Can the government expropriate private property against the will of the owner?

The answer depends on the country that you have in mind. In many Western countries the answer is yes, but usually within the strict rules of a code of law.

Generally speaking, those rules are that there must be a specifically named public interest being served by expropriation that is much larger than the individual's interest of hanging on to his property (think e.g. of a piece of property on a place where a dam has to be built), there must be payment to the owner of a fair price, and in case of non-agreement, there must be access to a court of law that can decide on the conflict.