Can you fire a 357 round out of a 38 long colt pistol?

No.

.38 Long Colt was the forerunner to .38 Special- and was originally a black powder cartridge. The .38 Special is more powerful- the .357 magnum is MUCH more powerful. Neither the Special nor the magnum should be fired in a gun chambered for .38 Long Colt. This is VERY dangerous.