Can light pass info?
Yes. I'm not entirely sure how but definately yes.
Why will light pass through a pair of polaroids when the axes are aligned but not when the axes are at right angles to each other?
A polaroid allows light to pass through it in only one plane. If both polaroids are aligned, they will allow light to pass through the same plane. Otherwise, each will allow light to pass through a different plane and the overall effect of the two polaroids is that it will not allow light to pass through them.
Conductors facilitate the transfer of something. Electric conductors allow electricity to pass, Light conductors let light pass, heat conductors let heat pass. Train conductors let paying passengers pass. Copper and Aluminum are electric and heat conductors. Diamond is a light and heat conductor. Glass is a light conductor.