Who was Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-1989) was an exiled religious and political leader who became the Supreme Leader of Iran following the overthrow of the Shah (Reza Pahlavi) in 1979.
he was famous islamic leader or marja taglid in the contemporary century .he is aslo the founder of the islamic republic of the iran .
He is Imam Khomeini, the leader of Iranian Islamic revolution.
he was famous islamic leader or marja taglid in the contemporary century .he is aslo the founder of the islamic republic of the iran .
He is Imam Khomeini, the leader of Iranian Islamic revolution.
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Imam Khomeini (R.A.) One of the greatest unfairness about our great Imam and the Islamic system is that foreign propaganda accuses the Imam, the Islamic system and the Islamic Republic of autocracy and lack of democracy. This magnificent revolution was created in Iran while after the victory of th…e revolution the first public-opinion poll was conducted by the Imam which was not preceded by any other revolution. You might see that when there is a coup d'etat, a minor change and a brief replacement in a country, elections are delayed for two or three years. People of the country did not know the ballot-box. Elections held at the time of the dictatorial regime were merely nominal and a sham. The people never went to the ballot-box to take part in an actual election. They made whoever they wanted win for the satellite parliament. With such a background, two months after the victory of the revolution, the Imam called the people for the ballot-box and they voted for the Islamic Republic. People took part in five elections within a single year. During the twenty three years which succeeded the revolution people participated in different elections for twenty three times to elect members of the Islamic Consultative Majlis (the parliament), members of the Assembly of Experts, the president and members of the City Council, and determining the Constitution and the system of the Islamic Republic. In what system - even among those so-called democratic systems - could we find such a stress on people's vote and will? The brazen and shameless enemies of this revolution and nation are unfair enough to accuse this revolution, system and its great builder, architect and founder of opposition to democracy. The great art of the honorable Imam is that he has constructed a consolidated framework for this revolution and did not permit the dominating powers and political mainstreams to digest it. The slogan "Neither Eastern, nor Western, but Islamic Republic," or the slogan "Independence, Freedom, Islamic Republic," which were chanted by the people through the influence of the Imam's teachings and guidance implied that this revolution is supported by fixed and consolidated principles which were connected neither to the principles of the Eastern Socialism nor those of the Western Liberal Capitalism of the time. That is why both the East and the West showed hostility to the revolution. This is the difference between our honorable Imam and other saviors of the history of Islam during the last two centuries. The Imam entered the scene, appeared in the middle of the field, was among the people, talked to them, explained his principles to them, and made them reach a status of intellectual and conscious faith like that of his. Then faith and the motivation of the people and Islamic teachings won the battle for the right and the truth. Others could not make advancement in this difficult stage but the Imam could. The Iranian nation believed in these principles and struggled for them. The result was that, firstly, the Islamic system despite all obstructions and hostilities became victorious and its root day by day grew deeper and deeper to date, and, secondly, the idea and realization of the Islamic Renaissance and saving the Muslim nation from the cruelty and imperialism of the hegemonic powers did not remain restricted in this country. The most important achievement of our honorable Imam at the level of the Muslim world was his role as the revivalist of the political and social dimensions of Islam. From the time colonialism intruded the Muslim countries, colonialists and hegemonic powers did their best to omit the political and social dimensions of Islam: justice-seeking, freedom-seeking and independence-seeking. In order to further dominate the Muslim nations and exploit their resources, the hegemonic powers had to strip Islam of its political dimensions and interpret it as submission to events, submission to occupier and submission to the cruel and fierce enemy. Imam Khomeini (RA) revived the forgotten facts of Islam: he waved the flag of Islam's justice-seeking and publicized the Islam's opposition to discrimination, class distinction and aristocracy. From the beginning to the last days of his life the honorable Imam emphasized the down-trodden, the bare-footed and the deprived people. Once and again at the advent of the Islamic system and during the blissful ten-year period of his life as the leader of the Islamic system he wanted all officials to take care of the weak. You are indebted to the barefooted class of the country. My dear ones! Great nation of Iran! We won whenever we heeded this recommendation of the Imam and exercised it in planning, law-making, execution and appointing and dismissing. The most important thing done by the Imam, regarding people, was to completely remove the concept of democracy from what the planners of Western democracy and their agents wanted to show in the scientific scenes. They tried to inculcate that democracy does not get along with theocracy and religiosity. Imam Khomeini (RA) destroyed this wrong idea and introduced democracy - meaning the Islamic Republic - in the world. He did not content himself with language; neither did he deem intellectual reasoning sufficient; he showed this in action. (MORE)
There are a total of 14 great ayatollahs the most known khomeini . Ruhollah Khomeini, who leaded the Iranian revolution . Hoessein-Ali Montazeri, one of the biggest dirtlayers of theIranian revolution, from 1989 he was an opponent of ayatollahKhomeini and he did'NT agree the politics in Iran. . A…li Khamenei, he is/was the spiritual leader of Iran, he votedfor the conservatives Ali al-Sistani, de biggest sjiitschespiritual men from Irak . Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah, he was from libanon (MORE)
Because of U.S. support the Shah, was the heart of his foreign policy. They took more 60 hostages and demanded American force the shah to face trial. Because the US support the Shah, was the heart of his foreign policy, hey took 60 people for hostage because US has anti Islamic policies especially a…nti shiite Islam. also for supporting Israel. he called US Great Satan because policies of US is same as policies of Satan. (MORE)
The Ayatollah had a long period of dissidence with the Shah ofIran. He objected to what he believed was the ShahÃ¢??s departurefrom Islamic law and his acceptance of western standards thatwould, he believed, result in an influx and eventual takeover byBaHa'i culture. Their relationship deteriorate…d to the point of theAyatollah being exiled to Paris. Efforts to discredit Khomeini, aswell as other student grievances, brought about the revolution of1978. The Ayatollah returned to Tehran and engaged in resistanceefforts, such as encouraging all to violate a military mandatedcurfew After the military withdrew, an Islamic government wasapproved by widespread demand and Khomeini became the SupremeLeader in 1979. (MORE)
Answer 1 This is incorrect, please read the book All the Shah's Men for agood understanding of how the Shah or Iran was put into power andhow he was thrown out. Ayatollah Khomeini was a leader of areligious and political uprising that was cultivated by the actionsof the United States fledgling CIA …ie Kermit Roosevelt. Answer 2 There is a supposition in this question that is partiallyincorrect, namely that the primary or most important people tooverthrow the Shah were fundamentalist Muslims led by the AyatollahKhomeini. This is not the case. The Iranian people, most of themtraditional or secular Muslims revolted all across Iran. TheReligious Fundamentalists were a minority of those Iranians whowere protesting. When the Shah abdicated, there was an intent tocreate a Republic that represented the Iranian People. However,between April and October of 1979 (after the Shah had alreadydeparted the country and the Islamic Republic of Iran declared) theAyatollahs were able to consolidate power and create theConstitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which vested theReligious Fundamentalists with political power. Iranians in general were opposed to the Shah and opposed him fromnearly every political perspective. These include: Some said that the Shah was not religious enough Some believed that the Shah's policies were too oppressive Some believed that the Shah was modernizing without preservingIran's cultural heritage and others were angry that he was movingtoo slowly Some believed that the Shah was a sellout to foreign interests andothers believed his foreign focuses were too narrow. Some believed that the Shah did not grant women enough rights andothers thought that women had too many rights. Some believed that the Shah should have encouraged more middleclass growth and others believe he should have put more capitalinto industry. Some wanted more privatization and others wanted morenationalization. As concerns the specific reasons for the Iranian protests and theeventual revolution, they were numerous: Wealth & Employment Issues: Most importantly was the wealthinequality between the Shah and the nobility and common Iraniancitizen. There was immense poverty throughout the country and highunemployment, underemployment, low wages, and few protections forlaborers. Religious Conservatism: Most Iranians were religiously conservative(similar to the American Bible-belt as opposed to theFundamentalists) and resisted the Shah's Westernization andSecularization movements in Iran. The Shah made clear that religionwas not important to him as a ruler, whereas it was a concern amongthe people. Puppet to Foreigners: The Shah was also seen as a Western puppet,especially when the CIA overthrew the Iranian President Mossadeghin 1953 to re-install the Shah of Iran and considering how Iranprofited very little from its own petroleum. Brutal Secret Police: The Shah had a notorious secret police calledthe SAVAK which harassed people and killed scores of others. Authoritarianism: Iranians wanted to be in control of their ownaffairs. Iranians wanted some form of self-government or democracy.The Shah was an authoritarian who prevented people from expressingtheir own opinions. Issue for Fundamentalists: Particularly in the fundamentalist camp,the fundamentalists in Iran felt that the Shah epitomized a Westernculture of greed and materialism, because he tried to establish amore secular government. As with many rulers, he accumulated vastpersonal wealth. He also employed various means to suppresspolitical dissent. It was ultimately the exiled Ayatollah Khomeiniwho in 1979 succeeded the Shah and established an Islamic religiousgovernment. Note: The fact that these grievances existed does not mean that theIslamic Republic of Iran afterwards "fixed" these problems. (MORE)
Answer 1 Ayatollah comes from the Arabic "ayat" (sign) "Allah" (God) whichmakes the Ayatollah, the Sign of God. Ayatollahs are highly-regarded clerics in the Shiite Islam with asimilar rank in that religion to Cardinals in Catholicism or thePatriarchs in Orthodox Christianity. Sunni Islam does not… have anequivalent position to Ayatollah. Answer 2 Ayatollah means literally one who is the sign of Exalted God amongpeople. those who entered the Howzeh, after passing the levels andreligious courses , recieved the Title of Ayatollah. some one whois ayatollah , is skillfull in religious sciences likejurisprudence, theology and Hadith and Arabic logic and the prayingJudgment in Islam Religion. Answer 3 Ayatollah is the title that was given to the high ranking title ofthe Usuli Twelver ShÄ«'ah clerics. Answer 4 ayatollah literally means who is the sign and symbol of God in theearth and amongst people. in the level of religious sciences, thosewho study the religious sciences , after passing some degrees andlevels, provided being succeed, they reach to the high level anddescribed as ayatollah. (MORE)
Ayatollah comes from the Arabic Ayat-Allah (Ø£ÙØ§Ø© Ø§ÙÙÙ) which means"sign of God". It is a title bestowed on a Shiite cleric of highlearning and there are dozens of Ayatollahs who are currentlyalive, with the majority being in Iran, Iraq, and Lebanon. Similarto Catholic Cardina…ls or Orthodox Christian Patriarchs, they each"rule" over a certain section of territory in which large numbersof faithful live, provide answers to difficult religious questionsto the faithful in their territory, and represent the faithful atlarger religious meetings. The most famous Ayatollah is the Grand Ayatollah of Iran, which isa title bestowed on a singular Iranian Shiite religious leader. TheGrand Ayatollah is considered the most senior and educated of theAyatollahs in Iran and holds political power as the Supreme Leaderof Iran. Currently, the holder of this position is Ali Khamenei,who inherited it from Ruhollah Khomeini. (MORE)
Currently there are a number of Ayatollahs. The Supreme Leader ofIran is currently Ayatollah Ali Khamanei. The Chief Ayatollah ofIraq is Ali al-Husayni al-Sistani.
Upon his return to Iran, got rid of Shah. . Didn't like westernized life-style of the Shah... So emphasized Islamic fundamentalism.
clearly a giant worthless inhumane godforsaken insane ruthless stupid, for lack of better words, leader
Khamenei is the impact of Khomeini. Leadership from the Perspective of Imam Khomeini (q.) . Conditions of Leadership. The necessary conditions to be available in a leader are directly connected to the nature of the Islamic government. Disregarding the general conditions like wisdom and proper man…agement, two basic conditions, i.e. justice and to know the law, should also be available. Even after the demise of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.), when the bitter controversy about who would succeed him appeared, there was no theoretical dispute among Muslims over such an issue that his successor should be a knowledgeable and virtuous man. Mainly there were two controversial issues: 1- Since the Islamic government is a government of law, the person who governs should have a wide knowledge of law as it is referred to in traditions. It is necessary for the ruler as well as every one who takes charge of a post or occupies a job to acquire such knowledge; the only difference is that the leader should be the most knowledgeable. Our Infallible Imams (a.) had just used this same point - that the Imam (the religious leader) has to have superiority over others - to prove their imamate. Also, the queries that ShÄ«'ah scholars raise and criticize others fall within this very domain when they say: the caliph did not know the answer to a question about the Islamic Law or he did a certain act which was against the Islamic law, so he was not qualified for this office.(1) Muslims consider justice and knowing the law as essential conditions and basic elements while other things are neither significant nor necessary. For example, to know how the angles are or what the characteristics of the Creator (Allah) are has nothing to do with the matter of leadership. Similarly, suppose someone knows everything about physics and has discovered all the natural forces or knows music well, he will neither be qualified to be a caliph nor be given priority - over those who are just and knowledgeable in Islamic law - to occupy the office of leader. Therefore, what is really related to the caliphate - which was the matter of discussion and talk during the era of the Noble Prophet (s.) and our Infallible Imams (a.) and which is accepted by all Muslims - is that the ruler or the caliph should, firstly, know the Islamic law and, secondly, be just and perfect in both religious beliefs and morals. This fact is admitted by the reason as well because the Islamic government is a government of law and not a government of desires or a dictatorship. If the leader is not acquainted with law, he will not be competent to govern people. Because if he follows [another person] in taqlÄ«d, that will weaken his power; and if he does not, he cannot put the Islamic law into effect. The tradition that "the Islamic jurists rule over the kings" (Ø§ÙÙÙÙØ§Ø¡ ØÚ©Ø§Ù Ø¹ÙÛ Ø§ÙØ³ÙØ§Ø·ÛÙ) is undisputed.(2) If kings really follow Islam, they should follow the Islamic jurists and ask their opinion. In this way the jurists themselves will be the real rulers and, therefore, the power should officially be given to them and not to those who are compelled to follow jurists as they do not know the law. 2- A leader should be perfect in religious beliefs and morals, just and spiritually not polluted with sins. The individual who wants to take the responsibility for applying the Islamic penal code properly, to control the Muslims' assets and country's expenditures and wants Allah, the Exalted, to delegate him the administration of His servants' affairs should not be a sinner because Allah, the Almighty, does not allow a tyrant to have such a power (ÙØ§ÛÙØ§Ù Ø¹ÙØ¯Û Ø§ÙØ¸Ø§ÙÙ ÛÙ).(3) Unless the ruler is just, he will not administer justice in providing Muslims with their rights, collecting and distributing taxes properly, and putting the penal code into effect. Such a ruler may also make his friends, supporters and relatives take control of people and spend Muslims' assets in fulfilling his own personal whims and desires.(4). It Is Not Necessary to Be a Marji'. I was and I am still believing and I am insisting on the belief that it is not necessary that an Islamic leader should be a marji'. A just mujtahid chosen by the honored experts - who are the representatives of the whole country [in the Assembly of Experts] - is just enough. When the people vote for the experts in order that they appoint a just mujtahid to rule them and those experts, then, has really assigned somebody to the leadership post, the leadership of such a person would be accepted by the people. In such a case, this person becomes the walÄ« (leader) that has been elected by the people and whose orders and commands are, consequently, effective.(5). The Model of Leadership. In the early days of Islam, the ideal Islamic government ruled twice: first at the time of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.) and secondly when Imam Ali ibn AbÄ« TÄlib (a.) governed in KÅ«fah. They were the only two examples that the immaterial values dominated. In other words, they were governments of justice in which the rulers had never violated the law. During those two periods, a government of law was in control and perhaps we will never find another government of law with such qualities all over the world. A government whose walÄ« al-amr - 'king' or 'president' in nowadays' terms - was equal to the simplest citizen living there before the law. It happened in the government of the early Islam. In this regard, there is a story about AmÄ«r al-Mu'minÄ«n, Imam Ali (a.). During his rule which was extended to include the Arab Peninsula, Egypt, Iran and many other areas, while it was he who was assigning judges, an individual from Yemen - living under the control of this very government - brought a lawsuit against the Imam (a.) and the judge summoned Imam Ali (a.). When Imam (a.) arrived in the court, the judge tried to show respect for him. Although the judge was really appointed by AmÄ«r al-Mu'minÄ«n (a.) himself, Imam (a.) said, 'While judging do not respect only one party. He and I should be equal. And after the judge issued a rule against Imam Ali (a.), he accepted it cheerfully. In such a government all are equal before the law because the Islamic law is a divine one and all - whether the ruler, the Prophet, the Imam or the common people - are equal before Allah, be He blessed, the Exalted.(6). Leader among People. The Islamic leader was not like kings and presidents. He was coming and sitting among the people in a small mosque in MadÄ«nah and listening to their words. Those who had the country's destiny in their hands were meeting the common people in the same mosque in such a way that when somebody entered the mosque could not differentiate the leader and government officials from the populace. They were just like people in their dress style and association. Justice was so applied that if a citizen from the lowest class of the society took a legal action against the first person in the country, the judge used to summon the leader who would attend the court.(7). WilÄyah of the Jurist Is against Dictatorship. In Islam it is the law which rules. The Noble Prophet (s.) was also following the law, the Divine law. He was not able to violate it. Addressing the Holy Prophet, Allah the Exalted says that if you say something against that which I say, I will seize you and cut off your aorta.(8) If the Prophet (s.) was a dictator or a person that people were afraid lest he may dictate to them on enjoying the whole power, then a jurist could, also, be a dictator.(9) A jurist will never be despotic. A jurist with such characteristics is just. This kind of justice differs from the social justice. Jurist's justice is so that if he lies just once or if he has only a single look at a non-mahÌ£ram, he will be no longer considered as just. Such a person cannot and does not act against the law.(10). Powers of the Leader and Government. If an eligible person with these two characteristics rises and comes to power, he will acquire the same wilÄyah (authorities) which were established for the noble Prophet Muhammad (s.) as far as administering the society is concerned. And, therefore, all people are required to obey him. Such understanding that the governmental powers of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) were more than those of Imam Ali (a.), or that the government authorities of AmÄ«r al-Mu'minÄ«n (a.) should be more than those of the jurist, is just wrong. Of course, the moral qualities of the Prophet Muhammad (s.) is universally the best, and then those of AmÄ«r al-Mu'minÄ«n (a.). However, being in the highest rank of moralities does not increase one's governmental powers. Allah; who had given such authorities to the Prophet (s.) and the Infallible Imams (a.) like mobilizing and calling up the armed forces, assigning rulers and mayors, collecting taxes and spending them on the basis of Muslims' common interest; had given the same authorities to this very government with only one difference that He did not recognize a certain person for such a post, but gave a general title for it which is: 'the just Islamic jurist'. When we say that after the disappearance [of the Imam of Time (aj.)] the powers, which the Prophet (s.) and the Imams (a.) had, are given to the just jurist; nobody should misunderstand this by thinking that the position of jurists is the same with that of the Imams (a.) and the Prophet (s.) because the discourse here is not on positions, but on duties and responsibilities. WilÄyah, which means the power of governing and administrating a country and putting the sacred Islamic laws into effect, is a very difficult and important duty. It does not provide the person with an unusual station or position to put him in a higher class in comparison with the normal individuals. In other words, wilÄyah here; which refers to ruling, enforcing laws and administrating [a country]; is not an honor, as many conceive, but rather a weighty and great responsibility. Among the matters that the jurist should accept its responsibility is the enforcement of the Islamic penal code. The question here is that is there a distinction among the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.), the Infallible Imams (a.) and a jurist so far as applying penal code is concerned? If jurist' position is lower, should he pass a lighter sentence? Should the number of lashes received by an adulterer/ adulteress - which is 100 - be 150 if judged by the Noble Prophet (s.), 100 if judged by AmÄ«r al-Mu'minÄ«n (a.) and only 50 if judged by a jurist? Or it is the executive ruler who should have the responsibility of putting the Divine Penal Code into effect no matter whether he is the Prophet (s.a.w.); Imam Ali (a.), his representative, or a judge in BasÌ£rah or KÅ«fa; or an Islamic jurist now. Also, the Noble Prophet (s.) and AmÄ«r al-Mu'minÄ«n (a.) were responsible for collecting taxes, khums, zakat, jizyah and taxes on lands. How much zakat should Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) take? Should he take - from somewhere - twice as much as he take from another place? What would Imam Ali (a.) do when he became a caliph? What about you if you become a jurist of time and influential? Is the wilÄyah of the Prophet (s.) with respect to these matters varies from that of Imam Ali (a.) and a jurist? Allah, the Exalted, had appointed the Prophet Muhammad (s.) as the walÄ« (leader) for all Muslims and as long as he was alive, he had control over even AmÄ«r al-Mu'minÄ«n (a.). When the Prophet (s.a.w.) passed away, Imam Ali (a.) also had control over all Muslims even over the next Imam. It means that his governmental commands should have been obeyed by all and he was able to appoint and depose local rulers. Just as the Noble Prophet(s.) was charged with implementing rules and establishing the Islamic system and Allah had made him leader and ruler of Muslims and considered submission to him as mandatory, a just jurist should also be leader and ruler, apply Divine rules and endeavor to set the Islamic social system up.(11). Governance Is a Primary Rule and Has Priority over Secondary Rules. If the government powers were considered within the domain of the Divine secondary rules, the delegation of the Divine government and the absolute wilÄyah to the Prophet Muhammad (s.) would be a meaningless phenomenon. The governance, which is a part of the absolute wilÄyah of the Prophet Muhammad (s.), is among the primary Islamic rules and takes precedence over the whole secondary rules including the prayer, fasting and hÌ£ajj. The [Islamic] ruler can ruin a mosque or a house which obstructs a street and pay the owner its price. He can also temporarily ban the mosques - when necessary - or demolish a mosque which proves detrimental [to the public good] in case it is impossible to prevent its harm without destroying it. The government can unilaterally revoke a Shar'Ä« contract that it has itself signed with people when it is understood to be against the interest of the county or Islam. It is also able to stop any practice, be it a worship or not, if it is recognized to be against the good of Islam. The government can even temporarily prevent performing hÌ£ajj, which is among the important Divine obligations, when it proves to be against the Islamic country's interest.(12). WilÄyah and Right of Ownership. In Islam it is legal [to own] property but it is restricted by certain limitations. Limitation of ownership is among the issues which are within the jurist's area of competence due to his wilÄyah; which [wilÄyah of the jurist] is, unfortunately, not clear for our intellectuals. In spite of the fact that ownership is respected by the sacred Legislator, walÄ« al-amr (the Leader of Muslims) has the power to restrict a legal property or even confiscate it if he realizes that such ownership goes against the advantage of Islam and Muslims.(13). ____________________. Footnotes:. 1. Bihar ul-Anwar - vol. 25, p. 116; Nahj ul-Balaaghah, p. 588, sermon 172; al-Ihtijaaj - vol. 1, p. 229. 2. Mustadrak al-WasÄ'il - vol. 17, p. 321; KitÄb al- QadÌ£Ä' - characteristics of a judge, chapter 11, tradition no. 33. 3. The Glorious Qur'an, Chapter Baqarah: 124. 4. Wilayat-e-Faqih - p. 58-61. 5. SÌ£ahÌ£Ä«fah-e-NÅ«r, vol. 21, p. 129, date: 29/4/1989. 6. SÌ£ahÌ£Ä«fah-e-NÅ«r, vol. 10, p. 168-169, date: 8/11/1979. 7. SÌ£ahÌ£Ä«fah-e-NÅ«r, vol. 3, p. 54, date: 9/11/1978. 8. Reference to the blessed verses 44-46 of the chapter Haqqah of the Qur'an which says: (ÙÙÙÙÙÙ ØªÙÙÙÙÙÙÙÙ Ø¹ÙÙÙÙÙÙÙØ§ Ø¨ÙØ¹ÙØ¶Ù Ø§ÙØ£ÙÙÙØ§ÙÙÙÙÙ * ÙØ£ÙØ®ÙØ°ÙÙÙØ§ Ù ÙÙÙÙÙ Ø¨ÙØ§ÙÙÙÙÙ ÙÙÙÙ * Ø«ÙÙ ÙÙ ÙÙÙÙØ·ÙØ¹ÙÙÙØ§ Ù ÙÙÙÙÙ Ø§ÙÙÙÙØªÙÙÙÙ ( An if he had fabricated against Us some of the sayings, We would certainly have seized him by the right hand. Then, we would certainly have cut off his aorta. 9. SÌ£ahÌ£Ä«fah-e-NÅ«r , vol. 10, p. 29, date: 21/11/1979. 10. SÌ£ahÌ£Ä«fah-e-NÅ«r, vol. 11, p. 133, date: 28/12/1979. 11. Wilayat-e-Faqih - p. 92-93. 12. SÌ£ahÌ£Ä«fah-e-NÅ«r, vol. 20, p. 170, date: 6/1/1988. 13. SÌ£ahÌ£Ä«fah-e-NÅ«r, vol. 10, p. 138, date: 5/11/1979.. (MORE)
He object to shah's rule because shah's rule pass laws forbidding the sale alcohol and limiting the freedom for women.
Ayatollah Khomeini believed that the Shah of Iran was subordinating Iran to foreign interests to enrich himself. The fundamentalist Iranians did not want a secular Western culture to displace the traditional Islamic laws (which would also reduce the influence of the ayatollahs).
He was born in komein lol i know it's weird but he took the name of where he was born. In a city in Iran that name is Khomein
He made Islamic law the law of the land. He followed a foreignpolicy that was strongly against the U.S. He also led his countryin a long war against its neighbor Iraq.
There is not just one Ayatollah. It is a the Shiite equivalent of an Archbishop (more or less). Ayatollahs gain their rank in much the same way that Archbishops rise: they start out as Imams in congregations, they issue Islamic judicial opinions (fatwas), they learn additional information in Islamic… Schools (Madrassas), their opinions become more important and other Imams recommend them for "promotion" etc. For an Ayatollah to become the Supreme Leader of Iran, that Ayatollah must be one of the ten Ayatollahs that sit on the Supreme Council. Then the ten of them discuss amongst themselves who should be the Supreme Leader and vote unanimously. (MORE)
Ayatollah is a high ranking title given to Usuli Twelver ShÄ«'ah clerics. Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies such as jurisprudence, ethics, and philosophy and usually teach in Islamic seminaries.The next lower clerical rank is Hojatoleslam wal-muslemin. Ayatollah can be maybe… compared with Cardinals in Catholicism. (MORE)
The goal of the revolution was to remove the corrupt regime of Shah Pahlavi from power, and to create a new and more virtuous government that would govern according to the principles of Islam.
Actually IRAN is not RULED BY ' ayathullah', but his power isstrong advisory in nature.
He got exiled for 14 years and decided to come back in 1979. He wasexiled because he advocated for the overthrow of the Shah of Iran.
Answer 1 This is a controversial issue in Iran. The regime would like thepeople to think that it was in fact the people and their supportthat brought Khomeini back and ended the tyranny of the Shah. Thatsounds very vain though as at the time of the revolution Khomeiniwas living in exile in France. …The controversial issue for manyIranians is how was it that at the age of no internet, no satelliteand no mobile phones, how was it that Khomeini's speeches andmessages were delivered in the form of 'shabnameh' (night letters)to almost everyone's house every night? The strongest debate going on in Iran now is that Khomeini and theIslamic revolution was aided by the west in an attempt to over turnthe Shah. The Shah had apparently stopped taking orders from hispatrons, in his last speech he held up a bottle of wine promisinghis people that in the near future he would be selling their oil inbottles instead of barrels. Some believe that was when the westdecided they had to over turn him. BBC was the surrogate mother of the Iranian Islamic Revolution bybroadcasting every message, letter and speech of Khomeini fromFrance. US told the Shah to leave the country when the protestswere getting stronger and then Khomeini was brought back to Iran. It seems Khomeini and his party outsmarted the countries thathelped them to power. What they said before the revolution wascompletely different from the actions they took after it. Even thepeople who had fought and voted for the revolution were nowunsatisfied. But then a big mistake triggered by the west unitedthe whole country: Iraq attacked Iran one year after the revolutionbacked by western powers who provided the Arab country with armsand weapons. Iranians, being very patriotic, forgot/ignored everything else toprotect their country. The result was that after the 8 year war hadended, the Islamic regime was too well established to be changedand reformed. The people had been tricked into paying a veryexpensive price to be under another tyrannical regime. This oneworse than the previous one as this one was using religion tojustify every brutal action. Answer 2 Shah had violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moralcorruption in the country and submitted himself to the will ofAmerica and Israel. On the afternoon of 'Ashoura (June 3, 1963), Ayatollah Khomeinidelivered a speech at the Feyziyeh Madrasah denouncing the Shah asa "wretched miserable man", and warning him that if he did notchange his ways, the day would come when the people would offer upthanks for his departure from the country. On June 5, 1963, Imam Khomeini was arrested. This sparked threedays of major protests throughout Iran and led to the killing ofsome 400 pro-Khomeini protesters. The Imam was kept under housearrest for 8 months and he was released in 1964. In November 1964, Ayatollah Khomeini denounced both the Shah andthe United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" ordiplomatic immunity granted by the Shah to American militarypersonnel in Iran. In November 1964, Imam Khomeini was re-arrestedand sent into exile. In early 1970 Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf onIslamic Government, later published as a book titled variouslyIslamic Government or Authority of the Jurist (Welayat al-Faqih). Imam Khomeini spent over 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy cityof Najaf, Iraq. Initially he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964where he stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year. Later inOctober 1965 he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayeduntil being forced to leave in 1978, after then-Vice PresidentSaddam Hussein killed his son Mustapha and forced the Imam outafter which he went to Neauphle-le-ChÃ¢teau in France where hestayed for four months. Imam Khomeini became the most influential leader of the oppositionto the Shah perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual, if notpolitical, leader of revolution. As protest grew so did his profileand importance. Although thousands of kilometers away from Iran inParis, the Imam set the course of the revolution, urging Iraniansnot to compromise and ordering work stoppages against the regime. He sent letters to Iran which were copied and distributed amongpeople. Imam Khomeini is known to be a revolutionist to overthrew theShah's monarchy by "pen and paper" (MORE)
There is no such person as Ayatollah Khameini. There is AyatollahKhomeini and his successor Ayatollah Khamanei. Ayatollah Khomeini was famous islamic leader or marja taglid in thecontemporary century. He is also the founder of the IslamicRepublic of Iran.
Firstly you have to understand who he was,where and why he was exiled,who influenced him,what his beliefs were and when he came into power what the political scenarios was al about in the middle east. Simply he was none other than a puppet of the western regime who now control and hold the monopoly …of the worlds resources. There is nothing special aqbout him or other world middle east leaders who are pawns in mid-east politics. (MORE)
The Ayatollah Khomeini and other Muslim leaders opposed the Shah ofIran for his friendship with Western countries. They felt like hewas selling out and the Muslim influence in the area would soon bereplaced with Western teachings.
The reason behind his success was faith in truth, faith in God! He was a true leader if he would not come in Iran today Iran would be like Iraq, Afghanistan. Shah was a dog for American's who was obeying them, people were dying in Iran, and he was doing parties in his country, to make his master hap…py! Khomeini rejected all of it, and he did what was shah duties, he brought peace in Iran, shah didn't allow him to come in Iran because he knew he would bring the revolution, and his government would be finished! Khomeini rejected America's offer, they wanted him same as shah a dog for them in which they have the dog ruling Iran, and they have the rope tight around shah's neck controlling him! (MORE)
Mustafa Kemal ruled his country based on a secular and westernized set of laws, while the Ayatollah Khomeini did it following strict Islamic religious laws.
He was the leader of Islamic revolution and Shah sent him out ofIran to stop the revolution. but this action made people angry andpeople by their protests made the Shah to escape from Iran and thenpeople asked Imam Khomeini to return and so he returned.
Assuming that the question refers to Iran: The Ayatollahs demanded an Iranian Constitution guaranteeing the primacy of Islamic Law in Iranian governance and themselves as its proper interpreters. This is called "Wilayat al-Faqih" in Arabic, meaning "State of the Islamic Jurist". If the question doe…s not refer to Iran, it is worth noting that Ayatollahs in other countries such as Iraq and Lebanon have decided to support different political factions but not actually become ruling jurists. (MORE)
Ayatollahs khomeni is famous to the people of Iran. But to the rest of the world he is not at all famous in any way.
Yes, he was. he was the founder of Islamic revolution in Iran. he was the leader of shia muslims. now Ayatollah Khamenei is leading the shia muslims.
The biggest Iranian Revolution first started by students and middle class seen overthrown of the last autocratic king Shah Iran (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi), and the return of 15 years in exile of Ayatollah Khomeini, being upped as the first people's choice leader of 1979 Iranian Revolution. As by the …west and its allies, Ayatollah Khomeini actually seen as the perfect pious and peaceful character to be, but when Ayatollah Khomeini takes his leader role, he seems to be bigger than himself and sharply be the one responsible spreading the anti-Israel anti-US and instead of just lead Iranian to a peaceful living after the revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini actually gone further actively ready to war with everybody that preventing Iran from rising again as significant political power. He dies in 1986, but his pious potraits can be seen till today being painted in large sizes on some buildings towards the Syuhada Square in Iran central town. (MORE)
Why did radical followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini overrun the U.S. Embassy and take Americans hostage?
Radical followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini overran the U.S.Embassy and took Americans hostage to protest the admission of theShah of Iran into the United States for medical treatment, orbecause the US was spying on Iran from inside the embassy.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was born on September 24, 1900 and died on June 3, 1989. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini would have been 88 years old at the time of death or 114 years old today.
I don't know which choices you were given, so let me offer a definition. An ayatollah is a high-ranking religious leader in Shiite Islam; that is why you may have heard of this religious title when the discussion was about Iran, a majority Shia country. The word ayatollah is derived from the Arabic …"a sign from/of Allah"; an ayatollah in Shia Islam is an expert on Islamic law, ethics, and philosophy, and his decisions can carry considerable authority: some ayatollahs are so influential that they can even over-rule a president or determine the course of an election in a theocratic country where there is no separation of religion and government. (MORE)
There was no leader before him Iran was a monarchy before the Islamic Republic and the king (natively called "Shah") was Mohammadreza Pahlavi.
Ayatollah Khomeini was convinced that America has colonized Iran and the Shah of Iranis America's puppet government.
Unless someone specifically states that he is a member of the freemasons, it is hard to know for sure. Probably not, though--it's not a big thing in Iran.
Ayatollah means literally one who is the sign of Exalted God amongpeople. those who entered the Howzeh, after passing the levels andreligious courses , recieved the Title of Ayatollah. some one whois ayatollah , is skillfull in religious sciences likejurisprudence, theology and Hadith and Arabic log…ic and the prayingJudgment in Islam Religion. There is no synonym for Ayatollah since it refers to a specificreligious position in Shiite Islam. You can refer to the term morebroadly as a "clerical leader", but this is somewhat different. (MORE)
during the Islamic revolution performed by Iranian nations andunder leading of Imam Khomeini the late, U.S Government had manyinterferences in the interior affairs of Iran such that after thefining of Muhammed Reza Pahlavi from Iran, he settled to America.while U.S had known that Iranian people diss…atisfied of Pahlavi andhis rule, they protect the Shah. besides U.S government as acolonizer also steel the natural wealth and resources belonged toIranian people. such a doings lead to cut relation Iran and Americaafter islamic revolution. according to the such factors , imamkhomeini could not trust the U.S since that that the past showsthat they already betrayed. The US CIA led a coup d'etat in Iran in 1953, which overthrew thedemocratically elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadeq andinstalled an imperial dictatorship. It is the fact that the USmeddled in Iranian affairs and was not reticent about it thatcaused Khomeini to doubt whether the United States would have anhonest and sincere relationship with Iran. This was furtherworsened by the US failure to render the Shah (who was in exile inthe US) back to the Iranian government for trial. (MORE)
Imam Khomeini has one wife by the name of the late Khadigeh saqafiwho died in 2009 in 96 years old.
the Ayatollah Khomeini is leader of islamic revolution in iran .he, however was the religious authority ,mystics and great jurist.
lately some agency new such as BBC Persian wanted to distribute adistorted text to Ayatollah Khomeini based on a secret messagebetween him and carter. but according to confident sources thehistory is not such a way that BBC agency news narrated it. inother word I think that not only, as BBC claimed,… Imam Khomeini inresponse to Carter , alert him on the right of Iranian people inrespect to their destiny but also Imam Khomeini try to show Carter,if he threat Iran again this action could followed by serousresponse by Iranian people. (MORE)
since that Ayatollah is a respectful religious person, therefore itis need to address him as Respectfully titles such asYou(plural),Hazrat..
Imam Khomeini the late is the great leader of islamic republic of Iran. he also is an authoritative figure and man reigion and mystic.
Persian born Ruhollah Khomeini was the first supreme leader of Iran, a position which he held until he died in 1989. He was also the leader of the Iranian Revolution and was named Man of the Year in 1979.
In order to be granted the title Ayatollah a cleric must show that they hold a great deal of wisdom through their study, teaching, preaching, and the amassing of followers. It is not an officially granted title such as pope or bishop but once the cleric has earned the respect of his followers and le…aders he can achieve Ayatollah status. (MORE)
Ayatolloah Khomeini was an Iranian religious leader in the 1979 Iranian Revolution. He managed to become the supreme ruler of Iran after the revolution.
There are two questions here. What is an Ayatollah? -- An Ayatollah is a supremeclerical leader in the Shiite Islamic Faith who governs over aphysical region with many Shiite Muslims. This is similar to aPatriarch in Orthodox Christianity or an Archbishop in the CatholicChurch (if the Cardinals a…nd the Pope are removed). Ayatollahsexist in all places with large Shiite populations, most especially,Iran, Iraq, and Lebanon. Each of the Ayatollahs is independent ofthe other Ayatollahs, but they typically agree on core religiousissues. In Iran, specifically, the Ayatollahs have special political powersand form the Supreme Council, which is Iran's judicial branch. Thecouncil members remain members for life and all new members areappointed by the remaining members. This makes their opinionshielded from the masses and the Supreme Council is effectively anoligarchic institution. Who runs Iran's government? -- There is debatebetween scholars on Iran as to who exactly runs Iran's government.There are three official and one unofficial branch of thegovernment: the Legislative Branch (made of the Iranian Parliamentor Majlis), the Executive Branch (made of the Iranian President),the Judiciary (made of the Supreme Council of Ayatollahs), and theMilitary (made up of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and theBasij). Most international consensus is that the Supreme Council ofAyatollahs has powers that completely eclipse the Majlis and thatstrongly rival, if not partially eclipse, those of the President ofIran. Additionally, the Military strongly supports the views of theAyatollahs and prefers not to clash with them. Therefore, theIranian government is effectively ruled by the Ayatollahs. Some say that more power is concentrated in the Military and theSupreme Council only follows the will of the Military and exertsthe Military's will over the other branches. Detractors from thisview argue that there is little evidence that the military isactively compelling the Ayatollahs to do anything. No threats orbribes have been discovered. Others say that while the Ayatollahs only censor or direct policy,they do not set it, which ultimately gives the President somelatitude in proposing initiatives. This would give the Presidentand the Supreme Council co-equal powers. Those who hold to thisargument point to the Presidency of Khatami where the President andSupreme Council butted heads for his entire presidency and nothinghappened to make the country more liberal or conservative.Detractors from this view argue that the Supreme Council retainsthe power to permit or oppose the candidacy of any President orParliamentarian who they do not approve of, effectively choosing asubset of Iranian politicians whose plans and initiatives wouldbetter match the Ayatollahs' vision of Iranian development. (MORE)
Ayatollah Khomeini has: Played Himself (segment "The Interrogator") in "60 Minutes" in 1968. Played himself in "60 Minutes" in 1968. Played Himself - Leader of Iran in "60 Minutes" in 1968. Played himself in "Baraye azadi" in 1979. Played Himself (1987) in "Rudis Tagesshow" in 1981. Played Himself (…with aides) in "The Man Who Saw Tomorrow" in 1981. Played himself in "Biography" in 1987. Played himself in "Cover Up: Behind the Iran Contra Affair" in 1988. Played himself in "Inhumanities II: Modern Atrocities" in 1989. Played himself in "Superstar: The Life and Times of Andy Warhol" in 1990. Played himself in "Saddam Hussein: Defying the World - A Visual Biography" in 1990. Played himself in "Desert Storm: The War Begins" in 1991. Played himself in "CNN Presents" in 1993. Played himself in "Doomsday Gun" in 1994. Played himself in "Cold War" in 1998. Played himself in "54" in 1998. Played himself in "Enterprise" in 2001. Played himself in "Our Friend Saddam" in 2003. Played himself in "The Doomsday Clock" in 2004. Played himself in "Celsius 41.11: The Temperature at Which the Brain... Begins to Die" in 2004. Played himself in "The Power of Nightmares: The Rise of the Politics of Fear" in 2004. Played himself in "Bush Family Fortunes: The Best Democracy Money Can Buy" in 2004. Played himself in "Declassified" in 2004. Played himself in "Escape from Iran: The Hollywood Option" in 2005. Played himself in "Why We Fight" in 2005. Played himself in "Tehran anar nadarad" in 2007. Played himself in "The Third Jihad" in 2008. Played himself in "Catalunya.cat" in 2008. Played himself in "Zwischen den Fronten - Die neuen Achsen der Macht" in 2008. Played himself in "Iran and the West" in 2009. Played himself in "Reagan" in 2011. (MORE)
Khadijeh Saqafi was the wife of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.Saqafi was known as the "mother of the Islamic Revolution" withinIran.