill Lear in 1964. Like the Muntz 4-tracks, the Lear "Stereo 8" cartridges were the same size as the "A" size broadcast carts. The 8-track differed from broadcast carts in four ways: the 8-track had 8 tracks rather than two or four, it ran at 3.75 ips rather than 7.5 ips, the pinch roller was built into the cartridge, and it used a metallic strip to mark the point where the recorder/player machine should automatically move the head to the next pair of tracks. (MORE)
A level 5a is higher. This is how it works: n 1c 1b 1a 2c 2b 2a 3c 3b 3a 4c 4b 4a 5c 5b 5a ect. Student from BGP. N.S.S
The Iphone 5C is Iphone 5Colorful 5c can also stand for thenumber 500 ("c" is the Roman numeral for 100) or for 5 degreesCelsius (centigrade) . +++ . "5c" can not stand for any Roman numerals forthree reasons. For a start you do not mix Arabic and Roman numeralslike that - it would be nonsensica…l. Secondly, the Roman for 100 is capital " C ", but thirdly, in the Romanscale, 5 is V, 50 is L and 500 is D. The ' C ' isalso capital for degrees Celsius / Centigrade. (MORE)
Lear Jet business plane, and announced in 1965 that he had developed a cartridge with eight tracks that promised to lower the price of recorded tapes without any sacrifice in music quality.
An 8 track tape was one of the first ways that people listened tomusic. They were invented in the 40's but were not made forhousehold use until the early 50's. They did not catch on until thelate 60's.
From 1961 through 1964 - silver (2.83 grams at 50% pure - 0.0455 troy ounces ASW [Actual Silver Weight]) From 1965 through 1982 - nickel (2.5 grams) From 1990 onward - copper-plated steel (4.5 grams)
There are multiple animals on 5 cent coins depending on the country and time period such as the Buffalo on the US "buffalo nickel", the Beaver on the Canadian nickel, etc.
You can't tell a thing about -5c+9 until you know what 'c' is. And every time 'c' changes, -5c+9 changes.
A US five cent piece weighs 5.00 grams, has a composition of 0.750 copper & 0.250 nickel and a diameter: 21.2 mm.
The only animal to appear on the 5c coin in US currency is thebuffalo (1913-1938) Canadian 5c coins normally have a picture of a beaver building adam, although special commemoratives issued during the 1967Centennial carry a picture of a snowshoe hare. Australian 5c coins have a picture of an echid…na, which is anunusual egg-laying mammal found only in that country. New Zealand 5c coins carried a picture of a reptile called atuatara. The denomination was eliminated in 2006 due to lowpurchasing power. (MORE)
5cc? cc means cubic centimetres which is equal to ml, so 5ml. if you mean cl, then that is equal to 50ml
The 'answer' is the number that 'c' must be, if 5c is really the same as -75. In order to find out what number that is, you could use 'algebra'. First, write the equation, so that you can look at it: 5c = -75 Now, use the law of algebra that says: "If equals are divided by equals, then… the quotients are equal". The left and right sides of your equation are equals. Divide them both by 5, and that law says that the quotients on both sides will be equal: c = -15 (MORE)
A collet is used for clamping purposes. It forms a collar around an object, and clamps down on it as it is tightened. A 5C collet has external threads used for lathes.
Apple started accepting pre-orders for the iPhone 5C on 13 September 2013, and will be released in stores on 20 September 2013.
$99 It depends if you get a contract and from who your buying it from. Amazon is cheap and contract free.
The iPhone 5c is 640 x 1136 pixels. That is about 326 pixels persquare inch (ppi).
I have the CISCO 2921-V/K9 router. To connect your iPhone 5c to wifi, you need reset your router's password. Following the guide to solve problem: (See related Link)
(-5) degrees Celsius = 23 degrees Fahrenheit. Formula: [Â°F] = [Â°C] Ã 9 â 5 + 32
Some people say that the 'c' stands for cheap, because the iPhone 5is made out of plastic (polycarbonate frame reinforced with steel).There is no answer to what the 'c' means but it is presumed that itmeans colour because the 5c comes in 5 colors.
The iPhone 5s has a metal housing while the iPhone 5c has a plasticcase. There are minor variations in quality of parts, but overall,the 5s is likely the better phone.
The iPhone 5c has an 8 megapixel camera on the rear and a 1.2megapixel camera on the front. It has the same camera as the iPhone5 and the iPhone 5s.
The screen is 4" big. The height is 4.9", width is 2.33" and thedepth is 0.35"
The iPhone 5c weighs 4.65 ounches. It is heavier than the iPhone 5and 5s which weight 3.95.
First go to your Settings. Open the Sound tab. At the "Ringer andAlerts" section turn the volume up. If you want to vibrate and ringthen turn on the "Vibrate on Ring". If you don't, then don't turnit on.
According to the Apple Store (link below) Without a service contract: -iPhone 5c - 16GB: $549 (404 Euros) -iPhone 5c - 32GB: $649 (478 Euros) With a service contract: -iPhone 5c - 16GB: $99 (73 Euros) -iPhone 5c - 32GB: $199 (147 Euros) Prices may vary depending on where you purch…ase the phone, and additional features. (MORE)
iPhone 5s comes pre-installed with the several apps. These apps areMaps, Messages, Passbook, Camera, Reminders, Notes, Phone, Videos,Weather, FaceTime, iTunes Store, Stocks, Music, Game Center,Calculator, Safari, Calendar, Voice Memos, App Store, Contacts,Mail, and Newsstand. The rest of the apps yo…u need to download offof the App Store. (MORE)
It does not come preloaded, but there are a few available for free in the App Store.
The iPhone 5c comes in 5 colours, pink, green, white, blue andyellow. You can buy different colour cases. You can also changeyour background on you lock screen and home screen.
There are many people who really like the iPhone 5C. If you likeApple products, you would most likely enjoy the colored iPhone.
Unlocking a iPhone 5 is easy. All you have to do is take it to aphone company and have them do it.
You will have to download the IOS 8 on the iPhone 5c. This is easyto install.
The finger scanner is called Touch ID. It comes built into phones.The 5s, 6 and 6s all have Touch ID but the 5c doesn't.
It depends on whether it is measured before it is bent out of shape or after!
The dimensions to the iPhone 5C are 4.90 inches tall, 2.33 inches wide, and 0.353 inches in thickness.
If you own the phone and have forgotten the lock, you'll have to take it to your phone retailer with proof that you own the phone (for example a printed copy of your phone bill). If you do not own the phone legally, you have to hand it in to the nearest iPhone/Apple retailer or the local police. At…tempting to access a phone you do not own is a criminal offence. And believe it or not, "finders keepers" is actually a myth. The law states you must put in considerable effort to make sure the lost item find its way back into the hands of the owner. It's also possible that the phone has a tracking device on it, as many smartphones do nowadays, either through paid contract services or through a downloaded app. If it's yours and you forgot the code, take it to the retailer with proof you own it. If it's not yours, take it to the retailer or the police (or risk being traced and arrested for handling stolen/missing goods). Take it to the retailer, a local iphone shop, with proof of ownership. See the expert answer. (MORE)
The iPhone 5c came out in 2013 and may or may not still beavailable from Apple in 2015.
The answer to this is always subjective, based on what you'relooking for in a phone. If you like the iPhone, then you willprobably like the 5c. If you prefer the Galaxy series (or anotherAndroid phone), you might loathe the 5c. If you're coming from a Blackberry or a Windowsphone, you might be ind…ifferent. (MORE)
1 dollar = 100 cents = 5 cents x 20 then 18 x 20 = 360 Answer: there are 360 5 cent coins in $18
IPhone 5 body size: 123.8x58.6x7.6mm iphone 5C body size: 124.4x59.2x8.97mm iphone 5S body size: 123.8x58.6x7.6mm from three mobile phone book terrorist spending than watchers noteberth Lu body size parameters of the chips can be seen, the iPhone5 and the iPhone 5S size and thickness are the same, i…Phone 5C than5 and 5S to be long, wide, also want to thick. from www # eggask # com (MORE)
If that is an equation: 5c = 10 then the value of c is 2