11 How are mitochondria chloroplasts different from most other organelles?
Mitochondria are organelles found in the cytoplasm of the cell that release energy from glucose in the process of respiration. Chloroplasts are organelles that contain chlorophyll, a light-trapping pigment, needed from photosynthesis. By examining the uses of these organelles and using prior knowledge that photosynthesis requires energy, it can be determined that the relationship between mitochondria and chloroplasts is: Mitochondria -- Energy Released -- Photosynthesis Occurs -- Glucose Produced *Or, in other (more appropriate) terms…
What are the similarities between prokaryote cells and the organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts?
There is a theory. This theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once a free living bacterias(prokaryote) long time ago. People thought this because mitochondria and chloroplasts are not like other organelles of the cell. They divide independently during cell division, they both have their own DNA, and even those DNAs (known as mtDNA) replicates.
Yes, according to the The endosymbiotic theory: The endosymbiotic theory concerns the mitochondria, plastids (e.g. chloroplasts), and possibly other organelles of eukaryotic Cells. According to this theory, certain organelles originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another Cell as endosymbionts. Mitochondria developed from proteobacteria (in particular, Rickettsiales or close relatives) and chloroplasts from cyanobacteria.
Why are mitochondria and chloroplasts believed to have entered early eukaryotic cells by endosymbiosis of bacteria?
The theory of endosymbiosis suggests that mitochondria were once free-living organisms considering they have their own genetic material and smaller ribosomes than other organelles. The mitochondria do not interact with other organelles per se. For example, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes, but mitochondria do not house or make use of other organelles.
Plant cells contain organelles called chloroplasts that form the epicentre of the photosynthetic process. These organelles contain a pigment called chlorophyll that aid in this process. Plants use this process to convert energy absorbed from light to chemical energy which can be used for growth and a variety of other cellular processes. Animals on the other hand, do not have cells containing chloroplasts. They have organelles called mitochondria that produce energy.
The cytoplasm houses all the organelles of the cell. In fact, save the nucleus, all the organelles are part of the cytoplasm. They themselves contain it. (The nucleus has its own substance - karyoplasm). Nonetheless, you could say the nucleus was IN the cytoplasm. Mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, chloroplasts, glyoxisomes and nuclei are all found in the cytoplasm --- as are all the other organelles in existence. :)
There is a theory that chloroplast and mitochondria were independent organisms. Since they were, they would have their own DNA. And it is true that they do. It is interesting that you get your mitochondria from only your mother. There are many studies have used mtDNA to trace the evolution and migration of human species, including when the common ancestor to modern humans and Neanderthals lived.
Scientists saw that the membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts resembled the cell membranes of free-living prokaryotes. This led to two hypotheses. One proposed that mitochondria evolved from endosymbiotic prokaryotes that were able to use oxygen to generate energy rich ATP. The other proposed that chloroplasts evolved from endosymbiotic prokaryotes that had he ability to photosynthesize. Mitochondria and chloroplasts share many features with free-living bacteria, such as there ribosomes have similar size and structure and they…
all cells are made up of cytoplasm.... and they contain organelles such as the nucleus or the mitochondria, or the Golgi apparatus. There are several other organelles that are found in cells, and some that are only found in animal cells, such as centriols or lysosomes, as well as organelles found only in plant cells, such as chloroplasts or the cell wall.