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The Romans' name for Carthage was Puncia.
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They fought for commercial dominance in the western Mediterranean .
Rivalry - for supremacy in the Western Mediterranean.
In 264 BCE.
The two were both competitors for political , military , naval and commercial control over the Mediterranean .
Rome and Carthage were both struggling for dominance/hegemony in the Mediterranean for commercial and political reasons .
The two empires were still fighting over land because of Rome's continuing expansion.
The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Phoenician", with reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry .
There were three Punic Wars The First Punic War started because of tension in the city of Messana (Messina), in eastern Sicily, on the straight, 2 miles from the mainland, w…here some mercenaries had seized the town. Syracuse, also in the east, the most powerful city in the island, attacked them. The mercenaries asked both Carthage and Rome for help. Carthage responded first and established a garrison in Messana. The mercenaries, perhaps unhappy about this, asked Rome for help again. The Roman senate did not want war, but the assembly of the soldiers voted for war. Its motives are not clear. The explanations given by historians are speculations. Rome took the city and then besieged Syracuse, which became a Roman ally. Carthage gathered a mercenary army and prepared for war. The war developed into a fight for control over Sicily. The Second Punic War has also been called the Hannibalistic War. Hannibal wanted it for revenge. He ruled the newly conquered Carthaginian territories in southern Spain. The cities in the north of the Spanish coast were concerned abut Carthaginian expansion and allied with Rome for protection. Rome and Carthage signed a treaty which set the river Ebro as a boundary between the two territories. Neither side was to cross the river. Hannibal besieged and seized a city just across the river, sparking the war. The Romans did not have a military presence in Spain and did nothing during the seven months of the siege. In the end she had to declare war to save her reputation. Hannibal had already prepared an army and devised a strategy. He decided to take the war to Italy and headed there at an astonishing speed. He also made provisions for the defence of Spain and Carthage. Rome had to neutralise Hannibal in Italy, take Spain from the Carthaginians and attack Tunisia, which is where Carthage was. In the Third Punic War Rome declared war because she wanted to destroy Carthage. There were concerns about a resurgence in the power of this city.
Rome won. Rome then imposed a hefty was indemnity on Carthage and took advantage of a mercenary rebellion in Carthage to steal Sardinia and Corsica. Rome also won the 2nd and …3rd Punic wars.
Rivalry for control of the Western Mediterranean.
Rivalry for control of the Western Mediterranean.
It is not clear whether at the beginning of the Roman military action in Sicily a war between Rome and Carthage had been expected. The war was started by tension created in no…rtheastern Sicily by mercenaries called the Mamertines. They seized the city of Messana, on the strait between Sicily and the mainland on in the northeast of the island, killed all the men and took the women as their wives. They then started raiding the nearby area. This provoked a reaction from the Greek city of Syracuse, also on the east coast, which was the most powerful city-state in the island. In the east and south of Sicily there were Greek city-states. The Mamartines appealed for help to both Rome and Carthage, which had five ports in western Sicily. Carthage accepted to help, but also imposed a Carthaginian Garrison in Messana. The Mamertines asked Rome for help again. The Roman senate debated the issue and could not reach an agreement. Many senators did not want to help mercenaries who had stolen a city. The issue was passed on to the Assembly of the Soldiers which had the power to vote on war and peace. It voted for war. Two Roman legions landed at Messana where the Mamertines had expelled the Carthaginian garrison. The Romans defeated the Syracusans who were besieging the city and then besieged Syracuse, which was forced into an alliance treaty and to agree to supply the Roman army. Some small Carthaginian dependencies defected to Rome. Carthage recruited a mercenary army and mobilized for war. Ancient Greek historian Polybius thought that the Romans were concerned about a possible Carthaginian takeover of eastern Sicily, should Carthage clash with and defeat Syracuse. There is no mention of whether Rome predicted a war with Carthage and it is likely that they did not expect that a major war would develop. Carthage had to respond to the perceived threat posed by the alliance between Rome and Syracuse. It is likely that they had not expected a major war to develop either. They probably thought that they could win a quick land war, especially considering that Rome did not have a navy to speak of. Instead, the land war got bogged down due to the rough terrain of the island and the Romans built a navy which matched the powerful Carthaginian navy in size, though not in skills, and the war ended up becoming a big conflict which lasted 23 years.
The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence. Annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthagi…nian population
Spain, southern France, Italy, Sicily, North Africa.