Who are the users of supercomputers?
There are so many variables to climate and weather climatologists make use of these computers.
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Historically, supercomputers worked sheerly by having a more powerful processor than other types of computers. However, due to limitations inherent in processor design, they now work mainly through multiprocessing. When they are given a task, they split the task up and run it on several different pr…ocessors at the same time. With multiple processors working on the task, it takes much less time to finish it. When the supercomputer needs more power, the engineers simply add more processors (often called "nodes"). . Answer-- . Supercomputers are generally used to do simulations. The problem with computers is that they are great at discrete simulations (what happens at point x at time y given inputs z?), but they tend to suck at analogue simulations (what will happen in this area over a time period?). You can approximate analogue simulations by doing discrete/digital simulations over thousands or millions of points of space and time. The more points you can calculate in a simulated hurricane or nuclear explosion, the closer you get to the real thing. Hence bigger and badder supercomputers can do simulations that are closer and closer to true analogue representations. As chrismear says, the stewardship program are probably running nuclear explosion simulations with varying inputs based around the age of the stockpile and the half-lives of the component compounds in the warheads. Rest assured that the 'safe and reliable' thing is mostly based around "will they still do as much damage as reliably as they did when we tested the real thing?". 'Safety' is not really an issue when the warheads need external detonation to get them anywhere near critical mass. (MORE)
A supercomputer is a computer that is at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation. Supercomputers introduced in the 1960s were designed primarily by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), and led the market into the 1970s until Cray left to form h…is own company, Cray Research. He then took over the supercomputer market with his new designs, holding the top spot in supercomputing for five years (1985-1990). In the 1980s a large number of smaller competitors entered the market, in parallel to the creation of the minicomputer market a decade earlier, but many of these disappeared in the mid-1990s "supercomputer market crash".. Today, supercomputers are typically one-of-a-kind custom designs produced by "traditional" companies such as Cray, IBM, and Hewlett-Packard, who had purchased many of the 1980s companies to gain their experience. As of July 2009 [update] , the IBM Roadrunner, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is the fastest supercomputer in the world.. The term supercomputer itself is rather fluid, and today's supercomputer tends to become tomorrow's ordinary computer. CDC's early machines were simply very fast scalar processors, some ten times the speed of the fastest machines offered by other companies. In the 1970s most supercomputers were dedicated to running a vector processor, and many of the newer players developed their own such processors at a lower price to enter the market. The early and mid-1980s saw machines with a modest number of vector processors working in parallel to become the standard. Typical numbers of processors were in the range of four to sixteen. In the later 1980s and 1990s, attention turned from vector processors to massive parallel processing systems with thousands of "ordinary" CPUs, some being off the shelf units and others being custom designs. Today, parallel designs are based on "off the shelf" server-class microprocessors, such as the PowerPC, Opteron, or Xeon, and most modern supercomputers are now highly-tuned computer clusters using commodity processors combined with custom interconnects.. source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputer (MORE)
A supercomputer is a very large sized computer. These computers areused in NASA, railway, and in airports. A supercomputer is any computer having at least 10 times the speedand memory of any other computer available in its time period. Theyare designed for use by those with unusually large andcomput…ationally intensive problems (and especially large budgets).The biggest users of supercomputers have been (in approximateorder): . Nuclear weapons labs*** (always the biggest user, from the verybeginning) . Government agencies doing lots of codebreaking (e.g. NSA) . Aircraft and Aerospace companies . Oil companies . Optical system design companies . Animation companies (3D animation films) . etc. A railway or airport would have no use for one, standardCOTS computers could handle their needs and be cheaper. NASA doesuse them for airflow modeling, etc. (MORE)
To qualify as a supercomputer, a given computer must have at least 10 times the speed and memory of other computers available in its time period. Therefor this is a sliding scale, as other computers improve, new supercomputers must race ahead to get or keep the title.
someone how uses a device or any services device can be computer,cell phone ... A service can be A website Email provider ........
Any computer having at least 10 times the speed and at least 10 times the storage of the most powerful standard commercially available computer of the time period.
There is no fixed size for a supercomputer as they are defined by performance specifications not size (unlike mainframecomputer, minicomputer, microcomputer were). In fact there havebeen mainframe-supercomputer, mini-supercomputer, andmicro-supercomputers, each of which were toward the larger end o…fthe spectrum of sizes for mainframe computer, minicomputer, andmicrocomputer models of the time respectively. Most modern supercomputers are built using thousands of standardmicroprocessors and are built using the same construction methodsas for server computers (making them very variable in sizedepending on user needs and budget as well as easily expandable ifneeded and the budget allows it). (MORE)
Supercomputers have no limit. As the saying goes the 'sky is the limit' or in this case the facist company McDonalds. There is one weakness to Supercomputers and that is that they have trouble updating 'Facebook.' Due to 'Facebook' being run on a 6.32 terabyte servery whilst supercomputers can only …run on 879.23 tetrabyte servers. To put into lamin's terms 'Facebook' is no good. Supercomputer is too good. The best super computer in the world is the Vadoinator, running at over 6000 petroybytes a second. (MORE)
IBM NORC . UNIVAC LARC . IBM 7030 Stretch . CDC 6600 . CDC 7600 . Cray 1 . Cray 2 . Cray 3 . IBM Blue/Gene . IBM Watson . Beowulf architecture (networked inexpensive microcomputers) . etc., etc.
They typically take up A LOT of space. Supercomputers have the following disadvantages: - Generate a lot of heat often require water cooling in addition to an A/C system - High power requirements which cost at minimum $400 per hour or $3.5 million per year as an example - The initial purchase ca…n be at minimum $100,000 - Large space requirements (MORE)
some have been big, some have been small. what makes a supercomputer super is not size, but performance compared to other computers of its time. In fact some of the highest performance supercomputers have been among the smallest sized computers ever built. Seymour Cray's last supercomputer befor…e he died was only the size of a two drawer file cabinet. Smaller than any he had built before (and no microprocessors involved, it was still a third generation computer). (MORE)
The purpose of a supercomputer is to have at least 10 times the speed and memory of any other computer available in its time period, to fill the needs of users with unusually large and computationally intensive problems to solve.
The current supercomputer at the top of the Top500 list is Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Cray XT5-HE supercomputer. Expected to overcome it this year is China's National Supercomputing Center in Shenzhen's Dawning TC3600 Blade supercomputer. example of a supercomputer----> India owns a serie…s of supercomputers called PARAM developed by C-DAC (MORE)
Nasa has probablly the biggest SuperComputer in the entire world, i may be wrong, but from what I've seen it is the largest. Try using Google images too find the biggest!
Compute as fast as possible with available technology to facilitate solutions to large complicated problems that had never been solvable before due to limited computing capacity of earlier computers and methods. Thats it. How it does it is not important.
Supercomputers are the fastest, most powerful computers designed to tackle complex problems requiring vast amounts of computer time. Two types of supercomputer exist. One type has several extremely complex and expensive processors that carry out computations serially, one at a time. Performing billi…ons of operations per second, they are being overshadowed by a second type called massively parallel supercomputing. This system has thousands of simple, inexpensive processors connected in parallel. A computational problem is divided into parts, with portions assigned simultaneously to various processors. The individual processors calculate subtotals and send them to a central processor for combining. The articles below provide information on supercomputers, development and history of the supercomputer. (MORE)
Supercomputers are much larger than regular computers. They havethe ability to solve more problems at once than regular computers.
Depending on opinion and point of view, these are most likely candidates: . IBM NORC . UNIVAC LARC . IBM Stretch 7030 . CDC 6600
A user is a the person who uses the computer and will have a user account there are 2 types of user account Local User And domain user a local user is an account created on the computer where as a domain user is created on a Domain controller ( Server Machine) that user account can then log on …to any computer within the Domain which that user has access to if it has been set up all there desktop setting documents will follow them around to each computer they log in to (MORE)
Supercomputers are very powerful computers with contemporaryprocessing capacity. The examples of Supercomputers are, Belle,Hydra, Deep Blue, Gravity Pipe, MDGRAPE-3.
super computer is important one it can do multiple job at a time its definitely needed in the twentith century. Its mainly used for miltiary applications & research oriented
Seymour Cray (1925-1966) is considered the father of the modern supercomputer. The Cray series of supercomputers was built by Cray Research (and later, Cray Computer Corp.) which he founded.
Mostly in big companies like Apple, stock market, etc. They need millions of gigabytes to store.
For an example, I'll use the world's fastest computer, the IBM Roadrunner. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Roadrunner) It is said to have 122,400 processing cores, (which equates to the processing power of 122,400 home computers) It takes up 6,000 sq ft and the DOE plans to use the computer for s…imulating how nuclear materials age in order to predict whether the USA's aging arsenal of nuclear weapons are safe and reliable. (MORE)
Generally a building that has a very good cooling system, along with an outstanding filtration system. Supercomputers depend upon cool air for operation, and you don't want dust to be clogging up the fans/needed components of those computers.
Deep Thought and or the final computer for man in the end times will be known as The Beast.
They are not commercially sold, the power supply needed would probably also mean you would need to upgrade your power supply. Just buy a commercial computer.
Just get a server.you cannot get supercomputers for personal use.even if you do,your whole house will be hard drives,wires etc
A supercomputer can be located anywhere there is plenty of power and a way to keep it cool -- supercomputer in of itself isn't that big a deal; the CBE (Cell Broadband Engine) is a super computer on a chip. The CBE is what is used primarily in the PS3 game consoles, that chip used is smaller than a …pencil eraser nub. (MORE)
The first machines commonly acknowledged as possible candidates for supercomputers were: . IBM NORC, 1954, director of design Wallace Eckert, installed at Columbia University for the Navy Bureau of Ordnance. . UNIVAC LARC, 1960, two built one for LLNL and the other for the Navy. . IBM 7030 Stre…tch, 1961, Los Alamos and eight other systems built. Production and sales aborted when unexpectedly poor benchmark results forced IBM to drop the price below cost. . CDC 6600, 1964, architect & designer Seymour Cray, over one hundred were installed at various sites including both Los Alamos and LLNL. This was unquestionably the first mass produced supercomputer. Except for NORC, which used vacuum tubes, all the rest used discrete transistors. (MORE)
No, supercomputer are made up of thousands of computers to create one powerful computer. They cost millions to make.
A super computer has the ability to process massive amounts of data, it completes tasks that would take years to be processed by a normal computer in a matter of seconds. it is used by: scientests - for processing large amounts of data/calculations. Computer servers - for handling millions of clien…ts (Wikianswers is probably using supercomputers) goverments - for handling large databases These were just some examples, it has many more uses. (MORE)
Several different topologies are used in supercomputing. A mesh architecture is one of the more common topologies out there. Mesh architectures are particularly well suited to applied simulations. The canonical example is a simulation of ocean weather patterns where each node in the supercomputer wi…ll represent (and handle calculations for) a specific patch of ocean, such as a 10x10 square mile sector. In this example, each patch of ocean must communicate information, such as wind speed and temperature to other neighboring nodes and in turn, must update the sector parameters based on information received by its neighbors. Other example topologies include the master/slave architecture where one node serves to aggregate and process results from all other nodes. There are also ring topologies, tree topologies, and hypercube topologies. By far the fastest communicating, and most expensive topology is the all-to-all topology where every node is connected to every other node. This works fine in superomputers with 20 nodes, but in the largest supercomputers, trying to connect thousands of nodes each to the other thousands of nodes becomes practically impossible. Hence why there are other topologies. (MORE)
There is no such thing as a business supercomputer. Supercomputerswere designed for solving scientific, engineering, and codebreaking problems that required very involved and repetitivecalculations and little input/output. Business computers were designed to do simple calculations thatrequired more …input/output than calculations. (MORE)
Super people. Actually, physicists, meteorologists, global warming people, etc. Anyone modeling complex behaviors that they can describe mathematically can use supercomputers to simulate the interaction of those behaviors. Also - engineers will be using them to model parts and whole cars witho…ut having to actually make them first. They can model a car's performance, strength, etc on computers without having to actually make the car first. Design it on computers, model its performance. then build it. It used to be a whole lot of trial and error to get things to work right. Now they figure it all out on the computer beforehand, and build it straight from the computer specs... (MORE)
Usually some distribution of Linux. Go to NASA's supercomputing section of their website and you will see that their 2 supercomputers run SUSE Linux. There are other examples, but historically Unix or Linux are most popular.
If you had enough money than you could maybe pat IBM or another computer company to build you one. However, you would need a very large space to place this computer. The most current super computer is the Jaguar and was built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Or you c…ould just use your brain, since that is the best computer. (MORE)
Not necessarilly, my pc has an intel core i5 650 cpu, ati radeon hd5770 graphics card and 4 gigabites of ddr3 memory. Crysis runs fairly well on it, take note that Crysis Warhead has better performance than Crysis because of cryengine 2.
it depends on the software written for the computer its the software that controls the outcome the hardware just processes it
There have been supercomputers in all generations of computers. As the definition of supercomputer is simply any computer having at least 10 times the performance of currently available high performance computers, the very fastest computers of any generation are supercomputers. It is usually sci…entific and cryptographic applications that drive the need for supercomputers. Some examples of supercomputers from various computer generations are: . IBM NORC, first generation . UNIVAC LARC, second generation . IBM 7030 Stretch, second generation . CDC 6600, second generation . CDC 7600, second generation . ILLIAC IV, third generation . CDC Star-100, third generation . Cray-1, third generation . etc. (MORE)
The MacBook is a great computer but it would not be officially classed as a SuperComputer.
Super computer and super conductor both are different applications. Super conductors used in hvac/hvda transmission system which can bear a high voltage/current, but the super computer means high speed.
A laptop and a computer or desktop is the average, day to day consumer computer on the market. Like dell or Hp. However a super computer is like an average day to day computer but with a kick! Your computer has like an intel i3 or i5 processor. Super computers have a much larger prossesor and theref…ore can process more data. A super computer can be used to do many things. For instance. (MORE)
Userization is an economic model based on joint ownership. For the first time, this model has been proposed by Dr Andrej Poleev in his manuscript of the same title. Reference: A. Poleev. Userization. Enzymes, 2012.
it all depends on what super computer your onabout really .... here's a few super computers : PARAM ( india ) IBM ( america ) fujitsu ( im not sure ) EKA ( india ) Infiniband ( america ) graph 500 ( europe ) IBM Blue Gene/Q ( america ) Sequioa ( england )
If by supercomputer you mean the very advanced computing machines such as the Roadrunner supercomputer or the Earth-Simulator supercomputer then the advantages are many. Supercomputers are extremely fast when compared to even the "fast" computers that the general public has at home. They hold a lot …of memory and are able to process and compute much much more programs and information at the same time. A practical application that is also a major advantage is that supercomputers are able to factor very large numbers much faster. This is important because this ability gives the military and intelligence agencies an upper hand when attempting to crack secret codes that could hold sensitive information. Another practical and advantageous thing about supercomputers is that they are able to run models and simulations that predict climate change and other natural changes. Supercomputers are quite important in the military/government/intelligence fields. They are also quite essential in different scientific fields such physics and bio or neuro-chemistry. Using super computers scientists are able to simulate how subatomic particles behave. Something like that would probably not be possible to do with regular pc's. A supercomputer can increase global trade and communication by facilitating the processed information of the different transactions more efficiently and dynamically. The disadvantages of supercomputers is that they tend to take up a lot of room, power and tend to be very expensive. They also take very skilled individuals to build and maintain them. To build these supercomputers there is usually a lot of advanced planning and collaboration of many people. So we can see how this can take some time. These computes have to be kept in a climate controlled environment so the cost will persist throughout the life of the supercomputer. These machines are very intricate and complex. They hold multiple microprocessors and many hard drives as well. Given all of these factors it is obvious why the cost is so high. Remember that "supercomputer" can be a relative term because a "super" computer today may not be so "super" tomorrow. In the 50's and 60's there were computers that took up the space of several rooms and required several engineers and scientists to maintain. They were considered very advanced machines but compared to today's technological advancements these computes are now considered to be quite primitive. To give you and idea why, just consider the fact that the smartphone in your pocket has much more memory and computing power then these machines did. There is a sort of work-around that can be done if a supercomputer is needed but there is not enough of money and resources to have one build or bought. A sort of supercomputer can be assembled from off shelf parts. It is essencially the linking of many personal computers to one hub or switch. Whatever needs to be processed is divided into parts, then those parts are sent to the different cpu's. When the cpu's are done processing they send the information back to some central point. These computes tend to not be as advanced or fast as a real supercomputer but it can get the job done. It is a sort of "poor man's supercomputer." Supercomputers today can become very obsolete in the not too distant future. This is because quantum computers are being developed. These computes will be able to essentially dwarf the current supercomputers. For more information I urge you to Google quantum computing/computers. Best wishes! (MORE)
>10 times the speed of fastest conventional computeravailable at the time . >10 times the memory capacity of conventional computersavailable at the time . only floating point arithmetic . traditionally used ECL for fastest speed, but this dissipatedlots of heat . in the late 1970s and later multi…processors . in the late 1990s massively parallel supercomputers using manythousands of COTS microprocessors superseded earlier supercomputersusing custom designed and built CPUs using individual logicgates (MORE)
The usual definition of a supercomputer has been a computerdesigned to be at least 10 times as fast and with at least 10 timesthe main memory of the fastest standard commercially availablecomputer on the market at the same time. Usually supercomputers aredesigned to solve scientific and engineering …types of problems, notbusiness types of problems. (MORE)
A supercomputer is usually defined as a computer with at least 10times the processing speed and at least 10 times the memory of thefastest standard commercially available model of computer.Supercomputers are traditionally optimized for high speed floatingpoint mathematical operations as used in scie…ntific, engineering,or image processing applications; not for alphanumeric processingor input/output speeds as might be used in business applications. As the technology of commercially available computers is alwaysadvancing, the definition of what is a supercomputer is alsocorrespondingly always shifting. In other words, today'ssupercomputers are usually outperformed by far cheaper standard andmore general purpose commercially available computers within a fewyears. (MORE)
A supercomputer is usually created by some of the large computermanufacturing companies or sometimes by inventors or scientists inuniversities.