Which is the oldest industry in India?
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A mulberry tree [ Morus spp ] is the oldest tree in the state of Uttaranchal, and in fact of all India. Mulberries aren't known for being long lived. But the Badrinath Temple tree is beating the odds. Specifically, it's reputed to be at least 1,200 years old. It no longer fruits. But it still gr…ows fresh leaves and beautiful flowers. (MORE)
â¢\nThe 450 year-old giant banyan tree at Adyar in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, in the grounds of the Theosophical Society headquarters under which people listened to discourses by luminaries such as J. Krishnamurti, Annie Besant and Maria Montessori is the oldest living tree in India..
The main problems which are faced are: These are all problems for obvious reasons. If countries are going to be looking to get their overseas products from other countries which are going to do the work and provide the products on a cheaper scale, then they are not going to want to do business …with India any longer. The prices which have dropped have resulted in many businesses going bust and therefore many people within India are going to be struggling to make ends meet and keep their families fed and watered. So the don't get enough income and are not profitable. (MORE)
Ramaswamy Venkataraman was the oldest vice-president of India; he died at the age of 99 years old. He was born on December 4, 1910 and died on January 27, 2009, aside from being the vice-president of India he also became as the 8th president of India.
STATEMENT ON INDUSTRIAL POLICY New Delhi, July 24, 1991. POLICY OBJECTIVES Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru laid the foundations of modern India. His vision and determination have left a lasting impression on every facet of national endeavour since Independence. It is due to his initiative that India no…w has a strong and diversified industrial base and is a major industrial nation of the world. The goals and objectives set out for the nation by Pandit Nehru on the eve of Independence, namely, the rapid agricultural and industrial development of our country, rapid expansion of opportunities for gainful employment, progressive reduction of social and economic disparities, removal of poverty and attainment of self-reliance remain as valid today as at the time Pandit Nehru first set them out before the nation. Any industrial policy must contribute to the realisation of these goals and objectives at an accelerated pace. The present statement of industrial policy is inspired by these very concerns, and represents a renewed initiative towards consolidating the gains of national reconstruction at this crucial stage. 2. In 1948, immediately after Independence, Government introduced the Industrial Policy Resolution. This outlined the approach to industrial growth and development. It emphasised the importance to the economy of securing a continuous increase in production and ensuring its equitable distribution. After the adoption of the Constitution and the socio-economic goals, the Industrial Policy was comprehensively revised and adopted in 1956. To meet new challenges, from time to time, it was modified through statements in 1973, 1977 and 1980. 3. The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1948 was followed by the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 which had as its objective the acceleration of the rate of economic growth and the speeding up of industrialisation as a means of achieving a socialist pattern of society. In 1956, capital was scarce and the base of entrepreneurship not strong enough. Hence, the 1956 Industrial Policy Resolution gave primacy to the role of the State to assume a predominant and direct responsibility for industrial development. 4. The Industrial Policy statement of 1973, inter alia, identified high-priority industries where investment from large industrial houses and foreign companies would be permitted. 5. The Industrial Policy Statement of 1977 laid emphasis on decentralisation and on the role of small-scale, tiny and cottage industries. 6. The Industrial Policy Statement of 1980 focused attention on the need for promoting competition in the domestic market, technological upgradation and modernisation. The policy laid the foundation for an increasingly competitive export based and for encouraging foreign investment in high-technology areas. This found expression in the Sixth Five Year Plan which bore the distinct stamp of Smt. Indira Gandhi. It was Smt. Indira Gandhi who emphasised the need for productivity to be the central concern in all economic and production activities. 7. These policies created a climate for rapid industrial growth in the country. Thus on the eve of the Seventh Five Year Plan, a broad-based infrastructure had been built up. Basic industries had been established. A high degree of self-reliance in a large number of items - raw materials, intermediates, finished goods - had been achieved. New growth centres of industrial activity had emerged, as had a new generation of entrepreneurs. A large number of engineers, technicians and skilled workers had also been trained. 8. The Seventh Plan recognised the need to consolidate on these strengths and to take initiatives to prepare Indian industry to respond effectively to the emerging challenges. A number of policy and procedural changes were introduced in 1985 and 1986 under the leadership of Shri Rajiv Gandhi aimed at increasing productivity, reducing costs and improving quality. The accent was on opening the domestic market to increased competition and readying our industry to stand on its own in the face of international competition. The public sector was freed from a number of constraints and given a larger measure of autonomy. The technological and managerial modernisation of industry was pursued as the key instrument for increasing productivity and improving our competitiveness in the world. The net result of all these changes was that Indian industry grew by an impressive average annual growth rate of 8.5% in the Seventh Plan period. 9. Government is pledged to launching a reinvigorated struggle for social and economic justice, to end poverty and unemployment and to build a modern, democratic, socialist, prosperous and forward-looking India. Such a society can be built if India grows as part of the world economy and not in isolation. 10. While Government will continue to follow the policy of self-reliance, there would be greater emphasis placed on building up our ability to pay for imports through our own foreign exchange earnings. Government is also committed to development and utilisation of indigenous capabilities in technology and manufacturing as well as its upgradation to world standards. 11. Government will continue to pursue a sound policy framework encompassing encouragement of entrepreneurship, development of indigenous technology through investment in research and development, bringing in new technology, dismantling of the regulatory system, development of the capital markets and increasing competitiveness for the benefit of the common man. The spread of industrialisation to backward areas of the country will be actively promoted through appropriate incentives, institutions and infrastructure investments. 12. Government will provide enhanced support to the small-scale sector so that it flourishes in an environment of economic efficiency and continuous technological upgradation. 13. Foreign investment and technology collaboration will be welcomed to obtain higher technology, to increase exports and to expand the production base. 14. Government will endeavour to abolish the monopoly of any sector or any individual enterprise in any field of manufacture, except on strategic or military considerations and open all manufacturing activity to competition. 15. The Government will ensure that the public sector plays its rightful role in the evolving socio-economic scenario of the country. Government will ensure that the public sector is run on business lines as envisaged in the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 and would continue to innovate and lead in strategic areas of national importance. In the 1950s and 1960s, the principal instrument for controlling the commanding heights of the economy was investment in the capital of key industries. Today, the State has other instruments of intervention, particularly fiscal and monetary instruments. The State also commands the bulk of the nation's savings. Banks and financial institutions are under State control. Where State intervention is necessary, these instruments will prove more effective and decisive. 16. Government will fully protect the interests of labour, enhance their welfare and equip them in all respects to deal with the inevitability of technological change. Government believes that no small section of society can corner the gains of growth, leaving workers to bear its pains. Labour will be made an equal partner in progress and prosperity. Workers' participation in management will be promoted. Workers cooperatives will be encouraged to participate in packages designed to turn around sick companies. Intensive training, skill development and upgradation programmes will be launched. 17. Government will continue to visualise new horizons. The major objectives of the new industrial policy package will be to build on the gains already made, correct the distortions or weaknesses that may have crept in, maintain a sustained growth in productivity and gainful employment and attain international competitiveness. The pursuit of these objectives will be tempered by the need to preserve the environment and ensure the efficient use of available resources. All sector of industry whether small, medium or large, belonging to the public, private or cooperative sector will be encouraged to grow and improve on their past performance. 18. Government's policy will be continuity with change. 19. In pursuit of the above objectives, Government have decided to take a series of initiatives in respect of the policies relating to the following areas. A. Industrial Licensing. B. Foreign Investment C. Foreign Technology Agreements. D. Public Sector Policy E. MRTP Act. A package for the Small and Tiny Sectors of industry is being announced separately. A. INDUSTRIAL LICENSING POLICY 20. Industrial Licensing is governed by the Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951. The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 identified the following three categories of industries: those that would be reserved for development in public sector, those that would be permitted for development through private enterprise with or without State participation, and those in which investment initiatives would ordinarily emanate from private entrepreneurs. Over the years, keeping in view the changing industrial scene in the country, the policy has undergone modifications. Industrial licensing policy and procedures have also been liberalised from time to time. A full realisation of the industrial potential of the country calls for a continuation of this process of change. 21. In order to achieve the objectives of the strategy for the industrial sector for the 1990s and beyond it is necessary to make a number of changes in the system of industrial approvals. Major policy initiatives and procedural reforms are called for in order to actively encourage and assist Indian entrepreneurs to exploit and meet the emerging domestic and global opportunities and challenges. The bedrock of any such package of measures must be to let the entrepreneurs make investment decisions on the basis of their own commercial judgment. The attainment of technological dynamism and international competitiveness requires that enterprises must be enabled to swiftly respond to fast changing external conditions that have become characteristic of today's industrial world. Government policy and procedures must be geared to assisting entrepreneurs in their efforts. This can be done only if the role played by the government were to be changed from that of only exercising control to one of providing help and guidance by making essential procedures fully transparent and by eliminating delays. 22. The winds of change have been with us for some time. The industrial licensing system has been gradually moving away from the concept of capacity licensing. The system of reservations for public sector undertakings has been evolving towards an ethos of greater flexibility and private sector enterprise has been gradually allowed to enter into many of these areas on a case by case basis. Further impetus must be provided to these changes which alone can push this country towards the attainment of its entrepreneurial and industrial potential. This calls for bold and imaginative decisions designed to remove restraints on capacity creation, while at the same, ensuring that over-riding national interests are not jeopardised. 23. In the above context, industrial licensing will henceforth be abolished for all industries, except those specified, irrespective of levels of investment. These specified industries (Annex-II), will continue to be subject to compulsory licensing for reasons related to security and strategic concerns, social reasons, problems related to safety and over-riding environmental issues, manufacture of products of hazardous nature and articles of elitist consumption. The exemption from licensing will be particularly helpful to the many dynamic small and medium entrepreneurs who have been unnecessarily hampered by the licensing system. As a whole the Indian economy will benefit by becoming more competitive, more efficient and modern and will take its rightful place in the world of industrial progress. B. FOREIGN INVESTMENT 24. While freeing Indian industry from official controls, opportunities for promoting foreign investments in India should also be fully exploited. In view of the significant development of India's industrial economy in the last 40 years, the general resilience, size and level of sophistication achieved, and the significant changes that have also taken place in the world industrial economy, the relationship between domestic and foreign industry needs to be much more dynamic than it has been in the past in terms of both technology and investment. Foreign investment would bring attendant advantages of technology transfer, marketing expertise, introduction of modern managerial techniques and new possibilities for promotion of exports. This is particularly necessary in the changing global scenario of industrial and economic cooperation marked by mobility of capital. The government will therefore welcome foreign investment which is in the interest of the country's industrial development. 25. In order to invite foreign investment in high priority industries, requiring large investments and advanced technology, it has been decided to provide approval for direct foreign investment upto 51% foreign equity in such industries. There shall be no bottlenecks of any kind in this process. This group of industries has generally been known as the "Appendix I Industries" and are areas in which FERA companies have already been allowed to invest on a discretionary basis. This change will go a long way in making Indian policy on foreign investment transparent. Such a framework will make it attractive for companies abroad to invest in India. 26. Promotion of exports of Indian products calls for a systematic exploration of world markets possible only through intensive and highly professional marketing activities. To the extent that expertise of this nature is not well developed so far in India, Government will encourage foreign trading companies to assist us in our export activities. Attraction of substantial investment and access to high technology, often closely held, and to world markets, involves interaction with some of the world's largest international manufacturing and marketing firms. The Government will appoint a special board to negotiate with such firms so that we can engage in purposive negotiation with such large firms, and provide the avenues for large investments in the development of industries and technology in the national interest. C. FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY AGREEMENT 27. There is a great need for promoting an industrial environment where the acquisition of technological capability receives priority. In the fast changing world of technology the relationship between the suppliers and users of technology must be a continuous one. Such a relationship becomes difficult to achieve when the approval process includes unnecessary governmental interference on a case to case basis involving endemic delays and fostering uncertainty. The Indian entrepreneur has now come of age so that he no longer needs such bureaucratic clearances of his commercial technology relationships with foreign technology suppliers. Indian industry can scarcely be competitive with the rest of the world if it is to operate within such a regulatory environment. 28. With a view to injecting the desired level of technological dynamism in Indian industry, Government will provide automatic approval for technology agreement related to high priority industries within specified parameters. Similar facilities will be available for other industries as well if such agreements do not require the expenditure of free exchange. Indian companies will be free to negotiate the terms of technology transfer with their foreign counterparts according to their own commercial judgment. The predictability and independence of action that this measure is providing to Indian industry will induce them to develop indigenous competence for the efficient absorption of foreign technology. Greater competitive pressure will also induce our industry to invest much more in research and development and they have been doing in the past. In order to help this process, the hiring of foreign technicians and foreign testing of indigenously developed technologies, will also not require prior clearance as prescribed so far, individually or as a part of industrial or investment approvals. D. PUBLIC SECTOR POLICY 29. The public sector has been central to our philosophy of development. In the pursuit of our development objectives, public ownership and control in critical sector of the economy has played an important role in preventing the concentration of economic power, reducing regional disparities and ensuring that planned development serves the common good. 30. The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 gave the public sector a strategic role in the economy. Massive investments have been made over the past four decades to build a public sector which has a commanding role in the economy. Today key sectors of the economy are dominated by mature public enterprises that have successfully expanded production, opened up new areas of technology and built up a reserve of technical competence in a number of areas. 31. After the initial exuberance of the public sector entering new areas of industrial and technical competence, a number of problems have begun to manifest themselves in many of the public enterprises. Serious problems are observed in the insufficient growth in productivity, poor project management, over-manning, lack of continuous technological upgradation, and inadequate attention to R&D and human resource development. In addition, public enterprises have shown a very low rate of return on the capital invested. This has inhibited their ability to re-generate themselves in terms of new investments as well as in technology development. The result is that many of the public enterprises have become a burden rather than being an asset to the Government. The original concept of the public sector has also undergone considerable dilution. The most striking example is the take over of sick units from the private sector. This category of public sector units accounts for almost one third of the total losses of central public enterprises. Another category of public enterprises, which does not fit into the original idea of the public sector being at the commanding heights of the economy, is the plethora of public enterprises which are in the consumer goods and services sectors. 32. It is time therefore that the Government adopt a new approach to public enterprises. There must be a greater commitment to the support of public enterprises which are essential for the operation of the industrial economy. Measures must be taken to make these enterprises more growth oriented and technically dynamic. Units which may be faltering at present but are potentially viable must be restructured and given a new lease of life. The priority areas for growth of public enterprises in the future will be the following. Â· Essential infrastructure goods and services. Â· Exploration and exploitation of oil and mineral resources. Â· Technology development and building of manufacturing capabilities in areas which are crucial in the long term development of the economy and where private sector investment is inadequate. Â· Manufacture of products where strategic considerations predominate such as defence equipment. At the same time the public sector will not be barred from entering areas not specifically reserved for it. 33. In view of these considerations, Government will review the existing portfolio of public investments with greater realism. This review will be in respect of industries based on low technology, small scale and non-strategic areas, inefficient and unproductive areas, areas with low or nil social considerations or public purpose, and areas where the private sector has developed sufficient expertise and resources. 34. Government will strengthen those public enterprises which fall in the reserved areas of operation or are in high priority areas or are generating good or reasonable profits. Such enterprises will be provided a much greater degree of management autonomy through the system of memoranda of understanding. Competition will also be induced in these areas by inviting private sector participation. In the case of selected enterprises, part of Government holdings in the equity share capital of these enterprises will be disinvested in order to provide further market discipline to the performance of public enterprises. There are a large number of chronically sick public enterprises incurring heavy losses, operating in a competitive market and serve little or no public purpose. These need to be attended to. The country must be proud of the public sector that it owns and it must operate in the public interest. E. MONOPOLIES AND RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT (MRTP ACT) 35. The principal objectives sought to be achieved through the MRTP Act are as follows: i. Prevention of concentration of economic power to the common detriment, control of monopolies, and ii. Prohibition of monopolistic and restrictive and unfair trade practices. 36. The MRTP Act became effective in June 1970. With the emphasis placed on productivity in the Sixth Plan, major amendments to the MRTP Act were carried out in 1982 and 1984 in order to remove impediments to industrial growth and expansion. This process of change was given a new momentum in 1985 by an increase of threshold limit of assets. 37. With the growing complexity of industrial structure and the need for achieving economies of scale for ensuring high productivity and competitive advantage in the international market, the interference of the Government through the MRTP Act in investment decisions of large companies has become deleterious in its effects on Indian industrial growth. The pre-entry scrutiny of investment decisions by so called MRTP companies will no longer be required. Instead, emphasis will be on controlling and regulating monopolistic, restrictive and unfair trade practices rather than making it necessary for the monopoly house to obtain prior approval of Central Government for expansion, establishment of new undertakings, merger, amalgamation and takeover and appointment of certain directors. The thrust of policy will be more on controlling unfair or restrictive business practices. The MRTP Act will be restructured by eliminating the legal requirement for prior governmental approval for expansion of present undertakings and establishment of new undertakings. The provisions relating to merger, amalgamation, and takeover will also be repealed. Similarly, the provisions regarding restrictions on acquisition of and transfer of shares will be appropriately incorporated in the Companies Act. 38. Simultaneously, provisions of the MRTP Act will be strengthened in order to enable the MRTP Commission to take appropriate action in respect of the monopolistic, restrictive and unfair trade practices. The newly empowered MRTP Commission will be encouraged to require investigation suo moto or on complaints received from individual consumers or classes of consumers. F. DECISIONS OF GOVERNMENT 39. In view of the considerations outlined above Government have decided to take a series of measures to unshackle the Indian industrial economy from the cobwebs of unnecessary bureaucratic control. These measures complement the other series of measures being taken by Government in the areas of trade policy, exchange rate management, fiscal policy, financial sector reform and overall macro economic management. A. Industrial Licensing Policy i. Industrial licensing will be abolished for all projects except for a short list of industries related to security and strategic concerns, social reasons, hazardous chemicals and overriding environmental reasons, and items of elitist consumption (list attached as Annex II). Industries reserved for the small scale sector will continue to be so reserved. ii. Areas where security and strategic concerns predominate, will continue to be reserved for the public sector (list attached as Annex I). iii. In projects where imported capital goods are required, automatic clearance will be given a. in cases where foreign exchange availability is ensured through foreign equity or b. if the CIF value of imported capital goods required is less than 25% of total value (net of taxes ) of plant and equipment, upto a maximum value of Rs. 2 crore. In view of the current difficult foreign exchange situation, this scheme (i.e. (iii) b) will come into force from April, 1992. In other cases, imports of capital goods will require clearance from the Secretariat for Industrial Approvals (SIA) in the Department of Industrial Development according to availability of foreign exchange resources. iv. In locations other than cities of more than 1 million population, there will be no requirement of obtaining industrial approvals from the Central Government except for industries subject to compulsory licensing. In respect of cities with population greater than 1 million, industries other than those of a non polluting nature such as electronics, computer software and printing will be located outside 25 kms. of the periphery, except in prior designated industrial areas. A flexible location policy would be adopted in respect of such cities (with population greater than 1 million) which require industrial re-generation. Zoning and Land Use Regulation and Environmental Legislation will continue to regulate industrial locations. Appropriate incentives and the design of investments in infrastructure development will be used to promote the dispersal of industry particularly to rural and backward areas and to reduce congestion in cities. v. The system of phased manufacturing programmes run on an administrative case by case basis will be applicable to new projects. Existing projects with such programmes will continue to be governed by them. vi. Existing units will be provided a new broad banding facility to enable them to produce any article without additional investment. vii. The exemption from licensing will apply to all substantial expansions of existing units. viii. The mandatory convertibility clause will no longer be applicable for term loans from the financial institutions for new projects. Procedural consequences ix. All existing registration schemes (Delicensed Registration, Exempted Industries Registration, DGTD registration) will be abolished. x. Entrepreneurs will henceforth only be required to file an information memorandum on new projects and substantial expansions. xi. The lists at Annex II and Annex III will be notified in the Indian Trade Classification (Harmonised System). B. Foreign Investment i. Approval will be given for direct foreign investment upto 51 percent foreign equity in high priority industries (Annex III). There shall be no bottlenecks of any kind in this process. Such clearance will be available if foreign equity covers the foreign exchange requirement for imported capital goods. Consequential amendments to the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (1973) shall be carried out. ii. While the import of components, raw materials and intermediate goods, and payment of knowhow fees and royalties will be governed by the general policy applicable to other domestic units, the payment of dividends would be monitored through the Reserve Bank of India so as to ensure that outflows on account of dividend payments are balanced by export earnings over a period of time. iii. Other foreign equity proposals, including proposals involving 51% foreign equity which do not meet the criteria under (I) above, will continue to need prior clearance. Foreign equity proposals need not necessarily be accompanied by foreign technology agreements. iv. To provide access to international markets, majority foreign equity holding upto 51% equity will be allowed for trading companies primarily engaged in export activities. While the thrust would be on export activities, such trading houses shall be at par with domestic trading and export houses in accordance with the Import Export Policy. v. A special Empowered Board would be constituted to negotiate with a number of large international firms and approve direct foreign investment in select areas. This would be a special programme to attract substantial investment that would provide access to high technology and world markets. The investment programmes of such firms would be considered in totality, free from pre-determined parameters or procedures. C. Foreign Technology Agreements i. Automatic permission will be given for foreign technology agreements in high priority industries (Annex III) upto a lumpsum payment of Rs. 1 crore, 5% royalty for domestic sales and 8% for exports, subject to total payment of 8% of sales over a 10 year period from date of agreement or 7 years from commencement of production. The prescribed royalty rates are net of taxes and will be calculated according to standard procedures. ii. In respect of industries other than those in Annex III, automatic permission will be given subject to the same guidelines as above if no free foreign exchange is required for any payments. iii. All other proposals will need specific approval under the general procedures in force. iv. No permission will be necessary for hiring of foreign technicians, foreign testing of indigenously developed technologies. Payment may be made from blanket permits or free foreign exchange according to RBI guidelines. D. Public Sector i. Portfolio of public sector investments will be reviewed with a view to focus the public sector on strategic, high-tech and essential infrastructure. Whereas some reservation for the public sector is being retained there would be no bar for areas of exclusivity to be opened up to the private sector selectively. Similarly the public sector will also be allowed entry in areas not reserved for it. ii. Public enterprises which are chronically sick and which are unlikely to be turned around will, for the formulation of revival/rehabilitation schemes, be referred to the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), or other similar high level institutions created for the purpose. A social security mechanism will be created to protect the interests of workers likely to be affected by such rehabilitation packages. iii. In order to raise resources and encourage wider public participation, a part of the government's shareholding in the public sector would be offered to mutual funds, financial institutions, general public and workers. iv. Boards of public sector companies would be made more professional and given greater powers. v. There will be a greater thrust on performance improvement through the Memoranda of understanding (MOU) systems through which managements would be granted greater autonomy and will be held accountable. Technical expertise on the part of the Government would be upgraded to make the MOU negotiations and implementation more effective. vi. To facilitate a fuller discussion on performance, the MOU signed between Government and the public enterprise would be placed in Parliament. While focussing on major management issues, this would also help place matters on day to day operations of public enterprises in their correct perspective. E. MRTP Act i. The MRTP Act will be amended to remove the threshold limits of assets in respect of MRTP companies and dominant undertakings. This eliminates the requirement of prior approval of Central Government for establishment of new undertakings, expansion of undertakings, merger, amalgamation and takeover and appointment of Directors under certain circumstances. ii. Emphasis will be placed on controlling and regulating monopolistic, restrictive and unfair trade practices. Simultaneously, the newly empowered MRTP Commission will be authorised to initiative investigations suo moto or on complaints received from individual consumers or classes of consumers in regard to monopolistic, restrictive and unfair trade practices. iii. Necessary comprehensive amendments will be made in the MRTP Act in this regard and for enabling the MRTP Commission to exercise punitive and compensatory powers. ANNEX I PROPOSED LIST OF INDUSTRIES TO BE RESERVED FOR THE PUBLIC SECTOR 1. Arms and ammunition and allied items of defence equipment, Defence aircraft and warships. 2. Atomic Energy. 3. Coal and lignite. 4. Mineral oils. 5. Mining if iron ore, manganese ore, chrome ore, gypsum, sulphur, gold and diamond. 6. Mining of copper, lead, zinc, tin, molybdenum and wolfram. 7. Minerals specified in the Schedule to the Atomic Energy (Control of Production and Use) Order, 1953. 8. Railway transport. ANNEX II LIST OF INDUSTRIES IN RESPECT OF WHICH INDUSTRIAL LICENSING WILL BE COMPULSORY 1. Coal and Lignite. 2. Petroleum (other than crude) and its distillation products. 3. Distillation and brewing of alcoholic drinks . 4. Sugar. 5. Animal fats and oils. 6. Cigars and cigarettes of tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes. 7. Asbestos and asbestos-based products. 8. Plywood, decorative veneers, and other wood based products such as particle board, medium density fibre board, block board. 9. Raw hides and skins, leather, chamois leather and patent leather. 10. Tanned or dressed furskins. 11. Motor cars. 12. Paper and Newsprint except bagasse-based units. 13. Electronic aerospace and defence equipment; All types. 14. Industrial explosives, including detonating fuse, safety fuse, gun powder, nitrocellulose and matches. 15. Hazardous chemicals. 16. Drugs and Pharmaceuticals (according to Drug Policy). 17. Entertainment electronics (VCRs, colour TVs, C.D. Players, Tape Recorders). 18. White Goods (Domestic Refrigerators, Domestic Dishwashing machines, Programmable Domestic Washing Machines, Microwave ovens, Airconditioners). Note: The compulsory licensing provisions would not apply in respect of the small-scale units taking up the manufacture of any of the above items reserved for exclusive manufacture in small scale sector. ANNEX III LIST OF INDUSTRIES FOR AUTOMATIC APPROVAL OF FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY AGREEMENTS AND FOR 51% FOREIGN EQUITY APPROVALS 1. Metallurgical Industries i. Ferro alloys. ii. Castings and forgings. iii. Non-ferrous metals and their alloys. iv. Sponge iron and pelletisation. v. Large diameter steel welded pipes of over 300 mm diameter and stainless steel pipes. vi. Pig iron. 2. Boilers and Steam Generating Plants 3. Prime Movers (other than electrical generators) i. Industrial turbines. ii. Internal combustion engines. iii. Alternate energy systems like solar wind etc. and equipment therefor. iv. Gas/hydro/steam turbines upto 60 MW. 4. Electrical Equipment i. Equipment for transmission and distribution of electricity including power and distribution transformers, power relays, HT-switch gear synchronous condensers. ii. Electrical motors. iii. Electrical furnaces, industrial furnaces and induction heating equipment. iv. X-ray equipment. v. Electronic equipment, components including subscribers' end telecommunication equipments. vi. Component wires for manufacture of lead-in wires. vii. Hydro/steam/gas generators/generating sets upto 60 MW. viii. Generating sets and pumping sets based on internal combustion engines. ix. Jelly-filled telecommunication cables. x. Optic fibre. xi. Energy efficient lamps and xii. Midget carbon electrodes. 5. Transportation i. Mechanised sailing vessels upto 10,000 DWT including fishing trawlers. ii. Ship ancillaries. iii. (a) Commercial vehicles, public transport vehicles including automotive commercial three wheeler jeep type vehicles, industrial locomotives. (b) Automotive two wheelers and three wheelers. (c) Automotive components/spares and ancillaries. iv. Shock absorbers for railway equipment and v. Brake system for railway stock and locomotives. 6. Industrial Machinery i. Industrial machinery and equipment. 7. i. Machine tools and industrial robots and their controls and accessories. ii. Jigs, fixtures, tools and dies of specilised types and cross land tooling, and iii. Engineering production aids such as cutting and forming tools, patterns and dies and tools. 8. Agricultural Machinery i. Tractors. ii. Self-propelled Harvestor Combines. iii. Rice transplanters. 9. Earth Moving Machinery i. Earth moving machinery and construction machinery and components thereof. 10. Industrial Instruments i. Indicating, recording and regulating devices for pressures, temperatures, rate of flow weights levels and the like. 11. Scientific and Electromedical Instruments and Laboratory Equipment. 12. Nitrogenous & Phosphatic Fertilizers falling under i. Inorganic fertilizers under '18-Fertilizers' in the First Schedule to IDR Act, 1951. 13. Chemicals (other than fertilizers). i. Heavy organic chemicals including petrochemicals. ii. Heavy inorganic chemicals. iii. Organic fine chemicals. iv. Synthetic resins and plastics. v. Man made fibres. vi. Synthetic rubber. vii. Industrial explosives. viii. Technical grade insecticides, fungicides, weedicides, and the like. ix. Synthetic detergents x. Miscellaneous chemicals (for industrial use only) a. Catalysts and catalyst supports. b. Photographic chemicals. c. Rubber chemicals. d. Polyols. e. Isocyanates, urethanes, etc. f. Speciality chemicals for enhanced oil recovery. g. Heating fluids. h. Coal tar distillation and product therefrom. i. Tonnage plants for the manufacture of industrial gases. j. High altitude breathing oxygen/medical oxygen. k. Nitrous oxide. l. Refrigerant gases like liquid nitrogen, carbon dioxide etc.in large volumes. m.Argon and other rare gases. n. Alkali/acid resisting cement compound o. Leather chemicals and auxiliaries. 14. Drugs and Pharmaceuticals According to Drug Policy. 15. i. Paper and pulp including paper products. ii. Industrial laminates. 16. i. Automobile tyres and tubes. ii. Rubberised heavy duty industrial beltings of all types. iii. Rubberised conveyor beltings. iv. Rubber reinforced and lined fire fighting hose pipes. v. High pressure braided hoses. vi. Engineering and industrial plastic products. 17. Plate Glass i. Glass shells for television tubes. ii. Float glass and plate glass. iii. H.T. insulators. iv. Glass fibres of all types. 18. Ceramics i. Ceramics for industrial uses. 19. Cement Products i. Portland cement. ii. Gypsum boards, wall boards and the like. 20. High Technology Reproduction and Multiplication Equipment. 21. Carbon and Carbon Products i. Graphite electrodes and anodes. ii. Impervious graphite blocks and sheets. 22. Pretensioned High Pressure RCC Pipes. 23. Rubber Machinery 24. Printing Machinery. i. Web-fed high speed off-set rotary printing machine having output of 30,000 or more impressions per hour. ii. Photo composing/type setting machines. iii. Multi-colour sheet-fed off-set printing machines of sizes 18"x25" and above. iv. High speed rotograture printing machines having output of 30,000 or more impressions per hour. 25. Welding Electrodes other than those for Welding Mild Steel 26. Industrial Synthetic Diamonds. 27. i. Photosynthesis improvers. ii. Genetically modified free living symbiotics nitrogen fixer. iii. Pheromones. iv. Bio-insecticides. 28. Extraction and Upgrading of Minor Oils 29. Pre-fabricated Building Material. 30. Soya Products i. Soya texture proteins. ii. Soya protein isolates. iii. Soya protein concentrates. iv. Other specialised products of soyabean. v. Winterised and deodourised refined soyabean oil. 31. (a) Certified high yielding hybrid seeds and synthetic seeds and (b) Certified high yielding plantlets developed through plant tissue culture. 32. All food processing industries other than milk food, malted foods, and flour, but excluding the items reserved for small-scale sector. 33. All items of packaging for food processing industries excluding the items reserved for small scale sector. 34. Hotels and tourism-related industry. The features of India's Small Sector Industrial Policy 1991 The new policy measures for promoting and strengthen small, tiny and village enterprises were announced on 6th August, 1991. The main thrust of the new policy is to impart more vitality and growth to employment and exports. The salient features of the new policy are: . De-regulation, debureaucratisation and simplification on status, regulations and procedures. . Increase in the investment limit in plant and machinery of ting enterprise forms 21 lake to Rs 50 lakh, irrespective of the location of the unit. . Inclusion of industry related services and business enterprises, irrespective of their location, as small scale industries. . Ensuring both adequate flow of credit on a normative basis and quality of its delivery for viable operation on the SSI sector. . Setting up a special monitoring agency to oversee the genuine credit needs of the small scale sector . . Introduction of suitable legislation to ensure prompt payment of small industries bills. . Introduction of a scheme of Integrated Infrastructural development (including technological back up services) for small scale industries . . Setting up a Technology Developed Cell in the Small Industries development Organization. . Market promotion of SSI products through co-operative/public sector institution's other specialized professional/marketing agencies and the consortia approach. . Setting up of an Export Development Center in the Small Industries development Organization. (MORE)
Tanjore big temple.... still it is living......... i cant explain here about the beauty of the temple.....
Chennai is the oldest municipality of India which dates back to 1688 (St. George was the protagonist). some website have Mussoorie as the place but this is very unlikely that the Britishers would have skipped rest of India and would have choosen Musoorie as the place. Reference: http://books.goog…le.com/books?id=Fk8FQa2ZSFQC&pg=PA936&lpg=PA936&dq=%22oldest+Municipality+in+India%22&source=bl&ots=3NfhaAO-QC&sig=Spy_w67QBjDhXpQU4qpsGuxwpAc&hl=en&ei=Ydr_SYi9I4nhtgfv99GFBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9 (MORE)
The majestic Banyan tree is the oldest tree in India, and indeedthe world. This tree is located in Acharya Jagadish Chandra BoseIndian Botanic Garden
When I sailed on merchant ships to India in the mid 1970's, I took a bus tour from one of the Southern India seaports. The details are far from clear. The port was likely either Madras or Cochin, both of which now go by more authentic names rather than these given to them by English colonial rulers.… During a 32 hour time off from my shift work engine room job took a bus tour to one or more temples. The unique aspect of one temple was a tree which was completely surrounded by the mundane architecture of the temple walls which it seemed were only there to showcase, and perhaps protect the tree. My well faded memory recalls being told that the tree was 3 or perhaps 5 thousand years old mango tree. My Indian friends, some of whom are from Southern India, have never heard of this tree temple. They further challenge my recollection with a uniform response that it could not have been a mango tree because they have relatively short lives. They offer an alternative tree, but their description of this other tree doesn't begin to match the imagine in my mind of a vast, sprawling, truly majestic icon. I'd love to hear that somebody out there can share some small morsel of enlightenment about this mystery of mine. (MORE)
i guess the oldest buildings in India are from the harrapan civilasation. dating back to as late as 2600 BCE.
Some of the disadvantages are that everyone works in manufacturing.It also limits the jobs that are available to workers.
The oldest cotton mill in India is called Old Mill. It was a steampowered mill in Ancoats in 1798.
Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India andwas established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect theendangered Bengal tiger. It is located in Nainital district ofUttarakhand and was named after Jim Corbett who played a key rolein its establishment.
It is not mandatory to name the company with "India Ltd". If the company is a Public Limited Company (i.e. the shares of the company is listed with any of the Stock exchanges in India), the Company's name shall end with "Ltd or Limited". Some companies while naming their company for their own reason…s add "India" to their company name. (MORE)
Nobody knows. In one temple in Lothal, near a city uncovered by archeologists and supposed to be 5,000 years old, in which the deity "Vaniar Devi" is still worshiped may be the oldest. Lothal was a sea-port and "Vaniar Devi" is related with trade. Similarly, temples in Kurukshetra, and crematoriums …in Delhi (Nigambodha Ghat) and Varanasi (Dashashwamedha Ghat) are very old and may date from Mahabharata time. (MORE)
The oldest build in India is ashok ki laat. It is from the Harrapancivilization which has been proven to date back as far as 2600 BC.Most of the older buildings are dome shaped.
1.The long colonial rule crippled the crafts men and other workers of the social class . This later ( first war of independence) gave birth to a social class called the working which consisted of people of liberal minds. 2.the want for a better economy.
Tamil Sanskrit The Linguistic mother of India is simply Tamil and Sanskrit . Sanskrit is just the mother of Indo Aryan languages , a langugaes created by the nomadic aryans around 1500bc, Tamil on the other hand is the language of the Indus Soil, it is regardless of North or South of India as it h…as its influence up till northern Pakistan, Brahui is one such example , Ancient Historical facts of Old Tamil dates back more than 7000bc , Sumerian a language that dates back 5000bc is said to be an archaic Tamil . Tamil is said to be the mother of Dravidian Tongues, Malayalam , Kannada, Tulu were languages which offshooted from Tamil, Telugu on the other hand ofshooted from Kannada. Sanskrit (Devanagari) and Dravida (Tamil) Tamil is the very First and Oldest Language in the World It is proved by lot of Scientist and also accepted by most of the scientists. Before Aryans(Sanskrit) comes to India, Dravidian(Tamil) people living in Indai with high standard. Even Aryans don't have any specific language when they comes to India. They develop their language after comes to India only. There is lot of Tamil words in Sanskrit. Ref: ca. 200,000 to 50,000 BC: Evolution of "the Tamilian or Homo Dravida", ca. 200,000 to 100,000 BC: Beginnings of the Tamil language 50,000 BC: Kumari Kand am civilization 20,000 BC: A lost Tamil culture of the Easter Island which had an advanced civilization 16,000 BC: Lemuria submerged 6087 BC: Second Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king 3031 BC: A Chera prince in his wanderings in the Solomon Island saw wild sugarcane and started cultivation in Kumari Kand am. 1780 BC: The Third Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king 7th century BC: Tolkappiyam (the earliest known extant Tamil grammar) tamil There are two languages which are the assumed oldest languages of India. One is the holy Sanskrit and another is the great Tamil. According to Hinduism, God Shiva, the Destroyer had sent two saints to Earth- one was Sage Veda Vyasa ( who wrote Mahabharata) and the other was Sage Agastya. Both were saints of fame and honor. Before, both the saints had died, the people living on Earth had requested them to give a gift to mankind. So, Vyasa introduced Sanskrit and Agastya introduced Tamil. Scientifically, Tamil can be said the oldest language of India, as inscriptions are found not only in India but also in other countries like Rome and South-East Asia. Ancient Sanskrit. Like Aramaic it is a dying language, with speakers only in the hundreds or thousands. Sanskrit is the oldest language in the world, according to scriptures, which are thousands of years old (the oldest scriptures on Earth) Vedas etc. Prakrit (MORE)
kolkatta cricket club. CC & FC = Calcutta Cricket & Football Club.That time there was no "Kolkata".
I think it is Steel. No, the biggest industry in India is Agriculture then garment industry then real estate . but Now a days the few other industries like telecomm and IT has come up , which are also considered one of the biggest in India .
Accounting Advertisement Association/Society Authority Banking Construction Educational Institution Hospatality Information Technology Law/Legal Logistics Media Miscellaneous Private Manufacturing Entertainment Financial Insurance NGO Automobile Textile Telecommunication Infrastructure. There are m…any types of industry being done in India but mainly they are exporting services via phone and internet. (MORE)
The rich cultural heritage of India has birthed four majorreligions, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. Of those,Hinduism is considered to be the oldest religion in both India andthe world with roots tracing back to antiquity.
There are six major industrial regions in India- 1) Kolkata-Hugli region (West Bengal). 2) Mumbai-Pune region (Maharashtra). 3) Bengaluru-Coimbatore-Madurai-Tuticorin region (Tamil Nadu). 4) Ahmedabad-Vadodra region (Gujarat). 5) Chhotanagpur region. 6) Delhi and NCR region. .
"Yes India is the oldest country inthe world because the 1st human civilization th indus vally civilization formed here in ancient India "India is the cradle of human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of traditio…n. Our most valuable and most astrictive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only! " Mark Twain. " that is not true evidence shows that anchient summaria. is the cradle of human civilization. which is modern day Iraq. aswell as the garden of eden was in the area that was summaria or modern day Iraq (MORE)
Greece has a high-income economy compared to India which has a low income ecoonomy according to this site: http://faculty.philau.edu/RussowL/lists.html
assam rifels well actually it was founded in british times..1835 to be exact as cachar levy comprising of 750 men. it's existence as assam rifles is almost coincident with the indo tibetian border force both being setup in 1962 during the indo Chinese war
Tamil is the very First and Oldest Language in the World It is proved by lot of Scientist and also accepted by most of the scientists. Before Aryans(Sanskrit) comes to India, Dravidian(Tamil) people living in Indai with high standard. Even Aryans don't have any specific language when they comes… to India. They develop their language after comes to India only. There is lot of Tamil words in Sanskrit. Ref: ca. 200,000 to 50,000 BC: Evolution of "the Tamilian or Homo Dravida", ca. 200,000 to 100,000 BC: Beginnings of the Tamil language 50,000 BC: Kumari Kand am civilization 20,000 BC: A lost Tamil culture of the Easter Island which had an advanced civilization 16,000 BC: Lemuria submerged 6087 BC: Second Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king 3031 BC: A Chera prince in his wanderings in the Solomon Island saw wild sugarcane and started cultivation in Kumari Kand am. 1780 BC: The Third Tamil Sangam established by a Pandya king 7th century BC: Tolkappiyam (the earliest known extant Tamil grammar) (MORE)
Chennai is a major industrial hub. Automobile industry around Chennai is one of the most important industries based in this southern city. 35% of the automobile component market of India is also dependent on the automobile industry around Chennai.
\nThe oldest bank in existence in India is the "State Bank of India", a government-owned bank that traces its origins back to June 1806 and that is the largest commercial bank in the country.
Answer:. Iron & Steel is India's main industry while IT (Information technology) is a strong secondary industry and growing.
St. Thomas Christans of Kerala state in India is the oldestcommunity with continuous exitence to date.
Taken from the related link posted below: "India's tourism industry is experiencing a strong period of growth, driven by the burgeoning Indian middle class, growth in high spending foreign tourists, and coordinated government campaigns to promote 'Incredible India'. "The tourism industry in In…dia is substantial and vibrant, and the country is fast becoming a major global destination. India's travel and tourism industry is one of them most profitable industries in the country, and also credited with contributing a substantial amount of foreign exchange. This is illustrated by the fact that during 2006, four million tourists visited India and spent US $8.9 billion. "Several reasons are cited for the growth and prosperity of India's travel and tourism industry. Economic growth has added millions annually to the ranks of India's middle class, a group that is driving domestic tourism growth. Disposable income in India has grown by 10.11% annually from 2001-2006, and much of that is being spent on travel. "Thanks in part to its booming IT and outsourcing industry a growing number of business trips are made by foreigners to India, who will often add a weekend break or longer holiday to their trip. Foreign tourists spend more in India than almost any other country worldwide. Tourist arrivals are projected to increase by over 22% per year through till 2010, with a 33% increase in foreign exchange earnings recorded in 2004. "The Tourism Ministry has also played an important role in the development of the industry, initiating advertising campaigns such as the "Incredible India" campaign, which promoted India's culture and tourist attractions in a fresh and memorable way. The campaign helped create a colorful image of India in the minds of consumers all over the world, and has directly led to an increase in the interest among tourists. "India's governmental bodies have also made a significant impact in tourism by requiring that each and every state of India have a corporation to administer support issues related to tourism. "A new growth sector is medical tourism. It is currently growing at around 30% per annum. Medical tourist arrivals are expected to reach one million soon. "The tourism industry of India is based on certain core nationalistic ideals and standards which are: Swaagat or welcome, Sahyog or cooperation, Soochanaa or information, Sanrachanaa or infrastructure, Suvidha or facilitation, Safaai or cleanliness and Surakshaa or security." (MORE)
The Indian Museum, Kolkata. Answered by : Prasanta De. Ramnagar sankar chowmuhani. Agartala. Tripura West. Ph. 9436128523.
Advantages of industrialization in India include more jobs, and abetter economy. However, there are also disadvantages toindustrialization, such as more pollution.
According to me,this honour should go to the Kangra Fort in Kangra Valley H.P. which is more than 2 thousand years old ,one should visit this fort which only has ruins now but gives the pleasure of being a part of so lavish country.
Indian tourism has much potential but there are some things thathinder attracting the tourists from around the world. Tourism canbe improved by cleaning up the country which is polluted by opengarbage and drainage, laying good roads that makes placesaccessible, better and reliable means of transport… and tourismmarketing strategies. (MORE)
The history of the tourism industry in India is very long anddetailed. Because of its rich culture and extensive history, Indiahas been a place of high tourism for quite a while. Tourism is on asteady increase because more people can afford to visit.
Many countries claim to have the oldest democracy including India.But in actuality it is Iceland. Their parliament which is known asthe Althing, has been in use since it was formed by the Vikings inthe year 930.
Industry in India, or anywhere else, is not restricted to one particular area. It is usually in an area where the appropriate resources are to be found.
the aravali mountain range is the oldest mountain range in india, runing across rajasthan from northeast to southwest direction...........
Kolkata Port Trust is a port in Kolkata, India. It is also theoldest functioning port in the country operated by Kolkata PortTrust.
The Problem of Industrial Sickness in India is of growing concern because it wastes capital apart from decrease in employment. Various committee appointed, found out many reasons for the Industrial Sickness. The important reasons are divided into-Internal and External reasons. First one is ass…ociated with managerial ineffectiveness, which include poor control on key areas of operations and finance. Improper estimate of demand is another reason. Improper technology, wrong location of Industry, non- flexibility of fixed assets etc. Defective capital Structure and Shortage of working capital is another reason. Second reasons regarding external reasons area like High costs of manufacturing compared to Sales revenue, Non-availability of raw material, regular power, fuel etc. Transportation bottlenecks, General recessionary from in the economy affecting the overall performance of industrial units, Adverse Policies and rules of government. The measures to overcome these reasons of sickness can be suggested as under. (a) Effective and efficient management skills should be provided. (b) Technology should be upgraded. (c) Modernisation and Competitiveness. (d) Assessment of various factors of Loans etc. can be provided. (e) Liberal and helpful Policies of Government. (MORE)
The Bombay Samachar , now Mumbai Samachar is the oldest continuously published newspaper in India.
we must buy indian equipments and gadgets if they are avilable in india we must not buy it from forughin countries for the saving of money because it is leading our country back
The oldest refinery in India is the Digboi refinery situated in digboi (assam). It is also the Asia's oldest refinery and the digboi oil well is the world's oldest running oil well. The refinery started working from 1901. It was established by the british govt.
Earlier it was thought that the oldest rock of India belonged to sinngbhum craton (around 3700 my old). But as of now the oldest dated rock from India is TTG rocks from Bastar craton (roughly 3.8 by old).)
chalukyasI Improvement.The oldest known dynasty in India is the Chalukyas. There were different forms of the dynasty for the various regions. For example there were the Badami's ruling from Vatapi, The Eastern Chalukyas , Vengi, Kalyana.
In 52 A.D. Thomas Didaemus, one of the 12 apostles of Jesus Christ. is believed to have landed at Musiris (Cranganore) in Kerala. He made his first converts both Jews and Hindus at Palayur a town now in Trichur district, Kerala. There he built a small church with an altar, which he consecrated. T…his is supposed to be the oldest church in India. St. Thomas later moved to the east coast. and settled in Madras (now Chennai) in 64 A.D. after having travelled all the way to China. Back in Chennai, the apostle is said to have stayed at what was then a village where the present zone of Mylapore is located. (MORE)
The oldest surviving industrial furnace is the Cornwall Iron Furnace. The furnace is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is from the year 1742 which means it is over 250 years old.
The Mundeshwari temple, built around 108 AD, is the oldest templein India that's still functioning.