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Who was The Mongol khan from Samarkand who attacked the Islamic state of the Tughluq dynasty?
Tamerlane ruler of a Mongol Khanate based in Somarkand.
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Genealogy of Genghis Khan Firstly, I introduce Abu-al-Ghazi Bahadur was Khan of the Khanate of Khiva from 1643-63. He was very well educated and true historian. He spent 10 y…ears in Persia before becoming Khan. He wrote a book, A General History of Turks; Moguls and Tatars. He mentions in the preface "I Abu-al-Ghazi Bahadur Khan have began to write this book. My father Arap Mahamet Khan descendant in a right line from Genghis Khan and was before me sovereign Prince of the country of Kharazm. I shall treat in this book of the house of Genghis Khan. This is true that before me several Turkish and Persian Authors have written upon this subject and I myself have eighteen different books of those Authors in my hands, some of which are tolerably well wrote; but as I perceive these books stand much is need of correction in many places and in others of large supplies, I Judged there was a necessity for having a more exact history. And for as much as our countries are very destitute of learned writers, I saw myself obliged to undertake this work." I Imtiaz Ahmed Mughal studied the above mentioned book written by Abu-al-Ghazi Bahadur. He wrote the true Turko Mogul history and Genealogy of Genghis Khan. I admire his great and distinct work in this regard and admit that he was a great Prince and true historian. Some scholars argue that Genghis Khan was Moghalls or Turkic and some said that his descendants (Temurid, Mughals of India, Argun and Tarkhan dynasties of Sindh Pakistan) were Turkic, not Moghalls. According to the Abu-al-Ghazi Bahadur the turko Moghalls were the same race and were descended from the Turk son of Yaphis, those were Turkish people and called Tarkhans (Tarkan). These Tarkhans were ancestor of Turko Moghall people. Later the word Tarkhan became the Turkish title means Turkish Prince, Commander, Ruler. It was a title used among the ancient Turks to denote a princely status just below that of Qaghan (Khaqan).So it is a debate less that Genghis Khan was a Turkic or Moghalls. It is true that he had both Turko Moghall ancestry. He sprung from the Posterity of Kayan, who went and inhabited in the country of Irgana-kon after the defeat of his father Il-Khan, descended from Oghuz Khan (ancestor of Toku Oguz tribe) the son of Kara Khan, son of Mungle (Mogul) Khan. The Ur-Mankakts was the leading tribe descended from Oghuz Khan, all the Moghall tribes are related to that tribe. From the three sons of Alan Ku sprung a numerous tribe; in the Moghall language sir named "Nirka" (Niron); that is a pure family. The descendants of the Qayan took the sir name of Kayat (signify smith) and those of Naguz took the sir name of Darulgin. They were called Irgana-kon smith because they had erected a foundry for Iron work in the valley of Irgana-kon. Kayat were descendant from the sixth son of Kabul Khan and the Borzugan Kayat sprung from the five sons of Yessughi Bahadur Khan who was the father of Temujin (Genghis Khan). Bortan Bayadur was the father of Yessughi Bahadur, whose father was Kabull Khan, the son of Tumana Khan, the son of Kaidu Khan, whose father was Dutumin Khan. The father of Dutumin Khan was Tokha Khan, his father was Budansir Mogak, born of the widow Alancu grand daughter of Yuldus Khan. The father of Yuldus Khan was Mengli Chodsa Khan, who was the son of Temirtash Khan, the son of Kaymazu Khan, son of Simsanzi Khan, son of Bukbendum Khan, son of menkoazin borell Khan, son of Kipzi Mergan Khan, son of Bizin Kayen Khan, son of Kaw Idill Khan whose father was Bertezena Khan. Between the reign of Bertezena and the flight of Kayan, who went and inhabited in the country of Irgana-kon, after the defeat of his father, there is a vacancy of 450 years; which is just the time that the Mogulls were confined within the mountains of Irgana-kon and were in perfect ignorance of the order of the succession and names of the Princess who reigned over the Mogulls in that interval, we are certain they were all of the posterity of Kayan. The father of Kayan was Il Khan, his father was Mengli Khan, the son of Yuldus Khan, who succeeded Ay Khan. Yuldus Khan having been neither the brother nor the son of Ay Khan or Kiun Khan, but only their relation. Ay Khan succeeded his brother Kiun Khan, whose father was Ogus Khan, the son of Kara Khan, the son of Mungl (Mogul) Khan, son of Alenza Khan (father of two twin sons, Mogul and Tatar), son of Kayuk Khan, son of Dibbakui Khan, son of Yelza Khan, son of Taunak Khan, whose father was Turk (ancestor of Turkish people), the son of Yaphis, the son of Nui (A.S), whose father was Zamach, son of Matushlach, the son of Prophet Idris (A.S), called in the language of Yunan Achnuch, whose father was Berdi, the son of Melahil, son of Shinan, son of Anus, whose father was prophet Shiss ,who was the son of Adam (A.S), sir named Saphi Yula. I say Mongols and Turks are relatives but not brothers. Both Mongolians and Turkish tribes used to be nomads live in a same place in Central Asia. But in terms of language and origin they are entirely different. Still there are many people who has Turkish root live in Mongolia and same in Turkey. It is hard to name someone who has ancestor who lived few thousand years ago Turkish, thus it is impossible to distinguish now. But Chingis khaan (Genghis khaan) was a real royal Mongol without a doubt regardless of what his name mean in Turkish language. In 13th Century Turkish impact in Mongolia was forgotten and Turkish rooted people were constituting very little part of Mongolian population. Thank you for the interesting information. But primarily it must be said: unfortunately, in the official historiography there are many pro-Chinese and Persian falsifications about the origin of Genghis Khan, his native nation and his Power. Therefore, the first thing we should know the truth about meaning of the names "Mongol" and "Tatar" ("Tartar") in the medieval Eurasia: the name "Mongol" until the 17th-18th centuries in fact meant belonging to a political community, and was not the ethnic name. While "the name "Tatar" was the name of the native nation of Genghis Khan … he and his people did not speak the language, which we call now the "Mongolian"…" (Russian academic-orientalist V. Vasiliev, 19th century). This is confirmed by many little-known facts from ancient and medieval sources. Also it must be said: now very few people know that Genghis Khan was a Turkic man and a great leader of the Turkic peoples, but some of his descendants forgot him. Tatars of Genghis Khan - medieval Tatars - were one of the Turkic nations, whose descendants now live in many of the fraternal Turkic peoples of Eurasia - among the Kazakhs, Bashkirs, Tatars, Uighurs, and many others. And few people know, that the ethnos (nation) of medieval Tatars, which stopped the Chinese and Persians expansion to the West of Eurasia in Medieval centuries, is still alive. Despite the politicians of the Tsars Romanovs and Bolsheviks dictators had divided and scattered this ethnos to many "different nations"... A well-grounded rebuttal of the chinese-persian myths about "incredible cruelty of nomadic mongol-tatar conquerors", and about "a war between the Tatars and Genghis Khan", as well as a lot of from the real Tatar (Turkic) History, what the official historians hidden from the public, you can learn in the book "Forgotten Heritage of Tatars" (by an independent Tatar historian Galy Yenikeyev). On the site of Smashwords is an electronic version of this book in English - it's easy to find on the Internet: http://www.smashwords.com/books/view/175211 Perhaps you know, that an outstanding Tatar historian-scientist D. Iskhakov wrote in 2000: "the real history of Tatars, of the people in every respect historical, is not written yet". However, this year was published an above mentioned book by Galy Yenikeyev, about the unwritten (hidden) real history of Tatars. In this book a lot of previously little-known historical facts, as well as 16 maps and illustrations in this book. Galy Yenikeyev presents in his works a new, or rather "well-forgotten old" information about the true history of the Tatars and other Turkic peoples. This historian wrote 5 books on History of Tatars of Eurasia, which published in Russian language in Russia (2007-2012). "Forgotten Heritage of Tatars" is the fifth book of Galy Yenikeyev, translated into English in the abridged version. And here (on the cover of the third book of Galy Yenikeyev) you can see the true appearance of Genghis Khan. There placed his lifetime portrait: http://tartareurasia.ucoz.com/publ/knigi_enikeeva_gr/kniga_quotpo_sledam_chjornoj_legendyquot/prodolzhenie/6-1-0-36 Translation notes to the portrait: "...In the ancient Tatar historical source «About the clan of Genghis-Khan» the author gives the words of the mother of Genghis-Khan: «My son Genghis looks like this: he has a Golden bushy beard, he wears a white coat and goes on a white horse» [34, p. 14]. As we can see, the portrait of an unknown medieval artist in many ways corresponds to the words of the mother of the Hero, which has come down to us in this ancient Tatar story. Therefore, this portrait, which corresponds to the information of the Tatar source and to data from other sources, we believe, the most reliably transmits the physical appearance of Genghis-Khan...". Thank you for additional informations. Today there are much more books and so much information about Chingis khaan compared to 90s'. In fact most of the old historic information are written from non-Mongol standpoint. Many historians wanted their offspring to see him as a Monster to diminished his accomplishments in their writings and focused much on dark side. All I wanted to say is some of the facts about Chingis khaan are not accurate because of historians hatred to Mongolians. Until 2000s most people in this world considered him as a Monster and no one wanted to proclaim him as their predecessor. But after last few years' research it became clear that his impact on this whole world changed and improved this world in many areas. After that every nation who can be somewhat related to Chingis wished him to be his pride. Japanese say Chingis khaan was a samurai, Turks say he was a Turkic, and even Koreans want to proclaim him as Korean king. In fact there is no doubt about his origin. He was Mongolian. I would suggest each and everyone who wants to know more about Chingis khaan to read The SECRET HISTORY OF MONGOlIA (not turks or japans etc!) the only book in this world that covers everything about chingis khaan, from his predecessors, his birth, his childhood, his accomplishments, his failures, his death and even some information about his sons' life. The only true reliable is SHM! All the following information is from The secret history of Mongolia... Some people think he was Turkic because his name is Turkic. And also regarding the fact that Western world knows Mongolians as Tatars many people think he was Tatarian (which is considered to be Turkic descendent tribe). In fact Mongolians were consisted of many tribes and TATAR was just one of them. I have some explanation for those misconceptions... Those who claims that Chingis khaan is Turkic not Mongolians haven't even read SHM, the only history book about Chingis khaan and his ancestors written by Mongols. Because the only copy of this book (written in Mongolian language) is found from China and is not found elsewhere in this world. * First of all, Tatars are not Chingis Khaan's native nation. Actually it was the biggest enemy of Chingis Khaan. Many historians believe that tatar tribe was somewhat Turkic tribe (even though there's no fact relating Turks and Tatars are found in SHM). Chingis Khaan is the son of Yesukhei baatar (baatar means hero in Mongolian) the leader of Khiad tribe. Just because his oldest son was born right after he killed the leader of Tatar tribe - Temujin-Uge, he names his old son Temujin. That's why many people who hasn't read this book argues Chingis Khaan was turkic because his name is Turkic. In fact his father gave him that name just because he killed Turkic named man. The son of Temujin-uge, later gave Yesukhei baatar poisonous drink and killed him. From that moment Tatars turned out to be the biggest enemy of Temujin. At that time Temujin was a little child. The boy who killed Temujin's father was not even taller than a wheel of cart. After he conquered Tatars, he killed all men and women taller than a wheel of cart. * In addition Mongols are known as tatars in western world. That's the reason why many people around the world think Chingis is Tatarian. Chingis khaan hated Tatars until the day he died and discriminated them all life long so he wanted every Tatarians (who were kids shorter than a wheel of cart at the time Chingis conquered their tribe) to be in the front line of all the fights. Front line of the war was the most dangerous place for soldiers at that time and many of them never came back home alive. Some part of Great Mongolian empire was Turkic as many people assume, but neither Chingis Khaan nor his Khiad tribe people were. Answer From Imtiaz Ahmed Mughal : Genghis Khan belonged to Qiat Tribe, (,Turko Mughal ) which signify as smith. The name of Genghis Khan was Temujin,which means iron worker(black smith).According to Ibn Batutah the Genghis Khan was in his outset a blacksmith in the country of Khita .The historians societies such as GokTurks, Khazars, Oughurs,all were Turkic peoples descended from Ashina Clan, a subtribe of Xiongnu/Hun,they were iron worker and Manufactured weapons.Their rulers adopted the titles Khans, Tarkhan, Khakan Yabghu, Shad etc. We can deduce the fact that the title Tarkhan originally has something with the vocation identitely of Gokturks. Ashina clan the legendary father of the ancient Turkic people were engaged in metal working.Genghis Khan was descended from Oghuz/Oghur Turkic tribe,may be Mongolic because The Oghuz Kagan belonged to Mughal I-Amak, but it is certain that Genghis Khan descended from a Oghuz/oghur tribe,Wolf Nomads Tarkhan family especially The Ashina Clan (golden family), a sub group of Xiongnu/Hun. They were engaged in metal working. They erected a Foundry for iron work in a mountain called Ergenekon. They were true Mughals and called Arkanakon Smiths. ---- Well, why only "in the 90-s" (or in 2000)" ? - Tatars knew and remembered that Genghis Khan was their ancestor and tribesman since ancient times. Besides, this is stated in many ancient sources - about it is spoken as in the Tatar historical sources, so in many sources of other Nations: Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Turkish and West European. Only this theme was taboo - as in official history of the Romanov's, so and during the Soviet-Bolshevik regime. But now is revealed the historical truth about that the native ethnos of Chingiz-Khan was one of the medieval Turkic ethnoses - medieval Tatars - the ancestors of the modern Tatars and other fraternal Turkic peoples. Referred to you the anti-Tatar "The secret history of Mongolia" - rather, "Тhe Secret history of the Mongols" - was composed by Chinese historians in the second half of the 14th century. These Chinese historians were ideologists of those who fought then against the Tatars of the Horde in China. After anti-Tatar data of the composition "about the war Tatars against the Chingiz-Khan" etc. was repeated by Persian Rashid ad-Din, who was an enemy of the Tatars of the Golden Horde. So, these are only in these two "sources" and in the derivative from them there are report that "Tatars were the enemies of the Chingiz-Khan". But many other sources of those times reported that "Tatars are a Turkic tribe, and their king is the Chingiz-Khan" (Arabic Ibn al-Asher, 1219), "in 1187 Tatars had elected a King for themselves, whose name was Genghis-Khan" (Marco Polo, 13-th century), "Tatar's Khan Temuchin declared himself as Emperor and Tatars named his "Genghis-Khan" (a lot of Chinese sources). Such sources, I repeat, are very much, but they are not very known to the General public at the present time. However, recently were published books by independent Tatar historian Galy Yenikeyev, about the unwritten (hidden) real history of Tatar Nation. So, about everything above mentioned and a lot of the true history of the Tatars and other fraternal Turkic peoples, which was hidden from us, had been written, in detail and proved, in the book "Forgotten Heritage of Tatars" (by Galy Yenikeyev). "...In the ancient Tatar historical source «About the clan of Genghis-Khan» the author gives the words of the mother of Genghis-Khan: «My son Genghis looks like this: he has a golden bushy beard, he wears a white fur coat and goes on a white horse» [34, p. 14]. As we can see, the portrait of an unknown medieval artist in many ways corresponds to the words of the mother of the Hero, which have come down to us in this ancient Tatar story. Therefore, this portrait, which corresponds to the information of the Tatar source and to data from other sources, we believe, the most reliably transmits the appearance of Genghis-Khan...".
Samarkand is in Asia.
Prominent rulers of the Tughluq Dynasty are- Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq(1320-1325) Muhammad-bin-Tughluq(1325-1351) Firoz Tughluq(1351-1388)
Yes he was.
Yes. The challengers who would ultimately bring an end to the Islamic Empire came not from Europe, but from central Asia. In the early 1200s, a Mongol leader named G…enghis Khan and his descendants conquered most of China, Russia, Iran, Anatolia, and Iraq. Genghis Khan began his raids into Islamic territory in 1219. He established himself in what is now Uzbekistan and worked his way south into northern Persia. In 1256, Genghis Khan's grandson, Hulagu, continued farther through Persia, destroying Assassin groups along the way and moving into Iraq. The Mongol conquests were extremely destructive. Cities and their residents were wiped out and irrigation projects were destroyed, which ruined the farming of the region. In 1258, Hulagu entered Baghdad himself. There, the Mongol soldiers massacred thousands of people and the caliph's palace was destroyed. The caliph, his family, and his officials were also killed. By 1260, most of the Islamic east was under Mongol control and the Islamic Empire was no more. However, the Muslim influence continued, under the Ottoman Turks who founded an empire, but it was also destroyed later on.
Defeated every army except the viatnemese.
They controlled the Yuan Dynasty it means "beginning". They came after the Tang Dynasty.
Mongol Dynasty in China is called Yuan Dynasty. Yuan Dynasty ( 1271 ~ 1368) is founded by Kublai Khan. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an impe…rial dynasty of China. The Ming Dynasty (1368~1644) followed Mongol Dynasty.
The Ming Dynasty (1368~1644) followed Mongol Dynasty.