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The commonly used expression, "Those who ignore history are bound (or doomed) to repeat it" is actually a mis-quotation of the original text written by George Santayana (1863-…1952), who, in his Reason in Common Sense, The Life of Reason, Vol.1, wrote "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." Stanford University online also provides an outstanding and much more detailed background on this important and profound philosopher, essayist, poet and novelist. Santayana's quotation, in turn, was a slight modification of an Edmund Burke (1729-1797) statement, "Those who don't know history are destined to repeat it." Burke was a British Statesman and Philosopher who is generally viewed as the philosophical founder of modern political conservatism. ---------------------------------- A classic example is Hitler's invasion of Russia. Napoleon had done that, and Hitler made the same mistake, and suffered the same fate. On both occasions, the Russians simply retreated , drawing the enemy further and further into Russia in their advance, and then, when they Russian winter struck, and the invaders were unprepared and ill-equipped to deal with it, they were slaughtered in their thousands during their retreat. Hitler was fully aware of Napoleon's plight and had planned meticulously how not to fall into the same trap by using the new offensive technique of Blitzkreig (lightning strike). The plan was for Army Group North to take Leningrad, Army Group Centre to take Moscow and Army Group South to take Stalingrad and the Caucasus oilfields. All before the winter weather made mobility impossible. The original start date for Operation Barbarossa was accordingly 15th May 1941 but Mussolini's failing invasion of Greece required German intervention to protect Operation Barbarossa's southern flank. German troops invaded Greece on April 6, 1941; Athens fell on 27 April and mainland Greece was fully occupied by mid-May. Nevertheless, the six week campaign led to Operation Barbarossa being launched five and a half weeks later than planned, on 22 June. Weather (rain and mud at first before the snows) slowed the advance from early October onwards, meaning that the Blitzkreig part of the campaign was shortened from the planned 20 weeks, to just 14. How vital those six weeks would have been we will never know but whilst none of the main city objectives (Leningrad, Moscow and Stalingrad) were taken, all three almost fell. After the Germans took 3 million Russian soldiers captive during the advance, only 90,000 remained to defend Moscow by late 1941. Arguably it wasn't ignoring the lesson of history that was Hitler's fatal mistake, it was not adapting to changing circumstances. Answer "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." CITES: George Santayana, The Life of Reason or The Phases of Human Progress: Reason in Common Sense 284 (2nd ed., Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, New York 1924 (originally published 1905 Charles Scribner's Sons)(appears in chapter XII, "Flux and Constancy in Human Nature")). George Santayana, The Life of Reason or The Phases of Human Progress 82 (one-volume edition, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, New York 1954)(appears in Book I, Reason in Common Sense, chapter 10, "Flux and Constancy in Human Nature"). This information was found at: http://members.aol.com/Santayana/gsguestbook.htm Hope this helps. ARISTOTLE SAID THAT! Me! but Im sure somebody else famous did before me though... The true answer would be George Santayana. This is an often mis-attributed quote and is also known as "Santayana's Law of Repeating Consequences." Actually the author originally credited with any such phrase is Edmund Burke. He died before George Santayana was born.
George Santayana, 1863-1953, American philosopher
This famous saying was by the Spanish-American philosopher George Santayana. He is also known for saying, "Only the dead have seen the end of war."
It talks about the fact that if people don't do something to defend what they believe, they'll end up becoming what they once hated/feared.
What is your question? Is the question whether this quotation is always true? If so, the answer is no. Sometimes people do not make the same mistake someone else did even thou…gh they had no knowledge of the previous person's mistake. Or is your question who is the original author of this prophetic cliche? I can tell you that it was not Winston Churchill. Churchill may have paraphrased the original quote form George Santayana: "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." ~~~~
This saying appears in many different forms, but the earliest version is probably that of the poet and philosopher George Santayana: "Those who cannot remember the past ar…e condemned to repeat it." "Notable Quotations from George Santayana 'Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.' "Life of Reason," Reason in Common Sense, Scribner's, 1905, page 284"
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) said "Those who don't know history are destined to repeat it." George Santayana (1863-1952) said "Those who cannot remember the past are… condemned to repeat it." The full quote from The Life of Reason (1905-1906) by George Santayana is as follows: "Progress, far from consisting in change, depends on retentiveness. When change is absolute there remains no being to improve and no direction is set for possible improvement: and when experience is not retained, as among savages, infancy is perpetual. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." (Many other people have repeated this, or paraphrased it, and the original quote is often misattributed to Winston Churchill, but the quotation is unable to be found in his written work.) "Winston Churchill " It was actually George Santayana. He was a Spanish philosopher. Actually the author originally credited with any such phrase is Edmund Burke. He died before either Winston Churchill or George Santayana were even born. Simplest Answer. Another way of wording the famous quote is: "learn from your mistakes." The Long Answer: As our species pulled it self out of the primordial ooze there has been a constant pattern to our growth. Throughout history, by evolution of the mind as well as technology, we have followed the same series of events leading to the same negative conclusion. Each time mankind has re-started the cycle the stakes of failure have increased. To over simplify this series of events or cycle is as such: There exists several small communities, these communities join to create a large community, and this community begins to grow. Eventually it begins to consume large amounts of resources; natural and human, it grows to the point were it begins rising beyond it's means. This causes a need for more resources as they are consumed at an ever-increasing rate. As history has shown us from the simplest village to complex social systems these needed resources are acquired by brutal acts of desperation and war. Eventually the system becomes ineffective and far too large to sustain its own growth and eventually it collapses upon itself creating casualties both human and environmental in this process. Before our current cycle of human events the possible risk factor was rather minimal, but as we have grown into a global village the stakes are considerably higher. As we witnessed in the near conclusion of our current cycle at the end of World War 11 (a-bomb) and the event that followed (e.g. Cuban missile crisis, global warming, environmental degradation, etc.) To simplify yet again as countries fell into the last stages of desperation war was inevitable. Rather then being between two countries or an act of civil war a conflict between several nations erupted, World War. This was made possible by this cycle's large stride in technology (planes, submarines, battleships etc.). Believing that the actions of the WW1 eventually led to WW11 we will treat them as a similar entity. Mass casualties strained the entire planet as every society and economy was affected. Then in August of 1945 two Atomic Bombs (aka A-bomb, code named Big Boy and Fat Man) were dropped on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Progress had eclipsed the human race as technological advancement surpassed human evolution. The stakes of failure then reached an unprecedented height, for the first time in the history of the world humans had the ability to erase all life on our planet. Humanity was forced to re-evaluate its standings in the world as it began to realize all that had been lost and has done so several times over the last six decades. Civilization cannot afford to follow the cycle to its previous conclusion confirming, "Those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it". The two World Wars featured the most casualties (civilian/military) in history, bearing witness to these events, as a global voice, humanity declared "Never again". "We stand on the shoulders of giants and owe a lot to them, however though we maybe only a few heads higher we can still see further. We have an obligation of Stewardship." - Matthew Carter at Design Thinkers'09 "Our civilization, which subsumes most of its predecessors, is a great ship steaming at speed into the future. It travels faster, further, and more laden than any before. We may not be able to foresee every reef and hazard, but by reading her compass bearing and headway, by understanding her design, her safety record, and the abilities of her crew, we can, I think, plot a wise course between the narrows and the bergs looming ahead. And I believe we must do this without delay, because there are too many shipwrecks behind us. The vessel we are now aboard is not merely the biggest of all time; it is also the only one left. The future of everything we have accomplished since our intelligence evolved will depend on the wisdom of our actions over the next few years. Like all creatures, humans have made their way in the world so far by trial and error; unlike other creatures, we have a presence so colossal that error is a luxury we can no longer afford. The world has grown too small to forgive us any big mistakes." - A Short History of Progress, Ronal Wright If we don't know the mistakes people in the past have made, we will make those same errors.
What did George Santayana mean when he said Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it?
In my understanding this wry observation of human nature refers to our tendency to fall into unconscious habits. If we are not aware of the mistakes of the past, we will proba…bly repeat them because we often rely on habitual or instinctive responses to situations. History teaches us that these responses can be disastrous, and yet we keep going back to them. There is a political dimension to George Santayana's statement because political movements are often built upon re-writing (or ignoring) history to suit it's purposes. People that know their history are not susceptible to this kind of manipulation.
The quote is "those who forget the past are condemned to repeat it" and it was said by george santayana.
George Santayana said Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it To what historical skill does this statement apply?
connecting the past and present.
The sentiment has been expressed by various writers and politicians. Among others: Those who don't know history are doomed to repeat it. - Edmund Burke Those wh…o cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. -George Santayana We're doomed to repeat the past no matter what. - Kurt Vonnegut
What was happening in history when Churchill said those that don't know their history are doomed to repeat it?
"Faith is the art of holding on to things your reason has accepted, in spite of your changing moods." in: "Mere Christianity" "Hardships often prepare ordinary people for a…n extraordinary destiny." "I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen: not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else."