Are the mind and brain two different entities?

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Actually this question dates back to antiquity when the famous philosopher Rene Descartes proposed a concept called dualism which posited that the brain was organic matter like the rest of the body and that the mind was metaphysical, like a soul, which intereacted with the body via the pineal gland. For some 300 years afterward this concept of mind-brain dualism has been debated. And understandably so; afterall - what is the mind?

Present-day neuroscience: the mind is a consequence of patterns of neural cell activity across vast networks in the brain. We can see this in MRI scans of the brain when people perform cognitive tasks like mental problem solving. We can see how brain-wave patterns change from being asynchronous to synchronous during unconscious states for e.g., from general anaesthesia or grand mal epilepsy. We also see modern medicine treat the mind by taking advantage of what is known about brain systems, for example with antidepressant medication which elevates mood by boosting serotonin and noradreneline levels in limbic and frontal cortical areas. So we know that what we call the mind - our consciousness thought, personality, intelligence, memories etc - is correlated with activity across brain areas, and we know that when these patterns of activity change across networks, so too does our mind.

So, in one respect Descartes was right in that the mind is not physical like the brain is. But the same could also be said about software that interprets electron flow through your computer's CPU. While these are separate physically, they are dependent functionally. The same is true for the mind and the brain.
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