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Why were the wars between Rome and Carthage called Punic wars?
The Romans' name for Carthage was Puncia.
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While later in the empire after the Marian reforms the roman empire maintained an army of ~500,000 soldiers. Half of these were Roman Segmentum Legions (those armored men you …usually see) the other half were composed of provincial soldiers called Auxillaries During the Punic Wars, rome was comparatively small, and limited to Italia and surrounding islands. According to 1 source (Brian Montgomery) rome had fielded around 90,000 total soldiers at the start of the 1st Punic War * However it is important to note that its allies in Greece and Dacia, a combined force of 200,000 could have been fielded (does not include navy) During the 2nd Punic Wars, Rome had controll of Sicily which provided them with 5 legions (18th, 19th 14th and 2 republic altasterai legions). Combined with its allies, the total amount of soldiers Rome and its allies could have been fielded is around 350,000 at the start of 2nd Punic War It is also important to note that Rome had heavy military losses from Hannibal, during the siege of Segmentum and Emporiae, and estimated 5000 men died from the siege. * Battle of Trebia, Rome lost 4 of its 6 legions (20,000 men killed) * Battle of Lake Tresimene, Rome lost 6 of its 7 legions (32,000 men killed) * Battle of Cannae, Rome deployed 10 Republican Legions as well as 8 allied legions to a total force of 90,000. As you would know, it was annhilated and around 75,000 soldiers were killed Rome lost over 100,000 soldiers during the 2nd Punic Wars. Hannibal lost around 80,000 (Started with 100,000 in Baikor, and left with 18,000 at Tarentum) After the second Punic wars, several of its allies in Greece as well as Northern Sicily left the alliance. Rome was now at dire military reform. However, before the third Punic wars it was able to retrain and reform its army back to its numbers. 10 years later, it was again able to well over field 100,000 soldiers. Also, Sicily became a Roman province, as civilians were granted citizenship. The city of Capua was a huge recruitment ground for Roman soldiers at that time
The factors that contribute to Rome's victory were: 1) Hannibal lost his siege machines when he crossed the Alps in the snowy winter to… enter into Italy from the Carthaginian possessions in Spain. Without these he could not attack Rome. Thus, after routing the Romans twice (in northern and central Italy), he went to southern Italy instead of heading for Rome. 2) The Romans adopted a strategy of attrition: they avoided open battle and harassed him with guerrilla tactics to wear him down. 3) Hannibal smallish invasion army needed Rome's allies in Italy to switch sides to increase his forces and weaken Rome. When this materialised in the south, after winning the battle of Cannae (in the south), it proved insufficient. Hannibal set up his headquarters in Capua (Italy's second largest city near Naples) which had switched sides. However, he failed to seize or retain two strategic cities in this area and two attempts at sending him reinforcements were foiled. The Romans besieged Capua. Hannibal had to leave the area. Moreover, Rome's allies in central Italy remained loyal. 4) The military manpower of Rome and her allies was massive. Rome was able to keep raising new armies and gradually regained control of southern Italy. They also suppressed a rebellion in Sicily. Hannibal lost many men and half of his cavalry. A cavalry far superior in numbers had been a key to his victories. His tactics became more defensive. 5) The Romans intercepted and routed the army of Hasdrubal, Hannibal's brother. He was bringing and siege machines and the badly needed reinforcements from Spain to Hannibal. At this point Hannibal's campaign in Italy came to a dead end. He spent the last four years stuck in Calabria (the toe of Italy) whose mountains were easy to defend. 6) In Carthage the peace faction refused to send reinforcements to Hannibal from Africa. 7) The Romans found in Scipio Africanus a general who could match Hannibal. He defeated the Carthaginians in Spain and Rome took over their Spanish territories. Reinforcements to Hannibal could no longer be sent from there. Carthage also lost her main source of wealth, the silver mines in Spain. 8) Scipio Africanus began a campaign in Tunisia (where Carthage was). Hannibal was recalled from Italy to fight in Tunisia. Scipio defeated him in the last battle of the war, the battle of Zama. 9) The western Numidians of Algeria switched alliance from Carthage to Rome. They had supplied half of Hannibal's cavalry. Now they supplied 2/3 of the Roman cavalry in the Battle of Zama, and played a key role in that victory.
By levelling the city to the ground and selling the populace off as slaves.
It is not clear whether at the beginning of the Roman military action in Sicily a war between Rome and Carthage had been expected. The war was started by tension created in no…rtheastern Sicily by mercenaries called the Mamertines. They seized the city of Messana, on the strait between Sicily and the mainland on in the northeast of the island, killed all the men and took the women as their wives. They then started raiding the nearby area. This provoked a reaction from the Greek city of Syracuse, also on the east coast, which was the most powerful city-state in the island. In the east and south of Sicily there were Greek city-states. The Mamartines appealed for help to both Rome and Carthage, which had five ports in western Sicily. Carthage accepted to help, but also imposed a Carthaginian Garrison in Messana. The Mamertines asked Rome for help again. The Roman senate debated the issue and could not reach an agreement. Many senators did not want to help mercenaries who had stolen a city. The issue was passed on to the Assembly of the Soldiers which had the power to vote on war and peace. It voted for war. Two Roman legions landed at Messana where the Mamertines had expelled the Carthaginian garrison. The Romans defeated the Syracusans who were besieging the city and then besieged Syracuse, which was forced into an alliance treaty and to agree to supply the Roman army. Some small Carthaginian dependencies defected to Rome. Carthage recruited a mercenary army and mobilized for war. Ancient Greek historian Polybius thought that the Romans were concerned about a possible Carthaginian takeover of eastern Sicily, should Carthage clash with and defeat Syracuse. There is no mention of whether Rome predicted a war with Carthage and it is likely that they did not expect that a major war would develop. Carthage had to respond to the perceived threat posed by the alliance between Rome and Syracuse. It is likely that they had not expected a major war to develop either. They probably thought that they could win a quick land war, especially considering that Rome did not have a navy to speak of. Instead, the land war got bogged down due to the rough terrain of the island and the Romans built a navy which matched the powerful Carthaginian navy in size, though not in skills, and the war ended up becoming a big conflict which lasted 23 years.
Firstly, Carthage was a very successful trading empire and with this wealth could afford to hire effective mercenary forces. In the First Punic War, Carthage had a strong… navy - Rome was a land power, and were on the losing end until they developed from scratch a powerful fleet and better naval tactics. In the Second Punic war they had a superior strategist and tactician in Hannibal. Not only was he able to defeat Romconsistently in battles, he was able to play on Rome's reliance on its allies to provide the manpower to replace its losses, by detaching or neutralising those allies. This lasted for fifteen years until Rome produced the superior strategy of invading Africa and threatening Carthage, resulting in Hannibal's recall to protect the city. In the Third Punic War, they had nothing, being completely on the defensive and without the necessary resources.
The First - because Rome developed a navy to match Carthage's, and used devices such as the Harpax - a missile which was a grappling hook, allowing Roman ships to reel in oppo…sing ones for baording, and the Corvus, a boarding plank with a spike to catch the opposing ship's deck and allow the superior infantry to fight land battles on the Carthaginian ships. The Second - Rome was able to retain most of its Latin allies against Hannibal's attempts to detach them, and so had an inexhaustible supply of manpower and supply; and Scipio's master stroke of invading Carthage, obligating Hannibal's withdrawal from Italy. (There is debate on why Hannibal didn't exploit his victories over Rome by attempting to capture the city - whether he let his troops become lazy and plunder the surrounding farmland instead of going for a final outcome. The fact is he had to plunder Roman territory for food, as he couldn't take that of his own allies without alienating them; that he simply didn't have a siege train to breach the city walls; and if he concentrated his force on the city, he risked Rome using an extended siege to turn his allies back to their side - it was a no win option) The Third - an isolated Carthage simply couldn't match the forces Rome assembled from Italy and North Africa against her.
The city was destroyed and the surviving populace sold into slavery. It was rebuilt about twenty years later as a colony to resettle Roman veterans.
The Punic Wars ultimately ended in the complete and utter destruction of Carthage. The First Punic War was fought over Sicily. It was an important grain producing region, an…d Carthage very much wanted it as their own. It was primarily a naval war, taking place in the Mediterranean between North Africa (Carthage) and Italy (Rome). Carthage failed in the First Punic War, lost any chance at Sicily, had to pay huge war debts to Rome and ultimately fell into the Mercenary War afterwards (mercenaries who fought for Carthage during the First Punic War rose up against Carthage, angry at their control in Libya), since their kingdom was hugely destabilised. The Second Punic War was fought over Spain (huge generalization there, but that's the basic bit of information.) After the First Punic War, Rome went off and fought in the Adriatic and were distracted while Carthage (now with the great general Hannibal) set up camp in Spain. Hannibal attacked a Spanish city that was allied with Rome, then crossed the Alps (a move that no one expected him to make) and beat the Romans all the way back to their capital city, though he was never able to get inside Rome. He devastated the rest of Italy, however, and basically paraded up and down the peninsula, taunting Rome. They were at a stalemate, however. So Rome decided to attack the city of Carthage directly while Hannibal is doing his victory lap through Italia. They set sail for Carthage and simultaneously cut off Hannibal's supply ships, forcing Hannibal to return home and fight the Battle of Zama, which he lost. The result for Carthage here was their total submission to Rome, which held the right to approve most anything that Carthage did. Carthage's empire was reduced down to only the city that is its' namesake. The Third Punic War was the killing blow for Carthage. Rome sort of made a half hearted attempt and still completely crushed them. Carthage (the city) was sacked, burned to the ground, and everyone who had not died from famine or in the battle were made into slaves. The story of Romans sowing the city's farmland with salt is debated, though I think modern sources agree that it is a later fabrication. There isn't any contemporary (ancient) proof that it actually happened. Regardless, however, Carthage was utterly ruined.
They levelled the city and enslaves its inhabitants. They symbolically scattered salt over a part of the area as an assurance that the city would never give them trouble again….
Rome defeated Carthage after three wars and to terminate it, soldits people into slavery and established a colony of retired Romansoldiers on the site. It became dominant in t…he WesternMediterranean. Rome had also turned on Macedonia to punish it for assistingCarthage in the second war, so beginning its expansion into EasternEurope.
In Ancient Wars
They were originally allies in controlling Greek penetration in the Western Mediterranean with complementary forces - Rome on land, Carthage on the sea. They came into conflic…t as Rome, having dominated Italy, sought to extend into Sicily, clashing with Carthage's foothold on the Island. This brought on the First Punic War; their second and third wars were a struggle for control of the Western Mediterranean.
In Punic Wars
Punic was the Latin term for Phoenicia from which the Carthaginians were descended : "from the Phoenicians" .
In Punic Wars
They fought for commercial dominance in the western Mediterranean .
The result of the First Punic War was that Rome took over the Carthaginian territory in western Sicily and gained control of the island, which also involved Syracuse, the …most powerful Greek state in Sicily, being forced to become an ally of Rome. The Romans also took advantage of a rebellion by the Carthaginian mercenaries to seize Sardinia and Corsica, which were Carthaginian territories. The result of the Second Punic War was that the Romans took over the Carthaginian territories in southern Spain. Moreover, the Numidians (next doors neighbours of Carthage, in Algeria) who had been allies of Carthage switched sides and went over to the Romans. Rome fought the Third Punic War because she wanted to destroy Carthage. The result was that Rome destroyed Carthage and took over her home territory, Tunisia and western Libya. The over result of these wars is that Rome got rid of her main rival and gained control of the western basin of the Mediterranean.