Neurofeedback is effective in treating emotional overarousal, which is part of the symptomotology of Borderline Personality Disorder; however, there is no research to suggest that neurofeedback is effective at extinguishing the diagnosis.
By Robert C. Schwartz, Ph.D., DAPA Shannon D. Smith, Ph.D., DAPA Abstract Narcissistic personality disorder is a common and often disabling syndrome. Although persons with narcissistic personality disorder are often difficult to treat, certain psychotherapeutic strategies have been identified which can lead to effective interventions with these clients. This article presents strategies for assessing and treating narcissistic personality disorder during psychotherapy. Both theoretical and research literature is summarized in order to highlight useful approaches to working with clients manifesting narcissistic characteristics. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is essentially characterized as a long-term, pervasive character disorder that is defined by a consistent pattern of grandiosity, a strong need for admiration, and a distinct lack of empathy, which begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. Individuals diagnosed with NPD routinely overestimate their personal abilities, often appearing arrogant and boastful. They also tend to naturally believe that others ascribe the same importance to their abilities as they do. However, when praise or assumed value is not forthcoming, they usually react swiftly and intensely. Such reactions may range from surprise and shock, to emotional deflation and depression, to extreme anger and hostility. These responses are generally thought to occur after the individual
Narcissistic Personality DisorderPathological narcissism is a life-long pattern of traits and behaviours which signify infatuation and obsession with one's self to the exclusion of all others and the egotistic and ruthless pursuit of one's gratification, dominance and ambition. As distinct from healthy narcissism which we all possess, pathological narcissism is maladaptive, rigid, persisting, and causes significant distress, and functional impairment.Pathological narcissism was first described in detail by Freud in his essay "On Narcissism" (1915). Other major contributors to the study of narcissism are: Melanie Klein, Karen Horney, Franz Kohut, Otto Kernberg, Theodore Millon, Elsa Roningstam, Gunderson, and Robert Hare.What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)?The Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) (formerly known as megalomania or, colloquially, as egotism) is a form of pathological narcissism. It is a Cluster B (dramatic, emotional, or erratic) personality disorder. Other Cluster B personality disorders are the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), and the Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD). The Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) first appeared as a mental health diagnosis in the DSM III-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) in 1980.Diagnostic CriteriaThe ICD-10, the International Classification of Diseases, published by the World Health Organisation in Geneva  regards the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) as "a personality disorder that fits none of the specific rubrics". It relegates it to the category "Other Specific Personality Disorders" together with the eccentric, "haltlose", immature, passive-aggressive, and psychoneurotic personality disorders and types.The American Psychiatric Association, based in Washington D.C., USA, publishes the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)  where it provides the diagnostic criteria for the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (301.81, p. 717).The DSM-IV-TR defines Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) as "an all-pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behaviour), need for admiration or adulation and lack of empathy, usually beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts", such as family life and work.The DSM specifies nine diagnostic criteria. Five (or more) of these criteria must be met for a diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to be rendered.[In the text below, I have proposed modifications to the language of these criteria to incorporate current knowledge about this disorder. My modifications appear in bold italics.][My amendments do not constitute a part of the text of the DSM-IV-TR, nor is the American Psychiatric Association (APA) associated with them in any way.]Proposed Amended Criteria for the Narcissistic Personality DisorderFeels grandiose and self-important (e.g., exaggerates accomplishments, talents, skills, contacts, and personality traits to the point of lying, demands to be recognised as superior without commensurate achievements); Is obsessed with fantasies of unlimited success, fame, fearsome power or omnipotence, unequalled brilliance (the cerebral narcissist), bodily beauty or sexual performance (the somatic narcissist), or ideal, everlasting, all-conquering love or passion; Firmly convinced that he or she is unique and, being special, can only be understood by, should only be treated by, or associate with, other special or unique, or high-status people (or institutions); Requires excessive admiration, adulation, attention and affirmation - or, failing that, wishes to be feared and to be notorious (Narcissistic Supply); Feels entitled. Demands automatic and full compliance with his or her unreasonable expectations for special and favourable priority treatment; Is "interpersonally exploitative", i.e., uses others to achieve his or her own ends; Devoid of empathy. Is unable or unwilling to identify with, acknowledge, or accept the feelings, needs, preferences, priorities, and choices of others; Constantly envious of others and seeks to hurt or destroy the objects of his or her frustration. Suffers from persecutory (paranoid) delusions as he or she believes that they feel the same about him or her and are likely to act similarly; Behaves arrogantly and haughtily. Feels superior, omnipotent, omniscient, invincible, immune, "above the law", and omnipresent (magical thinking). Rages when frustrated, contradicted, or confronted by people he or she considers inferior to him or her and unworthy. Prevalence and Age and Gender FeaturesAccording to the DSM IV-TR, between 2% and 16% of the population in clinical settings (between 0.5-1% of the general population) are diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). Most narcissists (50-75%, according to the DSM-IV-TR) are men.We must carefully distinguish between the narcissistic traits of adolescents - narcissism is an integral part of their healthy personal development - and the full-fledge disorder. Adolescence is about self-definition, differentiation, separation from one's parents, and individuation. These inevitably involve narcissistic assertiveness which is not to be conflated or confused with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)."The lifetime prevalence rate of NPD is approximately 0.5-1 percent; however, the estimated prevalence in clinical settings is approximately 2-16 percent. Almost 75 percent of individuals diagnosed with NPD are male (APA, DSM IV-TR 2000)."From the Abstract of Psychotherapeutic Assessment and Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder By Robert C. Schwartz,Ph.D., DAPA and Shannon D. Smith, Ph.D., DAPA (American Psychotherapy Association, Article #3004 Annals July/August 2002)Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is exacerbated by the onset of aging and the physical, mental, and occupational restrictions it imposes.In certain situations, such as under constant public scrutiny and exposure, a transient and reactive form of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) has been observed by Robert Milman and labelled "Acquired Situational Narcissism".There is only scant research regarding the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), but studies have not demonstrated any ethnic, social, cultural, economic, genetic, or professional predilection to it.Comorbidity and Differential DiagnosesNarcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is often diagnosed with other mental health disorders ("co-morbidity"), such as mood disorders, eating disorders, and substance-related disorders. Patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) are frequently abusive and prone to impulsive and reckless behaviours ("dual diagnosis").Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is commonly diagnosed with other personality disorders, such as the Histrionic, Borderline, Paranoid, and Antisocial Personality Disorders.The personal style of those suffering from the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) should be distinguished from the personal styles of patients with other Cluster B Personality Disorders. The narcissist is grandiose, the histrionic coquettish, the antisocial (psychopath) callous, and the borderline needy.As opposed to patients with the Borderline Personality Disorder, the self-image of the narcissist is stable, he or she are less impulsive and less self-defeating or self-destructive and less concerned with abandonment issues (not as clinging).Contrary to the histrionic patient, the narcissist is achievements-orientated and proud of his or her possessions and accomplishments. Narcissists also rarely display their emotions as histrionics do and they hold the sensitivities and needs of others in contempt.According to the DSM-IV-TR, both narcissists and psychopaths are "tough-minded, glib, superficial, exploitative, and unempathic". But narcissists are less impulsive, less aggressive, and less deceitful. Psychopaths rarely seek narcissistic supply. As opposed to psychopaths, few narcissists are criminals.Patients suffering from the range of obsessive-compulsive disorders are committed to perfection and believe that only they are capable of attaining it. But, as opposed to narcissists, they are self-critical and far more aware of their own deficiencies, flaws, and shortcomings.Clinical Features of the Narcissistic Personality DisorderThe onset of pathological narcissism is in infancy, childhood and early adolescence. It is commonly attributed to childhood abuse and trauma inflicted by parents, authority figures, or even peers. Pathological narcissism is a defense mechanism intended to deflect hurt and trauma from the victim's "True Self" into a "False Self" which is omnipotent, invulnerable, and omniscient. The narcissist uses the False Self to regulate his or her labile sense of self-worth by extracting from his environment narcissistic supply (any form of attention, both positive and negative).There is a whole range of narcissistic reactions, styles, and personalities - from the mild, reactive and transient to the permanent personality disorder.Patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) feel injured, humiliated and empty when criticized. They often react with disdain (devaluation), rage, and defiance to any slight, real or imagined. To avoid such situations, some patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) socially withdraw and feign false modesty and humility to mask their underlying grandiosity. Dysthymic and depressive disorders are common reactions to isolation and feelings of shame and inadequacy.The interpersonal relationships of patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) are typically impaired due to their lack of empathy, disregard for others, exploitativeness, sense of entitlement, and constant need for attention (narcissistic supply).Though often ambitious and capable, inability to tolerate setbacks, disagreement, and criticism make it difficult for patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to work in a team or to maintain long-term professional achievements. The narcissist's fantastic grandiosity, frequently coupled with a hypomanic mood, is typically incommensurate with his or her real accomplishments (the "grandiosity gap").Patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) are either "cerebral" (derive their Narcissistic Supply from their intelligence or academic achievements) or "somatic" (derive their Narcissistic Supply from their physique, exercise, physical or sexual prowess and romantic or physical "conquests").Patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) are either "classic" (meet five of the nine diagnostic criteria included in the DSM), or they are "compensatory" (their narcissism compensates for deep-set feelings of inferiority and lack of self-worth).Some narcissists are covert, or inverted narcissists. As codependents, they derive their narcissistic supply from their relationships with classic narcissists.Based on a survey of 1201 therapists and psychologists in clinical practice, Prof. Drew Westen of Emory University postulated the existence of three subtypes of narcissists:1. High functioning or Exhibitionist: "(H)as an exaggerated sense of self-importance, but is also articulate, energetic, outgoing, and achievement oriented." (The equivalent of the Cerebral narcissist).2. Fragile: "(W)ants to feel important and privileged to ward off painful feelings of inadequacy and loneliness" (The equivalent of the Compensatory narcissist).3. Grandiose or Malignant: "(H)as an exaggerated sense of self-importance, feels privileged, exploits others, and lusts after power." (The equivalent of the Classic narcissist).Treatment and PrognosisThe common treatment for patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is talk therapy (mainly psychodynamic psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral treatment modalities). Talk therapy is used to modify the narcissist's antisocial, interpersonally exploitative, and dysfunctional behaviors, often with some success. Medication is prescribed to control and ameliorate attendant conditions such as mood disorders or obsessive-compulsive disorders.The prognosis for an adult suffering from the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is poor, though his adaptation to life and to others can improve with treatment.BibliographyGoldman, Howard H., Review of General Psychiatry, fourth edition, 1995. Prentice-Hall International, London. Gelder, Michael, Gath, Dennis, Mayou, Richard, Cowen, Philip (eds.), Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, third edition, 1996, reprinted 2000. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Vaknin, Sam, Malignant Self Love - Narcissism Revisited, eighth revised impression, 1999-2006. Narcissus Publications, Prague and Skopje. Westen, Drew et al. Refining the Construct of Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Diagnostic Criteria and Subtypes (Posted at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/pap.dtl )Here are more opinions from other FAQ Farmers:...characterized by a rigid, unremitting conviction of personal entitlement which drives, motivates, pervades, and dominates the entire spectrum of the individual's behavior and actions. This belief assumes an imperious position that supercedes any and all sense of social/community/family/professional association and responsibility. The individual conceptualizes and interprets rules, laws, codes, mores, and values exclusively in terms of a privately/secretly held idea of self-justification and vindication that serves to reinforce and strengthen his/her distorted and contaminated projections, images, fantasies, dogmas, doctrines and practices.
Many things & there are many personality disorders. genetics & brain structures,the environment you were in like your family even classmates as some studies show that bullying can increase your chances of developing a personality disorder.More research is needed to find the causes of each personality disorder.
In the 1980s, light therapy began to make an appearance in the medical literature as a treatment for seasonal affective disorder, or SAD. Today, it is widely recognized as a front-line treatment for the disorder.
The most effective way to deal with Paranoid Personality Disorder is to undergo therapy. This type of mental illness is very hard to treat though as there is not much research about it since most people will not go to the doctor about it.
The apparently independent categories and diagnoses in any of the diagnostic systems (DSM or ICD) are for the sake of research/clarity. In real life, however, people, their illnesses, their normality and their traits exist on a continuum: that is there is no clear cut boundary between anything and a merge/mix between any category and the other is the rule rather than the exception. So, yes, people will have a bit of this personality disorder and that: a mix. If some of the criteria of one personality is predominant, then one is likely to categorize that person under that category.
A Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a systemic, all-pervasive condition, very much like pregnancy: either you have it or you don't. Once you have it, you have it day and night, it is an inseparable part of the personality, a recurrent set of behaviour patterns. Recent research shows that there is a condition which might be called "Transient or Temporary or Short Term Narcissism" as opposed to "The Real Thing
Recent research done at the University of Surrey in 2005 suggests that people with Histrionic Personality Disorder can be quite successful as executives. Psychologists interviewed and tested a large pool of high-salaried executives in England and compared them for evidence of the 11 personality disorders from Clusters A, B, and C from the DSM-IV, and found that 3 personality disorders were more common in corporate executives than in criminal populations. These were: Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders.
Research has shown a strong relationship between an individual with narcissistic behaviors and having a parent with similar tendencies. Other "causes" may be related to a dysfunctional childhood such as excessive indulgence, abuse or neglect. Genetics play a role as well as connections in the brain, and, the personality we are born with. NPD usually begins to make its appearance in early adulthood.
Journal of Research in Personality was created in 1988.
HEATHER CASTILLO has written: 'PERSONALITY DISORDER: TEMPERAMENT OR TRAUMA?: AN ACCOUNT OF AN EMANCIPATORY RESEARCH STUDY CARRIED OUT BY SERVICE..'
The easiest and most reliable place to research treatment is through your doctors office. They often have charts and research that they will share with their patients.
Anti-depressants, anti-anxiety (be careful with addiction or abuse), mood stabalizing. STAY AWAY FROM TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS! Research shows TCIs are bad for BPD.
The bulk of the apparent "research" that has been posted on line saying there is no cure or treatment has been written or influenced by a publicly diagnosed psychopath. Narcissism is Not the same thing as being a psychopath and narcissistic tendencies can be as much a symptom of a bad marriage as it is the cause.
St. Judes is currently doing research to help the cure of the sickle disorder.
Sometimes. Narcissism (NPD) is in the same cluster of personality disorders as BPD (cluster B). People who have traits of ONE cluster B disorder are more likely than average to have traits of another cluster B disorder. So there appears to be some possible connections, and of course, lots of people can have a child with BPD anyhow, and narcissists should be no different. There are sites that have more information, like BPDFamily, Light's House, BPD411 and Out of the Fog. Some of them even have forums where you can ask questions and read up on the research and statistics.
Please be mroe specific in what you are trying to convey by "findings" (research, treatment, percentages, health effects, mental states, ect.) so that WikiAnswers can provide you with the best possible answer to your question.
Lawrence A. Pervin has written: 'Personality: Theory and Research' 'Football's New York Giants' 'Current controversies and issues in personality' -- subject(s): Personality, Research 'The college dropout and the utilization of talent' -- subject(s): College dropouts 'Personality: theory, assessment, and research' -- subject(s): Personality 'The science of personality' -- subject(s): Personality '(WCS)Personality 9th Edition with Study Tips Set'
Learning is affected by behavioral disorder because............................... you can go and research because i dont know why dont you go online and research hahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahah
To the best of my knowledge through extensive research there are no famous people who have been diagnosed with nightmare disorder.
For some people it helps, for some it doesn't. Anxiety treatment is mostly a trial and error process, some treatments will work for some, and others won't work. I read an article about a research done about the best treatment for social anxiety and it claims that the best treatment for it is cognitive behavioral therapy. I attached a link to an article about it and how it works, hope it helps!:)
The main feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image and emotions. People with borderline personality disorder are also usually very impulsive.This disorder occurs in most by early adulthood. The unstable pattern of interacting with others has persisted for years and is usually closely related to the person's self-image and early social interactions. The pattern is present in a variety of settings (e.g., not just at work or home) and often is accompanied by a similar lability (fluctuating back and forth, sometimes in a quick manner) in a person's emotions and feelings. Relationships and the person's emotion may often be characterized as being shallow.A person with this disorder will also often exhibit impulsive behaviors and have a majority of the following symptoms:Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonmentA pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluationIdentity disturbance, such as a significant and persistent unstable self-image or sense of selfImpulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behaviorEmotional instability due to significant reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days)Chronic feelings of emptinessInappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)Transient, stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptomsAs with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.Borderline personality disorder is more prevalent in females (75 percent of diagnoses made are in females). It is thought that borderline personality disorder affects approximately 2 percent of the general population.Like most personality disorders, borderline personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.Details about Borderline Personality Disorder SymptomsFrantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.The perception of impending separation or rejection, or the loss of external structure, can lead to profound changes in self-image, emotion, thinking and behavior. Someone with borderline personality disorder will be very sensitive to things happening around them in their environment. They experience intense abandonment fears and inappropriate anger, even when faced with a realistic separation or when there are unavoidable changes in plans. For instance, becoming very angry with someone for being a few minutes late or having to cancel a lunch date. People with borderline personality disorder may believe that this abandonment implies that they are "bad." These abandonment fears are related to an intolerance of being alone and a need to have other people with them. Their frantic efforts to avoid abandonment may include impulsive actions such as self-mutilating or suicidal behaviors.Unstable and intense relationships.People with borderline personality disorder may idealize potential caregivers or lovers at the first or second meeting, demand to spend a lot of time together, and share the most intimate details early in a relationship. However, they may switch quickly from idealizing other people to devaluing them, feeling that the other person does not care enough, does not give enough, is not "there" enough. These individuals can empathize with and nurture other people, but only with the expectation that the other person will "be there" in return to meet their own needs on demand. These individuals are prone to sudden and dramatic shifts in their view of others, who may alternately be seen as beneficient supports or as cruelly punitive. Such shifts other reflect disillusionment with a caregiver whose nurturing qualities had been idealized or whose rejection or abandonment is expected.Identity disturbance.There are sudden and dramatic shifts in self-image, characterized by shifting goals, values and vocational aspirations. There may be sudden changes in opinions and plans about career, sexual identity, values and types of friends. These individuals may suddenly change from the role of a needy supplicant for help to a righteous avenger of past mistreatment. Although they usually have a self-image that is based on being bad or evil, individuals with borderline personality disorder may at times have feelings that they do not exist at all. Such experiences usually occur in situations in which the individual feels a lack of a meaningful relationship, nurturing and support. These individuals may show worse performance in unstructured work or school situations.You can also learn more about the detailed characteristics of borderline personality disorder.How is Borderline Personality Disorder Diagnosed?Personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose borderline personality disorder. Many people with borderline personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.A diagnosis for borderline personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.Causes of Borderline Personality DisorderResearchers today don't know what causes borderline personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of borderline personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation - that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible - rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children. Treatment of Borderline Personality DisorderTreatment of borderline personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see borderline personality disorder treatment.
to improve quality of life, study the end products of outcomes of research or treatment
The Eating Disorders Foundation of Canada is located at Suite 230a, 100 Collip Circle, Western University Research Park, London Ontario N6G 4X8. Most of the major provinces in Canada have their own treatment centers and are usually located in the province capitals.