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Comment le chef des Grecs a-t-il obtenu le territoire de la cité?


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Answered 2009-10-12 20:12:16

How did the leader of the Greeks obtain the territory/lands of the city?


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Tarkhan Mughals (ترخان مغل) ( in Persian, Tarkhai Mughuli [1] تركهاى مغولى) were those Turko-Mongol people who were aristocrats of the steppe; Princes, Commanders and Generals who ruled and served the Turko-Mongol states and had ancestral origin from Turko-Mongol dynasties especially descendants of Genghis Khan. Turko-Mongols are mainly the descendants of those Turks who were ruled over by the Mongols speaking mostly Turkic languages; they derived their ethnic and cultural origins from both groups. "Turko-Mongol" is used to describe the people of Mongol khanate; Ilkhanate; Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde and sometimes also describe successor Khanates; such as the Khanate of Kazan, the Nogi, Crimean Khanate; Astrakhan Khanate; Empire of Timurid Empire of India; Arghun and Tarkhan Dynasty of Sind Pakistan.The Turkic people are a collection of peoples residing in Northern, Central, and Western Eurasia who speak languages belongs to Turkic language family. The term Tarkhan, Turkic represent a broad ethno-linguistic group of people and includes existing societies such as the Kazakhs; Uzbeks; Karghaiz; Uyghur; Turkmen and as well as the historian societies such as Xiongnu/Huns; Gokturk (Turkut people); Khazars; Seljuks; Kepchaks; Ottomans and Timurids. Tarkhan (Tarkhaan or Tarqan) is an ancient Turkic title, apparently related to Khan. It was used among the Turks, Mongols and other steppe people, and was a high rank in the army of Tamerlain. Tarkhan commandered military contingents (roughly of regimantal size under the Khazar Khan) and were roughly generals. They could also be assigned a military governors of conquered regions. Arab text referred to a Tarkhan the King of Khazars. The name is occasionally used today in Arabic speaking countries Tarakhaan (طراخان), in Persian it also written as Tarkhan (ترخان).Tarkhan is a old Turkic word means Chief or Prince. It is an ancient term for General; Commander and Minister. Tarkhan is a Turkish title for Nobleman or Prince; means a privileged class who are exempt from taxes. The rank and dignity of Tarkhans was a part of Mongol military(4 Barthold W-Turkistan P 184-5 Ain vol 1-P 392).[2] Tarkhan can commit up to nine offenses without being called to account.[3] The meaning of the Tarkhan is; the person so called is secure and safe from all trouble and annoyance, in every place in which he serves whatever booty he may take his own, and he is not deprived of it; he can enter the place of audience of his sovereign without being summoned and without first asking permission and he can commit nine offenses.[4] As for Genghis Khan, some say that he was not a pure Mongol blood. They talk about his cat eyes or Gerfalcon eyes (probably grey), his tall stature(Mongols are generally small and short legs) his long beard(very rare for Mongol) and last but not least, his red hair. We already mentioned that he knew to reward those who had served his faithfully. He buried with honors and riches those of his officers who had showed bravery or efficiency, one of the highest awards was to be promoted to the rank of "Tarkhan", the means to win over the respect and favorable disposition of a crowd or quite similar every where.[5]Tarkhan is a Turko-Mongol title like others titles; Khan; Khatun; IlKhan; Amir; Mirza; Beg; Khagan; yabghu; Tegin; Shad; Baghatur. Tarkhan is a title of Turko- Mongol ( Hunnic, Gokturk, Khazar, Uyghur) Rulers. The prominent Turkic Rulers were,Tama-Tarkhan, Ras Tarkhan, Alp Tarkhan, Hazer Tarkhan, Qutlugh Tarkhan Sengun, Tun Bagha Tarkhan etc.. The term Tarkhan was a Mongolic Title conferred by the Tarkhan Chief enjoyed power and privilege next to the great Mongol Khan.[6] Originally, Tarkhan was a term Applied to Mongol nobles.[7] Tarkhan is a Turko-Mongol Tribe. Amir Timur in his Institutes, enumerates twelve of forty Tribes which had submitted to his Government; Barlas, Tarkhan, Arghun, Jalair etc.[8] The title was originally a hereditary one; Chengiz Khan conferred it on the Qishliq and Bata, under Timur, a Tarkhan had free access to the Palace and criminal immunity for himself and his children up to nine offenses.[9]The Qishliq Tribe was derived from the Kalkits tribe, sprung from Urma-uts Tribe. Kalkits was the third son of Menglig, surname Izka, for his piety and virtue, was of this (Urma-uts) Tribe married the widow Ulun-iga, mother of Temujin. The (Hishlig) who with his brother, Baydu saved the life of Genghis Khan, made them and their decedents, Darkhan from nine generation, free from all sorts of Taxes. The descendants of the Two persons, Hishlig and Badai to were the progenitors of two tribes, styled respectively Badai Darkhan and Qishliq Darkhans [4] So, it is proved that the Tarkhan is a family of Genghis Khan. A follower of Temurs, Ghiyath-al-Din Tarkhans Ancestor Hishiliq (qishliq), had been made a Darkhan by Genghis Khan, and had later been among Chaghadais Amirs. This honor had descended in his family and let them consider prestige. Three of Ghiyath-al-Din daughters married sons or grandsons of Temur, one of them was Gawharshad, Shahrukhs powerful and influential wife. She was conspicuous in public dynasty occasion and as a Patron of architecture. She was an integral part of Shahrukh's closest circle and seems to have direct ties to his major Amirs.[10] The sons of Ghiyath-al-Din Tarkhan, Ali Tarkhan, Hussian Sufi Tarkhan, Sayyid Ahmed, Mohammad Sufi, and Hamza Tarkhans were also prominent in most of Shahrukhs early campaigns.[11]Babur was a descendent of Timur through his father and Genghis Khan through his mother. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheykh Mirza, ruler of the Fargana Valley, the son of Abu Said Mirza (a grand son of Miran Shah, who was himself the son of Timur) and his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, a daughter of Yunus Khan, the ruler of Moghlistan (and great-great grand son of Tughlugh Timur, the son of Esen Buqa ll who was the great-great-great grand sons of Chaghatai Khan, the second son of Genghis Khan. Tarkhans were also relative of Babur. Sultan Ahmed Mirza was born in 1451 AD, the year in which his father took the thorn of Samarkand. He was Sultan Abu Said Mirza eldest son, his mother was a daughter of Aurdu-Bugha Tarkhan, the elder sister of Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan and most honoured of Mirza's wife, Mihr Nigar Khanum. She was Yunus Khan's eldest daughter and my mother's full sister. Darwaish Mohammad Khan was another, the son of Aurda Boga Tarkhan and full brother of mother of Sultan Ahmed Mirza and Sultan Mohammad Mirza, of all begs in Sultan Ahmed Mirza presence, he was the greatest and most honoured. Abdul Ali Tarkhan was another, a close relative of Darwesh Muhammad Tarkhan. Tarkhan possessor also of his younger sister, that is to say Baqi Tarkhan's mother.[12]The Tarkhan Mughals dynasty of Sindh (Pakistan) who ruled from 1554 to 1591 were descended from Genghis khan, the family tree runs as follows Chengiz Khan ; Tolui; Hulugu; Abagha; Arghun; Gaykhatu; Gazan; Oljeitu (khuda Banda),Amir Elchi, Amir Ektu-Timur.The Tarkhan rulers were descendants of the eldest son of Amir Ektu-timur. General Mirza Isa Beg founded the Tarkhan Dynasty of sindh (Pakistan) after the death of shah Hussan Arghun of the Arghun dynasty. Mughal Emperor Akbar annexed Sindh after defeating the last Tarkhan Ruler.The famous Rulers of the Tarkhan dynasty were; Shah Beg Arghun Tarkhan, Mirza Shah Husan Arghun Tarkhan, Mirza Isa Khan Tarkhan, Mirza Baki Tarkhan, Mirza Isa Tarkhan II.[13]The name of Genghis Khan was Temujin,which means iron worker.According to Ibn Batutah the Genghis Khan was in his outset a blacksmith in the country of Khita .The historians societies such as GokTurks, Khazars, Oughurs,all were Turkic peoples descended from Ashina Clan, a subtribe of Xiongnu/Hun,they were iron worker and Manufactured weapons.Their rulers adopted the titles Khans, Tarkhan, Khakan Yabghu, Shad etc. We can deduce the fact that the title Tarkhan originally has something with the vocation identitely of Gokturks. Ashina clan the legendary father of the ancient Turkic people were engaged in metal working.Genghis Khan was descended from Oghuz/Oghur Turkic tribe,may be Mongolic because The Oghuz Kagan belonged to Mughal I-Amak, but it is certain that Genghis Khan descended from a Oghuz/oghur tribe, Tarkhan family especially The Ashina Clan (golden family), a sub group of Xiongnu/Hun. They were engaged in metal working. They erected a Foundry for iron work in a mountain called Ergenekon. They were true Mughals and called Arkanakon Smiths.[4]Contents1 Etymology 1.1 Tarkhan Turko Mongol title1.2 Tarkhan is a Turko-Mongol hereditary title1.3 Tarkhan is a privileged imperial class1.4 Tarkhan is a Turko-Mongol Tribe1.5 Mughal Dynasty of India Kinship with Tarkhan Dynasty of Sindh, Pakistan1.6 Ancestor of Genghis Khan, Ergenekon smiths1.7 Genghis Khan belonged to Tarkhan Family1.8 Mughal Tribes Pure families Nirkha (Niron)1.9 Tarkhan Mughals have no relationship with Hindu Caste and Tribes2 History 2.1 Xiongnu/Huns2.2 Ashina Clan "Mother of Gok Turks"2.3 Gok Turk Khagans2.4 Tarkhans Khazar rulers2.5 Oghuz/Oghur Tarkhans2.6 Mongol Empire2.7 Timurid's Tarkhans2.8 Mughal Empire of India and Tarkhans2.9 Tarkhan and Arghun Dynasty of Sindh Pakistan3 Sources and referencesEtymologyTarkhan is a Turkic word from old Turkic language (East old Turkey; Orkhon Turkic; old Uyghur) meaning "a privileged class". Tarkhan is a Turkish title.[14] Used in Islamic times for a Turkish noble man or Prince.[3] Tarkhan means Chief or Prince.[15] Tarkhan is an old Turkish dignity and distinguishes. Such persons as were free from taxation. In the oldest Turkish documents Tarku means a Latter of protection, a latter of nobility.[16] Tarkhan is a Hittite title for a tribal Chief.[17] Hittites not only were Mongols by race, but that they spoke a Mongol language. The word Tarkon which is a common constituent of Royal names or Titles among Hittites and neighbouring tribes is found also in Etruscan in Turkish as Tarkhan or Tarjan and in Mongolian as Dargo, with the meaning "tribal Chief" and both Tar and Khan are Akkadian words for a tribal and Prince.[18] During the Mongol period a man who had the Tarkhan amblem is freed of all kind of civil services and exempted of taxes.[19] Tarkhan is an ancient term for General; Commander and Minister. and regimental commander of Khazar army.[20] Tarkhan is a Turkish male name; Khazar title and Military rank. Tarkhan among Turkic peoples in the Middle Ages. Feudal lord, Prince or a tax exempted person and tax exempted lands and property of the feudal lords of the Transcaucasus, middle Asia, and the khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan and the China; a kind of medieval Russian public legal document.[21] On the etymology and the historical usage of the term Tarkhan (Sc clauson, 539, 540 Doerfer TME 11, 460 474, NO 879). In the khanate of Khiva, to judge from the available documents, the status of Tarkhan meant only immunity from taxation and exemption from military service and was granted to religious figures.[22] Al Khwarzmi describe at Tarkhan as a Turkish noble man and as a Bayzantine general incharge of 5000 man and subordinate to the Bitriq. According to A Z Validi Togan Ibn Fadlans Rciseberichl P 30, Note 3, this is a Turkish title current among the Khazars. The Arabic transcription of the Turkish royal title Qaghan. According to the Al Khwarzmi this title means Grand King of the Turk. for Khan, he says mean Chief and Khaqan is the Khan of Khans, which is like Persian usage of Shahanshah (Mafatihal-Ulum P120), see also article Khaqan by W.Barthold in E.1 .[23] Tarkhan word was widely borrowed into other languages expect Altaic languages; Indo (Punjab); Tarkhan, Tibet;Tar-Khan, Mongolian; Darkhan, Kurd; Terxan, Armen; Tarxan, Rus; Tarchan etc. In Sanlaxs dictionary it is written that this title is given to a person who is exempted from taxes. Tarxans can commit up to nine offences without being called to account. Tarqan title occures in the Orkhon inscriptions, the Bilge Kagan inscriptions (S 13) which is one of the Gokturk, the title Tarqan is mentioned among the titles of the rulers of the eastern part of the state. The title Tarqan appears in the Ongin inscription (F 4) and other Orkhon inscription, Tonyukuk (W 6-N 10), Kul tekin (W 2-N 12) and Bilge Kagan (S 14). From the Ongin inscription, we can know that Tarqan is a high official. Gclauson (1972:539) argued that Tarqan in ancient Turkic was considered to be the supreme title and was not even, like Tegin and Shad, Peculiar to the royal family, but that it was still a high title, carrying administrative responsibility. The Chinese sources Jushu and Sushu mention that Gokturks who were under the ruler of Yuan Yuan were engaged in smith's work. From this we can deduce the fact that the title Tarqan originally has something with the vocational identity of Gokturks. As it is well known that the Ashina the legendary father of the ancient Turkic people was engaged in metal working.[24] Tarkhan Turko Mongol titleTarkhan is an ancient Turkic title apparently related to title Khan and like other titles Khaqan, Khatun, Beg (Bey), Mirza, Amir, Yabgu, Tegin, Shad, Baghatur (Bahadur). It was used among the Turks, Mongols another steppe people and was a high rank in the army of Tamerlan. Tarkhan (Tar-Khan) (Turkic title), a war lord of the Prairie who protected his herd with armed followers, the wealthiest of them, because the aristocrate of the steppe, the noyans or princess.[25] This name (Tarkhan) must be derived from the title of the Turkish commander who presumably pitched his tent on the Taman Peninsula in 568. Tama-Tarkhan means the chief of ten thousands, later on Chengiz khan's army was organized according to that system.[26] Tarkhan was one of the titles of the oldest two Princess (cf, Marquart, le pp. 41-42), as a Hunnic title; the word has suervived in the name of Russian city As Tarkhan, originally Hajji Tarkhan.[27] Tarkhan is an ancient term for General, Commander and Minister specially regimental commander of Khazar army. Sallam, perhaps a Khazar Jew was well received by the Tarkhan as he does not fail to note in his travel account. He stayed at the Tarkhans house. The Tarkhan probably of pre-Turkic, Altaic origin, was a title rather than a proper name, used for subaltern or local Amirs in the Khazar administration, Salam does not mentioned the name of the Tarkhan, which precede the title as in Hazar Tarkhan or Ras Tarkhan-the King of Khazar called Tarkhan, took care of the man who were with Salam. Salam, perhaps a Khazar Jew was well received by the Tarkhan-the Tarkhan probably of pre Turkic Altic origin, so was a title rather than a proper name.[28] The title Tarkhan is verified by Meander in the 6th century (D'Ohsson, histoire des Mongols, vol 1, pg.45 N, cfc, Mueller Fragmenta historicorum graecorum-vol-IV, P, 227, quoted by Rockhill The Journey, P, 164, N). Tarkhan were sited on the Kul-Tegin inscription (doerfer-turkiscbe Elemate, vol, 1, P.362) and among the Uighurs in the 7th century (Hamilton-les ouighours d.lepvque des cings dynasties, P.155). The followings were listed as appertaing to the title; the right to enter the rulers tent without being summoned and the ninefold pardon down to the ninth generation (eberhard, conquerors and rulers, P.98, N.7)).[29] The term Tarkhan was a Mongolic title conferred by the Tarkhan chief enjoyed power and privilege next to the great Mongol khan (see Genghis khan by Herold lamb).[6] The Tarkhan was an old Mongol title and bearer of the title enjoyed certain privileges, one of them was that he was not punished till he committed nine offenses).[30] The title was hereditary one, Chengiz Khan conferred it on Qishliq and Bata; under Timur a Tarkhan had free access to the every place of the Palace and criminal immunity for himself and his children up to nine offenses.[9] Khan a member of Chingize dynasty and a supreme ruler of Turko Mongol people, Mirza member of the-a written document stipulating conditions of peace between Moscow and a Turko-Mongol people. Tarkhan a previlage of tax.[31] From two Turkish words meaning blood/spilling and "young hero" respectively. There was a special class of citizens known as Tarkhan; these were previlaged free man, exempt from taxes.[32] The most notable of Etruscan personal names is Tar-quin. In the equivalent from Tar-Khan, the extruscan named repeatidly appears in the Heroic legends of Siberian tribes. Thus the Chieftain who headed the yaquts, a Turkic tribe in thei migration from the region of Lake Baikal to the lower lena, bore the name Depsi Tarkhan Tegin.[33] Tarkhan is a Turko-Mongol hereditary titleThe Huns were Turks with some admixture from the Mongols and the decimal system seems to have been-Tama-Tarkhan means the chief of ten thousands. Later on, Chingize Khan's army was organized according to the same.[34] A certain nation of Hun barbarian who were called "The mark of a Tarkhan", a high officer among the Mongols- was a piece of cloth of gold from the tent of Dig Khan.[35] The title Tarkhan was an old Mongolic title and the bearer of the title enjoyed certain privileges. One of them was that he was not punished till he commit nine offences.[36] The title Daerhan is listed as Tarkhan the defined as a Mongolian term for master, usually given to Princess who had in some way distinguished themselves. These were hereditary titles by the time of Qing.[37] There was also individuals with special hereditary previlages, such as those desighnated Tarkhan, who enjoyed judicial and tax immunity and unrestricted access to the ruler.[38] As for those two youth, he made them Tarkhan. Tarkhan are those who are exempt from compulsory contributions, and to whom the booty taken on every campaign is surrendered, whenever they so wish they may enter the royal presence without leave or permission. He also gave them troops and slaves and of cattle, horse and oaccoutrement more than could be counted or computed and commanded that whatever offence they might commit they should not be called to account therefore and that this order should be observed with their posterity also down to the night generation. Today there are many people descended from these two persons and they are honoured and respected in every country and held in high esteem at the court of Kings.[39] Fiscal immunity for aristocrats or nobles of the state might include a provision-also of Mongol origin and still in use under the Timurids that the person in question was, in addition to the "Muafi" also exempt from criminal procecution for transgressions of the law, the number of the offences that might go un punished being precisely defined. Down to the fifth century the holder of the hereditary tax exemption for a particular tract of land was called "Tarkhan"; the granting of this type of immunity and also the land concerned were called Tarkhani. Originally Tarkhan was a term applied to "Mongol nobles".[7]To every one under proprietary title, and adorned the formans for these with the al Taghma seal, which is an impressed seal made him vermilion (red ink). I ordered that they should cover the place for tile seal with gold- leaf (tila-push) and impressed the seal there on, and I called this Altun (gold) Taghma. The Mongol title "Tarkhan" which offered privilege such as excusing the holder-from otherwise mandatory attendance at court, was bestowed in frequently by the Mughal emperors on favourites such as the chingisid, Mirza Jani Beg, who was honoured thus by Akbar. Other Tarkhans mentioned in the "ma athiral-umara" an 18th century "Peerage" of the Mughal empire, include Mirza Ghazi Beg (IP 582), Mirza Eisa (IP 689) Mohammad Salah (IP 205) and Nur al-Din (IP 483-60). The title was originally hereditary one; under Timur, a Tarkhan had free access to the Palace and criminal immunity for himself and his children up to nine offences. The number nine also held a special significance.[40] The meaning of the title of "Tarkhan" Abu-al-Fazal, in the Akbar nama had a valuable note regarding the meaning and the history of this ancient title Tarkhan. The title was a hereditary and but rarely given.[41] Shah Husain was succeeded by one of his officer Isa Khan who had the hereditary title of Tarkhan, and belong to another branch of the same family. This Tarkhan house continued in power until 1592 (Tarkhan Dynasty).[42]Tarkhan is a privileged imperial classTarkhan is a Turkic word which entered from Turkic language or via Russian language. The meaning in old Turkic of Tarkan, is "a privileged class".[43] Tarkhan means the regimental commander of Khazar army.[44] Tarkhan among Turkic peoples in the Middle Ages, a feudal lord (Prince) or a Person of any of several other social groups free of taxation. The tax-exempted lands and property of the feudal lords of the transcaucasus, middle Asia, and the Khanates of Kazan, Astarkhan and the Crimea. The authority of a Khan should be some what strengthened to allow for batter control of his people, but not too much. A Khan should be appointed by the Russian government thus insolating the candidate from the influence and pressure of the Kazakh notables. It was important to favor one of the Sultans in preparing him to assume the position of Khan. A Khan and the Sultans should be given annuities and the notables granted the status of tarkhan.[45] By this time the title existed in two dintinct forms, the simpler Khan and the more complex "Khagan" which according to Al Khawarazmi, meant a "Khan of Khans", that is to say a leader of leaders, just as the Persians refer to a Shah-an-shah. In the steppes of western Kazakhstan, north and west of the Aral sea, the dominant groupings by the eleventh century were Oghuz Turks. The Aghuz included both local groups, descended, perhaps from the ancient settlers of the Syr Darya region and more recently arrived groups of Turkic speakers. Their leaders adopted the Turkic title Yabghu, while subordinate chiefs were known as "Tarkhans".[46] A Mongol aristocrat should be exempted from taxation by receiving a grant of immunity and becoming a Tarkhan, a term the Russians also borrowed in this.[47] Tarkan is an old Turkish dignity and distinguishes such persons as were free from taxation. In the oldest Turkish document Tarku means a letter of protection, a letter of nobility and in Mongolian (kowalewsky, P 1768) tarkha means to grant anyone a privilege.[48] Only one social group was exempt from taxes the Tarkhan, a privileged nobility who held hereditary land grants given to them by the Khan, most likely in return from some type of military services.[49] Juvani defines the privilege of Darkhan (Tarkhan) as follows: the Darkhans are free from compulsory taxation and receive a share of booty from each campaign. They also enjoy the right of entrée to their masters palace at anytime. Juvani added that Genghis Khan also gave the two herds man troops and servants and showered them with Cattle, horses and equipment, he also decreed that they should be exempted from punishment for whatever crime and that this exemption should apply to their descendants, to the 9th generations. The title Darkhan (Tarkhan) was originally granted for military services but even in the days of Genghis Khan, It was sometimes bestowed on religious dignitaries. In 1219 Genghis Khan raise the young seventeen year old Butthist Monk Hayun to the rank of Darkhan and in 1223- the Taoist Saga Chandchun was granted exemption from all taxes. During the Yuan dynasty the title Darkhan was bestowed mainly on government officials. The institution continued among the Mongols after the collapse of Yuan dynasty.[50] Tarkhan is a Turko-Mongol TribeIt is a quite true that Tarkhan was a Mongol title, but it is equally true that in these notices Tarkan or Tarkhan is a tribal name.[51] He welded together into a new nation the people who dewelt in tents and above this nation; he set up the Mongol clan, the tarkhan and noyons; companions of his early struggles.[52] Kunakhnars sprung from a person of that name Menglik, surname Izka for his piety and virtue, was of the Urma-uts tribe and married the widow Ulun-iga, mother of Temugin (Genghis Khan). Arlats the second branch of the Urma-uts (Umma-uts) sprung from Arlat second son of Meglik Izka. The Kalkits from Kalkits third son of Menglik, so named because he could not speak plain. From the Kalkits are derived the Kishliks. This man who with his brother Baydu safed the life of Jenghis Khan, made them and their descendents for nine generation Tarkhan free from all sorts of taxes. It is obvious that Tarkhan are true Mongols, to a family of Genghis Khan, descendants of the two persons above referred (Qishliq and Bata), were the pregenitors of two tribes, styled respectively Badae Tarkhans and Kashilk Tarkhans. Tarkhans of the Dasht-i-Kibekak and Khwarzam are descendants of Badae, while those of Turkistan are descendants of Kishilik. Several great Amirs arose from these tribes, among whom was the Tarkhan Haji, who was the founder of a city on the Atil to which he gave his name Haji Tarkhan (Astarkhan).[53] Turko- Mongoilian tribes represented in his administration were the Arghun; Qunghrat; Turken; (especially the sanjari branch); Tarkhan; Uzbek; Ilchikday (especially the Nukuz and Qipchaq branches) and the Uyghur. Some of these, notably the Barlas, Arlat and Tarkhan, enjoyed hereditary privileges; other such as the Jalayir and Qunghrat came to prominence only in Sultan Hussains time. As for as the Uyghur and Nukuz, who did not belong to the paramount Timurid Tribes, they played an important role in the household establishment as Ichkis (see ando, Timuridische empire 200, 217, 236-36, Tarkhan became a tribal desighnation from the time of Sultan Abu Said) There were also individuals with special hereditary previlages, such as those desighnated Tarkhan who enjoyed judicial and tax immunity and unrestricted access to the ruler .[54] The nine original prerogatives carried with them the Title Tarkhan; a very ancient rank or order of nobility, among the Mongols (see yule, cathay and the way thither,pp,287 and436). The Tarkhans are constantly spoken of by Asiatic authors as a Tribe,but this need not imply that they were of any particular racial descendants. Thus, Amir Timur, in his institutes, enumerates twelve of the forty tribes (aimaks) which had submitted to his government; Barlas; Tarkhan; Arghun; Jalair; Tulkchi; Duldi; Moghul; Sulduzi; Tughai; Kipchak; Arlat and Tatar. Some of these names imply race distinctions; others only orders or families. (Davys Institutes of Timur,p. 91).[55][56] The nine original prerogatives carried with them the Title Tarkhan; a very ancient rank or order of nobility, among the Mongols(see yule, cathay and the way thither, pp, 287 and436).The Tarkhans are constantly spoken of by Asiatic authors as a Tribe,but this need not imply that they were of any particular racial descendants.Thus, Amir Timur, in his institutes, enumerates twelve of the forty tribes (aimaks) which had submitted to his government; Barlas; Tarkhan; Arghun; Jalair; Tulkchi; Duldi; Moghul; Sulduzi; Tughai; Kipchak; Arlat and Tatar. Some of these names imply race distinctions; others only orders or families.(Davys Institutes of Timur,p. 91).65.Samarkand citizens were called Tarkhans that meant they were free of taxes, the written texts of "Adjaib al Makdur"-"Babur nama" contains the most important information about Turko Mongol tribes that inhabited Fergana valley.[57] Mughal Dynasty of India Kinship with Tarkhan Dynasty of Sindh, PakistanBabur was the founder of Mughal dynasty which was called the Muslim dynasty that ruled Northern India for 300 years. The dynasty was founded by Chagatai Turkic prince named Babur, who was descend from the Timur on his father side and from Chagatai second son of Mongol rulers, Genghis Khan on his mother side.[58] The Tarkhan Mughal daynasty of sindh were also descended from Genghis khan, the family tree runs as follows Chengiz Khan; Tolui; Hulagu; Abagha; Arghun; Gaykhatu; Gazan; Oljeitu (khuda Banda), Amir Elchi, Amir Edu Timur. The tarkhan were rulers descendants of the eldest son of Amir Edu timur. General Mirza Isa Beg founded the Tarkhan Dynasty in sindh (Pakistan) after the death of shah Hussan Arghun of the Arghun dynasty. This is proved that both the dynasties are descended from Genghis Khan. The Mughal dynasty of India had matrimonial relationship with Tarkhan dynasty of sindh (Pakistan).[59] Some examples are mentioned here under:- 1. The wife of Abu Saeed Mirza was the daughter of Urda Bgha Tarkhan, she was the mother of Sultan Ahmed Mirza and Grand mother of Babur. 2. The wife of Babur, Musoom begum was the daughter of Hibeba begum Arghun Tarkhan; the wife of Sultan Ahmed Mirza Babur's Uncle. 3. The mother of Ghiyas-U-din Sultan Mahmood, the second grand mother of Babur was the daughter of Urda Baga Tarkhan. 4. The daughter of Mirza Isa Khan Tarkhan the ruler of sindh Bega Begi was the wife of Humayun. 5. Mirza Kamran the brother of emperor Humayun married the Chuchik Begum who was the daughter of Mirza Shah Husain Arghun Tarkhan. 6. The mughal emperor Jahangir married the daughter of Mirza Jani beg Tarkhan. 7. The mughal emperor Akbar married with the daughter of Mirza Baki Tarkhan, Sindhi beghum. 8. The daughter of Sultan Ghiyas-u-din Mansoor, Berka begum which was the aunti of Babur married with Haji Muhammad Tarkhan son of Shair Khan Tarkhan. 9. The sister of Babur Reqia begum married with Jani beg Tarkhan, who is buried at Mukli (Thatha) graveyard.[60] Ancestor of Genghis Khan, Ergenekon smithsThe Chengiz Khan was the son of Yassukae Bahadur; Bartan Bahadur; Kabul Khan; Tuminai; Bae-Sunkar; Kaidu Khan; Zutumin; Bukae; Buzanjar; Alan Kuwa; Do-yun Beyan; Bagjadi; son of I-Yal Khan ( may be son of kaian). Kaian (qiyan) was the son of I-Yal Khan, Tingiz Khan; Mangali Khan; Yal-duz Khan; Ay khan; son of Oghuz Khan; son of Kara Khan, who belonged to the Mughal I-mak (Ancestors of Mughals), and Nagos (Nekuz) was the son of I-Yal khan maternal uncle, and their two wives who were sisters, and all four of whom chanced to be without the camp at the time,not a soul escaped of the whole Mughal I-mak. Thay entered in a valley called Irganh-kun,where their families flourished and increase in number. The pass had been destroyed by an earthquake and no trace of it remained. They searched about in all directions and at last they found one spot which seemed easier than any other, but it was impeded by a hill in which was a mine of iron and to enable them to get out, they split the rocks by means of fire and succeeded in making a practicable route. This is improved upon by Petic de la Croix in his Book, Life of Genghis khan the great; page 6, who say that the cayat (kaiat) derived their name from a certain people who lived in the remotest Northern parts of Mongolistan which was called cayat, because their Chief had heretofore erected a Foundry for iron-work in a mountain called Arkanakon, which gained them a great reputation, and made this branch of the Mughal highly esteemed, by this invention: they therefore called those people the Arkenekom (Ergenekon) smiths. Every year, when the anniversary of that day comes around on which the kaiat and duralgin came out of Irganahkon,the Mughals keep it as a great festival and on the night, there of the Mughal sovereigns have the implements of the blacksmith brought it in,beat it on an anvil with a hammer, in commemoration of opening the wayout, and this custom, imperfectly understood by Ibn Batutah and others, that the Chengiz Khan or Tamurchi was in his outset a blacksmith in the country of Khita. Others authors say that all who can trace their ancestry to Kaian and Neguz (Kaiats and Dural-gins) are considered true Mughals. 1.According to the Secret History of Mongols, Temujin was named after a Tatar Chieftain whom his father had just captured. The name also suggests that they may have been descended from a family of" blacksmith".The name "Temujin" means ironsmith (temur in Turkic is iron,jin is smith) Temujin is" demurei" in present day Turkish; but '"Teymurchin" in Mongolian that is a shared word also. As for as being a blacksmith implies, a Turkic origin because Turks in the central Asia are known as iron workers and they are still on the producing iron equipments. If we consider the above mentioned history of the old Turkic Dynasties; Xingnu/Hun; Gokturk; Khazar; Oghur/Oghuz,all were iron worker and manufactured Weapons and all were adopted old Turkic title tarkhan ( Turko- Mongol title like Khan; Khatun; Khagan). This title was originally a hereditary one, a tarkhan had free access to the palace and his children up to nine offenses.) but the title Tarkhan was also a Mongol title conferred by the Tarkhan chiefs enjoyed power and privilge next to the Great Mongol Khan. (genghis Khan by Herold Lamb). The title Tarkhan is verified by the Meander in the sixth century. It is certain that the Genghis Khan had some ancestral relationship with Khan; tarkhan and khakan lineage. The tarkhan and smith lineage indicate that ancestors of the Genghis Khan were belong to Tarkhan family, Borzagun Kayat, a Golden family(Ashina clan), a subtribe of Oghuz/Oghur descended from Xiongnu/ Huns.[4] Genghis Khan belonged to Tarkhan FamilyOguz to be the grandson of Japheth, son of Noah.He was the father of Turkish and Mongol peoples.In the Legend of Oguz as spoken of in the Orkhonian manuscripts, he conquers Russia and parts of Eastern Europe somewhere between the Volga and the Danube.He ventures as for north as the,Darkness Finland and lives 17years near the Caspian and has for sons there before traveling on the conquer Turkistan.Oguz Turks conquered Palastine in 1070AD. Iran was ruled by the Seljuks an Oghuz tribe. Iraq and the Anatolian Peninsula were conquered by Oguz Turks, Speaking the Oguz-Turkish language, their name was Osman (Ottomanempire) ---. The Khazars are a Toquz Oguz/Uygur tribe, the name Khazar may be from the Mongol name of Qasar. The Mongols are from the Lake Baykal area and are Oghuz Turks. They lived at the foot of the Burkhan (Burkhan-Kaldun) mountain range between the Onon and Kerulen rivers . Mongols means "Brave" according to Chinese historian. Their capital Karakorum is on the Orkhun river in the heart of Oghuz homeland.As in the Secret history of Mongols, the patrilineage began with blueish Wolf (Borte chinoa) and fellow doe (ghoa maral), their eleventh generation descendant Dobun Mergens Alangua the Fair was impregnanted by a ray of light. Her youngest son became the ancestor of the later Borjigid. He was Bodonchar Mungakgh, who along with his brothers sired the entire Mongol nation. Such type of oldest mythological concept were present in Turko Mongol society.This may indicate that they were a single group e.g. The Wolf symbolizes honour and is also consider the mother of the most Turkic peoples Asena; Ashina tuwv is the Wolf mother of Bumen the first Khan of Gok-Turks. In the earliest form of the central Asian myth, an abundant baby boy was nursed by She-Wolf. Later the myth was changed to the story of the Princess who married a Wolf and gave birth to a boy. In other versions the child was the sole survivor of a war. He war east into the marshes by hi enemies; where he was discovered and raised by a She-Wolf, with have be later mated. The child was another cases the offspring of a Wolf and Deer, the ancestor of Genghis Khan, according to the secret history of Mongols a horse and a cow (Khitan group), a camel and a lion (Qarakhnide), a Jackal and a women (The qualatch).[61][62]Blue Wolf is a symbol of Turkic and Mongolian peoples. Wolf nomads were properly known as the Wegwivr. It may be a political state of the Flanaess. The name also applies to the tribes of nomadic horsemen who dwell within these lands. The Wolf nomads are descendant from the Relentless horde, which swept into the area around 320 CY. After the death of the Kha-khan Ogobanuk, the Tiger nomads spilt from the horde and the Wolf nomads come to be ruled known as the Tarkhan. Since then the Tarkhans have ruled according to the degree set fourth in the great Yassa of ogobanuk which describe the tradition of illusion, leadership, and the proper way of nomadic life.Same type of mythological concept of Blue Wolf was also present in the Oghuzes:Uyghurs and the Huns. Some scholars consider the Oghuz are a Mongol group who traditionally inhabited parts of modern Uzbekistan/ The Uighurs are Mongols of northern western China and adjacent parts of the farmer soviet union. Despite their modern geographical separation, they share a common creation myth. This may indicate that they were once a single group or that they formerly cohabited much more closely than today. The story in outline is as follows. Long ago, there was a Hun chieftain who had twin daughter, more beautiful than any women on the earth. He decided to keep his daughters looked away from all men. So he build from then a mansion in the highest region of the north of his domain. How ever a God came to the two girls in the shape of a Blue Wolf and married them both, one girl gave birth to the nine Oghuz Toquz Oghuz and the other gave birth the first ten Uighurs Onoghur. They became the ancestor of these two groups. The Huns were a Mongol group who spread southward across the steppes, terrorizing northern China and eastern Europe their graves are common in the Central Asia and the steppes. Their best known monuments or stones with carving that depict deer with the son in their antlers. These memorials were probably used in shamanic rituals. From the above myth, and story we conclude that, All the Mongol tribes are descended from Oghuz/ Uighurs tribe and a Wolf is a symbol of "Mother of the Turkic people Ashina Tuwv, who was the mother of Bumen khan the first khan of GokTurks, descended from Ashina dynasty.[63]We know that the tribe of ur-mankakuts was the leading tribe descended from Oghuz Khan, all the Mughal tribes are related to that tribe. From the three sons of Alan ku sprung a numerous tribe, in the Mughal language surnamed Nirka (Niron), that is a pure family. The descendants of Qayan took the sir name of Kayat and those of Naguz took the surname of Darulgun. It is also mentioned that the Kayat are descendant from the six son of Kabul Khan and the Borjugan Kayat sprung from the five sons of Yessughi Bahadur khan who was the father of Timujin ( Genghis Khan). The Umma-uts, formerly called Urma-uts, from them are derived four tribes;- (1) Kunakhmars (2) Arlats (3) Kalkits (4) Kishliks . The Kunakhnars sprung from a person of that name Menglik, sur name Izka for his piety and virtue, was of this tribe and married the widow Ulun-iga, mother of Temugin (Genghis Khan). Arlats the second branch of the Urma-uts (Umma-uts) sprung from Arlat second son of Meglik Izka. The Kalkits from Kalkits third son of Menglik, so named because he could not speak plain. From the Kalkits are derived the Kishliks. This man who with his brother Baydu safed the life of Jenghis Khan, made them and their descendents for nine generation Tarkhan free from all sorts of taxes. It is obvious that Tarkhan are true Mongols, family of Genghis Khan, descended from Urma-uts tribe, from his (Genghis Khan) mother side (Kalkits third son of Menglik). The descendants of the two persons Kishliq and Bata to were the pregenitors of two tribes, styled respectively Badae tarkhan and Kishliq tarkhan. These tarkhans who were descendant from Kishliq and Badae were relative of Timurid and Mughal empire (Babur, Himayun and Akbar). They became Princess, Commanders, Generals and they also established the Chengiside dynasty which was famoused as Arghun and Tarkhan dynasty in 1554 AD, in Sindh (Pakistan).Tarkhan is a title of Turko Mongol dynasties; Hunnic, Gokturk, Khazar and Uyghurs. The title Tarkhan appears in the Orkhon inscription, Tonyukok, Kul tekin and Bilge kagan(Gokturk rulers). Khazars are a Toquz Oguz/Uygur tribe. Their rulers possessed the title Tarkhan and Baghatur. The prominent rulers were Ras tarkhan, Alp tarkhan, Hazer tarkhan, Qutlugh tarkhan sengun and Tun Bagha Tarkhan. Tarkhan is an ancient Turkic title related to titled Khan, Khaqan, Khatun, Baghatur, etc. It was a Mongolic title conferred by the Tarkhan chief enjoyed power and privilege next to the great Mongol Khan. Originally Tarkhan was a term applied to Mongol nobles. From this, we deduce that, the Genghis Khan was Turkic, may be Mongolic, but it is certain that he had ancestral linkage with Khan, Tarkhan and Khaqan linage.He(temurchi) was himself Tarkhan but he adopted the title Chengiz Khan. He conferred the title Tarkhan to his relatives, Qishliq and Badae who were descendant from Kalkits tribe (third son of Menglik).Genghis Tarkhan of the Mongols, also directed his, Orn Thither, and in 1221, drove the emperor from hr-capital.[64] At the death of the seeminly invincible men who had made them masters of all they-O, Lord bogdo, cried a grey haired.[65] "Tarkhan". Genghis Khans time, there are seven ministers, three proconsuls and Ten commissioners, all incharge of troops, of residents fifteen of generals and Tarkhan no fixed number, every one lives on flesh and kumiss.[66] Many as well as additional weapons were distributed before a battle and afterward those who had distinguished themselves were rewarded with promotion or by being named Tarkhan.[67] Tarkhan means blood thirsty, independent or free. It was a title given by Chengiz Khan to some of his men for bravery and valour. Tarkhans are therefore the descendant of Chengiz Khan.[68] At the summit of the military and social pyramid was Genghis Khans own family, which became known as the Altan Uruk or while the army theoretically consisted only of free men, its sami professional back bone came from the Tarkhans.[69] The falcon Tarkhan of the anger of God; Genghis Khan even be member of the Tarkhans.Now we consider the terms of Mongol glossary, AltanUruk; Golden clan, Chengiz Khan family; the Gold family which ruled the Mongol empire ancestors of the Genghis Khan ; Otuken, the earth mother ; Erlik Khan, ruler of the-Tarkhan (tar-khan) (Turkic title) A warlord of Prairei who protected his herd with armed followers, the wealthies of them because the aristocrates of the steppes the noyans or princes. Otuken is one of the name given to Mother Earth in Tengrism. The word was used to described the sacred mountain of ancient Turks. It was mentioned by the Bilge Khan in the Orkhon Inscription,as the place from where the tribes can be controlled.A force "Qut" was believed to emanate from mountain, granting the local potentate to divine right to rule all the Turkic Tribes.The Kazar whose were Turkut and Oghur/Oghuz people worshipped a number of deities subordinates Tengri, including the fertility; God of death. Prince Kul Tegin (685-732CE) descended from Gold (kagan) clan of the ancient Turkic dynastic tribe Ashina clan called Shar-Duly (Gold bird duli). He was a general of second Turkic Kaganate and the second son of Ilterish Shad and younger brother of Bilge Kagan (orkhon inscription). They defeated Kyrgyz, Turgesh and Karluks, extending the Kaganate territory all the way to the Irongates (Derbent in Dagastan). They also subjugated all nine of Tukuz- Oguz tribes. All royal Oghuzs traced their descent from this mythical bird Dulu/Tulu.2. It is clear from the above terms Altan Uruk; Erlik Khan; Tarkhan (Turkic title); Otuken, the Genghis Khan was Turkic, but some Scholars argue that the Huns/Xiongnu were one of the earlier Turkic Tribes,while other argue that they were Mongolic; Linguistic studies by OttoMaenchen, support a Turkic origin. My opinion is that, the Genghis Khan was descended from Oghuz/Oghur Turk tribe may be Mongolic, but it is certain that he belong to a Tarkhan Mughal family, especially Ashina clan (Golden Family), a sub group of Xiongnu/Huns, who were engaged in metal working. Their ancestors erected a Foundry for iron work in a mountain called Arkanakon (Ergenekon), those people gained a great reputation for this invention. They were true mughals and called Arkanakon smiths.[70]Mughal Tribes Pure families Nirkha (Niron)Alinjah was the father of two sons, were born at one birth, two the eldest of whom,he gave the name of Tattar and to the second the name of Mughal. The two brothers appear to have ruled jointly and in hormony, for some time but eventually, separation took place between them and two tribes arose, which authors call by Turkish words I-mak and Ui-mak. Mughal from I-mak was the father of Kara Khan; Oughz Khan. Mughals tribes which are in all forty five, descended from Oghuz/Oughr Tribe The Ur-mankakts was the leading tribe (descended from OghuzKhan), all the Mughal tribes are related of that tribe. The descendants of Kayan took the surname of Kayat, and those of Nagos that of Durlagon, The tribes mentioned as sprung from them, are thirty in number; thirty derive their pedigree from Kayan, and five from Nagos. Now, we describe about the tribes descended from Kayan. 1- From the three sons of Alanku sprung a numerous tribe, in the Mogul language surnamed Nirkha (Niron), that is a pure family. 2- The Kunkurat sprung from a son of Zurluk Mergan, who descended from Kayan. They dwelt on the bank of the river Kalassui in the time of Genghis Khan. 3-The Burkuts and 4-Kurla-uts, these two tribes lived with the Kunkurats, who are related to them. 5-The Ankarah and 6- Alaknuts are descended from the two sons of kabay Shira,brother of Zurluk Mergan. 7-The kara-nuts sprung from Karanut eldest son of Busyuday, third brother of Zurluk Mergon. 8-The Kurlas, one of the most eminent tribes among the Moguls, are sprung from Kurlas, the youngest brother of Zurluk Mergon. Bertizena khan of the Moguls when they sallied out of the mountati Irgana Kon, was a descendant of Kurlas. This tribe is divided into many branches, who have surname of Niron. 8- The kataguns descended from Bokum Katagum, the eldest of Alankus three sons. 9-The Zalzuts from Boskin Zalzi,Alankus second son, 10- The Bayzuts from Bassikar and Hurmalankum,son of Kaydu Khan. 11-The Zipzuts from Zapzin, Kaydu Khan third son, and 12-The Irighents from Zapzin also. 13-The Zenas, they sprung from Kaudu Zana and Olekinzena, a son of Hurmalankum. 14-The The Buta Kins from Butakin eldest son of Tumana Khan, grand son of Kaydu Khan. 15-The Uruths, from uruth, second son of Tumana Khan. 16-The Mankats from Mankat, Tumanas third son. 17-The Badurghins, from Samkarum third son of Tuman Khan, 18-The Budats from Batkilti Tumanas forth son. 19-The Burlas from Zedemzi, burlas, a son of Kazuli Tumanas sixth son of this tribe was the great Timur Beg or Tamerlane, 20-The Kayums from Udur-beyan seventh son of Tumana Khan 21-The Vilots from Balzar, Tumana eighth son,called Oglan. 22-The Bassuts from Olzingan, ninth son of Tumana. 23-The kayats are descended from he six sons of Kabul Khan; in whom being strong men and great warriors was received the name Kayat, 24-The Borzugan Kayats sprung from the five sons of Yessughi Bahader Khan of whom Temujin afterwards JenghizKhan was the eldest. The tribe of Duralgans, descended from Nagos are five;- 1- The Bayuts 2-The jalayrs, 3-Vishuns 4-The Suldus 5- The Oklians; of whom nothing more is mentioned, than that they are branches of the Moguls. The Umma-uts, formerly called Urma-uts, from them are derived four tribes;- (1) Kunakhmars (2) Arlats (3) Kalkits (4) Kishliks. The Kunakhnars sprung from a person of that name Menglik, sur name Izka for his piety and virtue, was of this tribe and married the widow Ulun-iga, mother of Temugin (Genghis Khan). Arlats the second branch of the Urma-uts (Umma-uts) sprung from Arlat second son of Meglik Izka. The Kalkits from Kalkits third son of Menglik, so named because he could not speak plain. From the Kalkits are derived the Kishliks. This man who with his brother Baydu safed the life of Jenghis Khan, made them and their descendents for nine generation Tarkhan free from all sorts of taxes. It is obvious that Tarkhan are true Mongols, A family of Genghis Khan, descended from Urma-uts tribe, from his mother side (Kalkits third son of Menglik). The Ur-mankats may be Urma-uts, A clan of this nation, the seljuks, embraced Islam and in the eleventh century entered Persia, where they founded the Great Seljuk Empire. Similarly in the eleventh century a Tengriist Oghuz clan overthrew pecheneg supermacy in the Russian steppe.[71] Tarkhan Mughals have no relationship with Hindu Caste and TribesIn Hindu society a caste system is present, in subcontinent, some scholars consider that Hindu tribes such as Kshatriyas, Vishwakarma Brahmins, Ramgharia Jassasing (Thoka) are related to Tarkhan tribe. This is misconception because historically, no evidence is present that the Tarkhan tribe have ancestral relationship with the above mentioned Hindu tribes. Tarkhans are descended from Turko Mongol dynasties, Genghis Khan dynasty, especially Muslim dynasties, Tamurid, Mughal empire and Tarkhan and Arghun dynasty of Sindh (Pakistan). The term Tarkhan was an ancient Mongolic title conferred by the Tarkhan Chief enjoyed power and privilege to the great Mongol Khan, originally Tarkhan term was applied to Mongol nobles. The title was originally hereditary, under Timur, a Tarkhan had free access to the Palace and criminal immunity for himself and for his children's up to nine offences. Tarkhan was a Turko Mongol tribe. Amir Timur in his institutes, enumerates twelve of forty tribes which had submitted to his government, Barlas, Tarkhan, Arghun, Jalair etc.Now we discuss the origin of the Hindu tribes Kshatriyas, Wishwakarma Brahmins, Ramgharia Jassasing (Thoka). Wishwakarma is a term used in India for caste of priests, engineers, architecture, sculptors, temple builders and artist. The term is applied to five subcaste, Blacksmith, Carpenters, Coppersmith, Goldsmith and sculptors. Vishwakarma Brahmins are also called Rathakara Brahmins and the Rathakara mentioned in the Rigveda(1.6.32) indicates high status and is associated with the placing of the Holy sacrificial fire in the Yaina Kunda. According to the traditional belief, Wishwakarma Brahimins are descended from five sons Lord Vishwakarma. They are as follows, Manu, Maya, Twashta, Silpi, Vishwajnya. The community was spread widely throughout of India and played a vital role in the village economy. The Vishwakarma Brahmins claim to have been spiritual guides and priests and their position in the society survives in the saying the Vishwajnyabrahmins is Guru to the Word. Vishwakarma Brahmins (Panchal) are known as the Missionaries of civilization, culture and religion because they spread the Hindu religion to the whole World through their art.[72] Ramgharia is a craftsman's family, after Jassa Singh Ramgharia (1723-1803), was born at Thoka Ichogil village in 1723 near a city of Amritsar. Due to the term Thoka which was the title of the Ramgharia, they assume that it refers to a members of a Tarkhan's family. Thoka ( may be Hindu term) means may be a artisian person, carpenter etc. So it cannot be deduce from the term Thoka that they belong to Tarkhan family because Tarkhan is a Mughal family descended from Turko Mongol dynasties. According to the "Manusmriti", the Sakas as being descendants of the Hindu Kshatriyas. So it is clear that there is no evidence present that the Sakha tribe, Jassa Singh Ramgharia and VishwakarmaBrahmins belong to Tarkhan Mughal tribes.[73]The Tarkhan Mughals were descendant from Turko Mongol Muslim dynasties (Timurid, Mughal empire, Tarkhan and Arghun dynasty of Sindh Pakistan), ruled in subcontinent, inhabited in India and Pakistan, especially in the province of Punjab (Lahore, Gujranwala, Gujrat, and Sialkot) and Sindh (Hydrabad, Thatha, Nawabshah). They have different customs, norms and culture from Hindu society. They never mix up with Hindu culture and society, before and after creation of Pakistan. They are Agriculturist, Industrialist, Builders, Factory owners, Business man, Traders especially they are engaged in Iron and Timber related businesses.HistoryXiongnu/HunsTarkhan is a title of Turko-Mongolic peoples; Hunnic; Gokturk; Khazar; Oyghur/Oghuz rulers. Hunnic/ Xiongnu legendary rulers were Touman; Mao tun (Bature Tengriqut); Tama tarkhan; Attila etc. Oghuz kagan was the title of bature Tengriqut (Mao-tun) of Xiongnu/Hun empire which resided on the upper orkhon, in the mountainous region where later Karakorum, the capital of the Jengiz-Khanite Mongols, was to be established.He was the military leader under his father Touman and later the Chanyu and Emperor of the Xiongnu Empire located modern day Mongolia. The name of the Mao-tun has been associated with Oguz Kagan, an epic ancestor of the Turkic people. Tama Tarkhan was another legendary ancestor king in eastern hunnic source, particularly among those who formed the Altyn, Oba Horde.There is no one among the Hsiung rulers whose name sounds much like "Kama Tarkhan". His realm may therefore have spread from the Ukraine to Bactria dynasty before coming under the Juan Juan. The(the Deer) later absorbed a Turkic (Blue wolf) influence and later emerged as the Mongols.[74] The original geographic location of Xiongnu is generally placed at Ordos. A study based on mitochondiral DNA analysis of human remains interred in the Egyin Gol valley of Mongolia concluded that the Turkic peoples originated from the same area and therefore are possibialy related. Some Scholars like Paul Pelliot insisted on a Mongolic origin.[75] Excavations conducted in the 1920, in northern Mongolia revealed much about the Xiongnu culture, as did digs in Inner Mongolia and Other sites. Remains show that the Xiongnu were mainly Mongoloid and were influenced by other culturs especially the Chinese. Some art work found in xiongnu sites show them wearing their hair in long braids with ribbons, a style preferred by the Turks of the Ashina clan[76]The Xiongnu practiced Tengriasm which is Altaic Turkic and Mongolian Shamanism. The Xiongnu worshiped their ancestors haven, earth, sun, stars and moon. Like most nomadic Altaic peoples they lived in felt tents called yurts. They liked to make many crafts with gold and metal. Iron and Bronze was smelted in their workshops and the fine tools weaponry, household utensils, jewelry and ceramics were produced. They were very good at metal working.[77]Ashina Clan "Mother of Gok Turks"Ashina clan was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turks who rose to prominence in the mid. 6th century when there leader Bumin Khan revolted against Rouran. The two main branches of the family, one descendent from Bumin and the other from his brother Istemi ruled over the eastern and western parts of the Gok Turks empire respectively. According to the new book of Tang, the Ashina were related to the Northern tribes of the Xiongnu. As early as the 7th century four theories about their mythical origins were recorded by the book of Zhou, book of Sui and Youyang Zazu. 1.Ashina was one of the ten sons born to a gray-she-wolf in the north of Gaochand. 2.The ancestors of the Ashina was a man from the Suorcation, north of Xiongnu whose mother was a wolf and a season goddess. 3. The Ashina were a mixture stocks from the Pingliang commandery of eastern Gansu. 4. The Ashina descended from a skilled archer named Shemo, who had once fallen in love with a sea goddess west of Ashide cave.The name Ashina first appeared in the Chinese records of the 6th century and prior to that no other source had related their history at all. The Great Soviet encyclopedia infers that between the year 265 to 460, the Ashina had been part of various late Xiongnu confederation. After 460 they were subjugated by the Rouran, who ousted them from Xinjiang into the Altay Mountains, where the Ashina gradually emerged as the leaders of the early Turkic confederation known as Gok Turk empire under pressure from the resurgent Uyghurs (Turkhut peoples), branch of the Ashina clan moved westward to Europe where they became the Khagans of the Khazars and possibly other Nomadic peoples with the Turkic routes. The recorded use of "Turks" as a political name is a sixth century reference to the word pronounced in the modern Chinese Tujue. The tribe were famed metal smiths and was granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said forgotten their name Tujue.According to the Marquart Ashina clan constituted a noble caste throughout the steppe. According to the Gok Turk and the Khazar khagnate suggest the Ashina clan was accorded sacred, perhaps quasi-divine status in the Shamanic religion practiced by the steppe nomads of the first millennium CE. The Khazars practiced traditional Turkic Shamanism, focused on the Sky God Tengri but were heavily influenced by Confucian ideas imported from China, notably that of the mandate of Heaven. The Khazars worshipped a number of deities subordinates Tengri, including the fertility Goddest Uma; Kuara; a Thunder God and Erlik, the God of death.[78][79]Gok Turk KhagansThe Gok Turks were a Turkic people of ancient central Asia, known in the medieval Chinese sources Tujue, the Gok Turks under the leadership of Bumin Khan and his sons succeeded the Xiongnu as the main Turkic power in the region and took hold of the Lucrative Silk road trade. He Is mentioned as Tumen in the ancient Chinese sources. His name means"smoke cloud". Little is known about his life and most of the information comes from legends in which he gathers a group of Turkic people living in a legendary place called Ergenekon located in the inaccessible valleys of the Altay Mountains. The famous Gok Turk rulers were:- Ashina Tvwu, Boman Qaghan, Muqan Qaghan, Taspar Qaghan, Ishbara Qaghan, Yami Qaghan, Shibi Khagan, Istami, Tardu (Kara Khagan), Tong, Yabghu Kaghan (Ziebel), Bagha Shad, Qilibi Khan, Shebi Khan, Ilterish Qaghan, Qapaghan Qaghan, Kul Tigin, Bilge Kagan and Tonyukuk. Tarkhan title occures in the Orkhun inscriptions; Tonyukuk (W6-N10), Kultekin (W2-N12) and Bilge kagan (S14) who were the rulers of the ancient Turkic khagnate Gok Turk ( Tujue people), ruled as the two main branches of the family; one descended from Bumen kaghan and others from his brother Istemi. They were the first Turkic tribe known to use the name "Turk" as a political name. The GokTurk rulers originated from the Ashina Clan, a tribe of obscure origins who lived in the northern conner of inner Asia. According to Book of Zhou and History of Northern dynasties, the Ashina were a subgroup of the Xiongnu. Book of Sui reported that when Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei over threw Juqu Mujians Northern Liang in October 18,439, Ashina's 500 families fled to the Rouran Khaganate for generations and served as ironsmiths for the Rouan Khaganate, with the heterogeneous Rouran confederacy, the Gokturk were engaged in metal-work. Tarkhans Khazar rulersThe Orkhon valley was the centre of the Ashina power. After the collapse of the Gokturk Empire under pressure from the resurgent Uyghurs, branch of the Ashina Clan moved west ward to Europe, where they became the Kaghans of the Khazars and possibaly other nomadic peoples with the Turkic roots. Some Scholars such as DM Dunlop and PB Golden considered the Khazars to be connected with a Uyghur tribe called Hesan in Chinese sources form the 7th century. PB Golden even went further claiming that Khazars were a tribal union of Uyghurs, Sabir and some other Altaic Turkic people (Akatizr tribe;Hunnish origin). Tarkhan was a name of Khazar king who ruled from 830-840, later it became the title of the steppe rulers. According to Arab Texts; a Tarkhan king of Khazars, as reigning in the mid ninth century. The name is used today in Turkic and Arabic speaking countries for Turko-Mongol race. Tarkhan a Turkic title, war lord of the prairie who protected his herd with armed followers the wealthiest of them, because the aristocrats of the steppes, the noyans or princess. Tarkhans commanded Military contingents, generals and then could also be assigned as Military governors of conquered regions. The king of Khazar called Khagans and Tarkhans (Beks), the prominent Khagan rulers were:- Ziebel (Tong Yabghu Qaghan) (618-630 AD); Borishad (Wolf governor) (630-650); Irbis Khagan (650-680), Busir Khagan (690-715), Bihar Khagan (731-732), Barjik (720-731), Parsbit (Noble women) (730-740), Baghatur Khagan (740-760), Khan Tuvan (825-830) and the prominent Tarkhan (830-840) rulers were:- Chorpan Tarkhan (C-630), Alp Tarkhan (630-700), Ras Tarkhan (700), Hazar Tarkhan (737 CE). The khazar had a two king system, consisting of a military king (Bek) and a sacral king (Khaqan). The Khazar army which took orders from the bek and Military commander (Tarkhan) included tens thousands of professional soldiers. Khazar was finally wiped out by the forces of Genghis khan, but evidence; the most distinguished and influential among them was the Tarkhans.[80][81] Oghuz/Oghur TarkhansThe Uyghur Empire (Toquz Oghuz) was a Turkic Empire, that existed about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries. They were a tribal confederation under the Orkhon Uyghur nobility, referred to by the Chinese as the Jiuxing (nine clans), a calque of the name Toquz Oghuz. After a series of revolts coordinated with there Chinese allies the Uyghur emerged as the leaders of the Tokuz-e-Oguz (nine tribe formed a coalition). In AD 744 the Uyghur under the command of Qutlugh bilge kol defeated Gok Turks, they founded the Uyghur khagante at secred mount Otuken, controlled of the Mt-otuken had been since the Xiongnu a symbol of authority over the Mongolian steppe and crowned himself as the supreme ruler, Khagan of all Altaic tribes and built his capital at Ordu Baliq. In AD 747 Qutlugh bilge kol died, leaving his youngest son, Bayanchur khan (747-759 AD) to reign as khagan Eletimish bilge. Bayanchur khan received tribute from the Chinese in 757, he was given the daughter of Chinese empirer to marry (Princess Ningo). In 759 after drinking heavily at a celebration Bayanchur khan died. His son Tengri Bogu succeeded him as a khagan Qutlugh Tarkhan Sengun. Tengri Bogus uncle Tun Bagha Tarkhan had a rebellion against his ruler beheading him and his closest followers (2000 nobles). Tun Baga Tarkhan ascended the thorne as Alp Qutlugh Bilge (victorius, glorious, Wise) and enforced a new set of laws, which he designed to secure the unity of the khagnate. The ancestors of the Uyghur tribe were Altaic pastoralists called Tiele. They were practiced some minor agriculture and were highly developed metals smiths due to the abundance of easily available iron ore in the yenisei River. The Tiele were subjugated by the Xiongnu in 300BC who put them to work manufacturing weapons. Uyghurs were also advance in the fields such as architecture, art, music, printing, and painting. Wang Yen De, who served as Chinese ambassador to the Kara Khoja uyghur Kingdom between the years 981-984, wrote in his memories. I have found in the Uyghur Kingdom, the beauity of the temples, monasteries, wall painting, statues, towers, gardens, housings, and palaces build through the Kingdom cannot described. The Uyghurs are very skilled in handicraft made from gold and silver vases and potteries, say that God has infused this talent into these people.The name Oghuz is derived from the word ok, which means arrow or tribe.The designation of "Oghuz" was given to a series of Turkic tribes in central Asia, who had united into a new confederatio The Oghuz Turk famous Tribes Kayi (founder of ottoman dynasty), Bayat; Afshar: Begdili (founder of Harezmshahs), Bayindir ( (founder of the Ak Koyunla dynasty), Salur (founder of the Karamanoglu dynasty), Kinik ( founder of the Seljuk Empire). Kimek was the one of the seven tribes in the Kimek Khanate in the Period of 743-1050AD. The other six consituent tribes, according to Abu Said Gardizi (1061) were the Yamak, Kipchaks, Tatars, Bayandur, Lanikaz and the Ajlad, formed a new political tribal union, after the break up of the Uyghur Kaganate in 840AD. The Arabian source list Bayandurs as a constituent clan of Oguzes and estern sources list Bayandur ( Kagan Bayandur of Uighur dynasty in the 747-759) as a Kipchak clan. The Oghuz gradually grew larger as various other Turkic tribes united during the Gokturk Empire, in the 6th and 7th centuries. Oghuz is not an ethnic name, and it can be simply translated into "Turkic Tribes". The Oghuz Turkic branch or western Turk branch, is one of the traditional six branches of the modern Turkic peoples. The Xiongnu, Shan-yu, Mao-tun (178-177BC) subdued a people called Huchich, they were suggest the ancestor of Oghur/Oghuz. According to many historians, the usage of the word" Oghuz" is dated back to the advent of Huns. The title of the Oghuz was given to Mau-tun, the founder of the Hun Empire, which is often considered the first Turkic political entity in central Asia. The mention of the six Oghuz tribal union in the Turkic Orkhun inscriptions (6th century) pertains to the unification of the six Turkic tribes which became known as the Oghuz. This was the first written reference to Oghuz, and was dated to the period of the Gokturk Empire. The Oghuz community gradually grew larger, uniting more Turkic tribes prior and during the Gokturk establishment. Prior to the Gokturk state, there are references to the Sekiz-Oghuz (eight-oghuz) and the Dokuz-oghuz (nine-oghuz) union.[82]Mongol EmpireChingiz khan (Genghis khan) born by Temujin (meaning iron worker) was the founder of Khan (ruler) and Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in the history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol empire and being proclaimed Chingiz Khan (Genghis khan), he started the Mongol invasions and rade of the Karakhitai khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid empire, Western xia and Jin dynasty. By the end of his, the Mongol empire occupied a substantial portion of central Asia and China before Genghis khan died, he assigned Ogedei Khan a successor and spilt his empire into Khanates among the sons and grand sons. He died in 1227 after defeating the Tanguts. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia at an unknown location. Tamijin was born in 1162 in a Mongol tribe near Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and the Onon and Kherlen revers in modern day Mongolia. The secret history of Mongols reports that Timujin was born a blood clot grasped in his fist, a traditional sign that he was destined to become a great leader. He was the third eldest son of his father Yesukhei, tribal chief of the Kiyat tribe, a subtribe of Borijigin clan (Golden family). According to the secret history of Mongols, Tamujin was named after a Tatar Chieftain, whom his father had just captured. The name also suggest that they may have been descended from a family of black smith. The name "Tamujin" is believed to derived from the word Timur meaning Iron. The name would imply skill as a black smith. More likely, as no evidence has survived indicate that Genghis Khan had any exceptional training or reputation as a black smith, the name indicated an implied lineage in a family one known as Black Smith. The later interpretation is supported by the names of Genghis Khan's sub lineages, Temulin and Temuge, which are derived from the same root word. Genghis Khan's religion is widely speculated to be shamanism or Tengrism, which was very likely among Mongolic-Turkic tribe of Central Asia. But he was very tolerant religiously and interested to learn philosophical and moral lessons from other religions. To do so, he consulted Christians missionaries, Muslim Merchant's etc. Timujin had three brothers named Qasar, Khajium and Temuge, and one sister named Temulen as well as two half brothers named bekhter and belgutei. Timujin married Borte of the Olkuthum tribe, when we was around sixteen in order to cement alliances between their respective tribes. Borte had four sons, Jochi (1185-1226), Chugatai (1187-1241), Ogedei (1189-1241) and Tolui (1190-1231).At the time of Timujin the Central Asia plateau (north of China) was divided into several tribes or confideration, among them Naimans, Merkits, Uyghurs, Tatar, Mongols and Keraits, that were all prominent in their own right and often unfriendly toward each other as evidence by random raids revenges and plundering. Before his death, Genghis Khan divided his empire among his sons Ogedei, Chagatai, Tolui, and Jochi into several Khanates designed as sub territories their Khans were expected to follow the Great Khan who was initially Ogedei. Jochi had been died several month before Genghis Khan, his lands were divided into his sons, Batu and Orda. Ogedei was the great Khan took most of the eastern Asia, Iran, including China, this territory later to comprise the Yuan dynasty under Qubilai Khan. Chagatai Khan was the second son of Genghis Khan, established a Mongol Khanate, it was considered a part of Mongol empire, later it became full independent Khanate. At this height in the late 13th century, the Khanate extended from Amudarya South of the Aral sea to the Altain Mountains in the border of modern day Mongolia and China. Tuli Khan being a youngest son, received a small territory near the Mongol homeland including Karakorum, following Mongol custom. Tuli fathered Mongke, Kublai, Ariq Boka and Hulagu, and thus the progenitor the great Khans. Empirors of the Yuan dynasty and the IlKhans. IlKhan means "Subordinate Khan" and the title borne by the descendants of Hulagu Khan. The actual founder of the Ilkhanate dynasty was Hulagu Khan. The Ilkhanate Mongol kings were: Hulagu (1250-1265), Ubaqa Khan (1265-1282), Ahmed Teguder (1282-1284), Arghun (1284-1291), Gaykhatu (1291-1295), Baydu (1295), Mohammad Ghazan (1295-1303), Mohammad Khodabandeh (Oligeitu) (1304-1316), Abu Said Bahdur (1316-1335). Jochi's Ulus established Blue Horde to Batu Khan and White horde to Orda Khan, both were later combined into the Kipchak Khanate or Khanate of Golden Horde under Toqtamysh. Atlast the horde broke up into separate Khanates:- 1.Kasim Khanate 2.Khanate of Kazan 3.Khanate of Astarkhan 4.Kazakh Khanate 5.Uzbek Khanate 6.Khanate of Crimea 7.Siberia Khanate 8.Nogai horde[83][84]Timurid's TarkhansThe Timurid's self-designated gorkani were a central Asian Sunni Muslim Turko Mongol dynasty whose empire included the whole of the central Asia, Iran, Modern Afghanistan as well as the large parts of Pakistan, India, Mesopotamian and Caucasus. The origin of the Timurid's dynasty goes back to the Mongolian nomadic confederation known as Barlas, who were remnants of original Mongol army of Genghis Khan. Although the Timurid's hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Turkicized Mongol origin, they had embraced Persian culture, converted to Islam and resided in Turkistan and Khorasan thus the Timurid era had a dual character which reflected both the Turko-Mongol origins. According to the secret history of the Mongols, Barlas had same ancestry with the borjigin and other Mongol clans. The leading clan of the Barlases traced its origin to Qarchar Barla, head of one of the Chaghatai regiments; says Qarchar Barlas was a descendant of the legendary Mongol war lord bodonchir who was also considered the direct ancestor of Genghis Khan. One family particularly loyal and important during Shahrukh's early reign was that of his wife Gawharshad, daughter of Timur's follower Ghiyathal-din Tarkhan, an important and influential noble during Timur's reign. According to the family traditions the title Tarkhan was given to the family by Genghis Khan personally. Along with her brothers who were administrators at the Timurids court in Herat. Goharshad played a very important role in the early Timurid history. In 1405 she moved the Timurid's capital from Samarkand to Herat. Ghiyathal-din Tarkhan had married several daughters to Timurid's prince. Two of the Goharshad brothers Ali Tarkhan and Hassan Sufi Tarkhan had been appointed with Shahrukh to Khurasan. These Tarkhans were prominent in most of Shahrukh's early campaigns, along with four other brothers. Husayn Sufi, Sayyid Ahmed, Mohammad Sufi and Hamza. Although no one of these Amirs stands out as the most powerful figure in the administration or Army-together they formed much the most important family group. In 1407-08 Sayyid Ahmed received a land grant in Andkhud which appears to have remained his seat and that of his family. His status is indicated by the fact that he had personally sent a horse to the Chinese emperor, for which he received special thanks. All of these brothers performed important functions in Shahrukh's transoxiana campaigns of 1409-11. Shahrukh's expeditions against the troublesome sons of Umar-shaykh in fars the sons of Ghiyathal-din Tarkhan or again prominent, some in assignments requiring particular trust. Shahrukh's kerman campaign to put down the insubordinate governor Sultan Uways included Hassan and Husayn Sufi and in 1417-18 Mohammad Sufi Tarkhan is mentioned campaigning in the Qandahar region; he was among the Amirs sent to pacify Badakhshan in the same year. The high position of the Tarkhan Amirs is attested also in the Muizzal-Ansab. Two are mentioned as Amir-e-diwan under Shahrukh, apparently sequentially; these are Ali and Hassan Sufi. Mohammad Sufi is listed as Tovachi and as leader of Tumen in the center of Shahrukh's army. Taken together, this family provided Shahrukh with a group of particularly trusted servitors.[85]Mughal Empire of India and TarkhansBabur was the founder of the Mughal dynasty which was called Muslim dynasty that ruled Northern India for 300 years. He was born in 1483 and died in 1530. He was a grand son of the great Prince Timur or Tamerlame and was sovereign of Kabul. He several times invaded Hindustan and in 1524 finally over threw and killed Sultan Ibrahim the last Indian emperor of Afghan race. The dynasty was founded by Chagatai Turkic Prince named Babur (reigned 1526-30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, second son of Mongol rulers Genghis khan, on his mother side. Babur's son Humayun (reigned 1530-40 and 1555-56) last control of the empire two Afghan rebels, but Humayun's son Akbar (reigned 1556-1605) defeated the Hindu Usurper Hamuatther second battle of Panipat (1556) and their by reestablished his dynasty in Hindustan. Akbar's son Jahangir (reigned 1605-27) continued both his father's administrative system and his tolerance policy toward Hinduism. His son Shah Jahan (reigned 1628-58), had an insatiable passion for building and under his ruled the Taj Mahal and the great Mosque of the delhi around other monuments were erected. Aurangzeb (reigned 1658-1760) annexed the Muslim Deccan Kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda and there by broad the empire to its greatest extent, but his political and religious intolerance laid the seeds of its decline. Due to reign of Mohammad Shah (1719-48) the empire began to brake up, a process hastened by dynastic warfare, factional rivalries, and the Iranian conqueror Nadir Shah brief but disruptive invasion of Northern India in 1739. After the death of Mohammad Shah in 1748, the Marathas overran almost all of the Northern India. Mughal ruler was reduced to only a small area around delhi, which past under Maratha (1785) and then British (1803) control. The last Mughal Bahadur Shah (reigned 1837-57) was exiled to Rangoon by the British after his involvement with the Indian Mutiny of (1857-1858).[58] Umar Shaikh Mirza was a ruler of high ambitions and great pretensions, he was always bent on conquest, on several occasions he lead an army against Samarkand. More than once he asked his father in law in the country, that is to say, my grand father Yunas Khan, the Khans of Mughals, his ancestor Chughtai Khan, the second son of Chengiz Khan. Mughal Khanship was in Sultan Mohammad Khan, Yunus Khan's younger son and half brother of my mother. As he an Umar Sheikh Mirza's elder brother, the then ruler of Samarkand, Sultan ahmed Mirza were offended by the Mirza's behavior, they came to an agreement together. Sultan Ahmed Mirza had already given a daughter to Sultan Mohammad Khan, both know lead their armies against Umar Sheikh Mirza. He was born in Sumarkand in 807 AH (1456 AD). He was Sultan Abu Saeed Mirza's fourth son, being younger than Sultan Ahmed Mirza, Sultan Mohammad Mirza and Sultan Mahmood Mirza. His father Sultan Abu Saeed Mirza was the son of Sultan Mohammad Mirza, son of Timur beg, MiranShah and was younger than Umar Sheikh Mirza and Jahangir Mirza but older than Shahrukh Mirza. Three of his son and five of his daughter grew up, I Zahirud Din Muhammad Babar, was the eldest son; my mother was Qutluq-Nigar Khanum. Jahangir Mirza was a second son, two year younger than I; his mother Fatima Sultan by name, was of the Mughal Tuman Begs. Nasir Mirza was a third son, his mother was Andijani, a mistress named Umid. He was four year younger than I. Umar Sheikh Mirza's eldest daughter was Khanzada Begium, my full sister, five years older than I.Yunus Khan descended from Chughtai Khan, the second son of Chinghiz Khan. Yunus Khan son of Wais Khan, son of Shar Ali Aughlan, son of Mohammad Khan, son of Khizr Khwaja Khan, son of Dawa Khan, son of Barqa Khan, son of Yisuntawa Khan, son of Muatukan, son of Chaghatai Khan, son of Chinghiz Khan. Qutluq-Nigar Khanum my mother, was Yunus Khan's second daughter. She was with me in the most of the my Guerilla expeditions and thornless times. She went to God's mercy in Muharram 911 AH (June 1505 AD), five or six month after the capture of Kabul. Sultan Ahmed Mirza was born in 855 AH (1451 AD), the year in which his father took the Thorne of SamarKand. He was Sultan Abu Saeed Mirza's eldest son; his mother was a daughter of Aurdu-bugha Tarkhan (Arghun), the elder sister of Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan and the most honoured of the Mirza's wives. Mihr ngar Khanam was his first wife, set a side for him by his father, Sultan Abu Saeed Mirza. She was Yunus Khan's eldest daughter and my mothers full sister. Tarkhan begim of the Tarkhan was the another of his wives. Qtaq Begim was another, the foster sister of the Tarkhan begim just mentioned. Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan (Arghun) was another, the son of Aurdu-budha Tarkhan and full-brother of the mother of Sultan Ahmed Mirza and Sultan Mohammad Mirza; of all begs in Sultan Ahmed Mirza's presence, he was the greatest and most honored. He was an Orthodox, kindly and Darwesh like and was constant transcriber of the Quran. Abdul Ali Tarkhan was another, a close relative of the Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan, possessor also of his younger sister, that is to say, Baqi Tarkhan's mother.Though both be the Mughal ruler (Tura) and by his rank Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan was the superior of Abdul Ali Tarkhan. For some years he had the government of the Bukhara. His retainers were reckoned at 3000 and he kept them well and handsomely. His gifts (Bakhshish), his visit of enquiry (purshish), his public audience (Diwan) his workshop (Dast-gah), his open table (shilan) and his assemblies (Majlis) were all like Kings. He was a strict disciplinarian, tyrannical, vicious, self-infaturated person. Darwesh beg was another, he was of the lion of Aiku-Timur beg (Tarkhan Arghun) a favorite of Timur beg. Mohammad Mazid Tarkhan was another younger full brother of Darwesh Mohammad Tarkhan. He was Governor in Turkistan for some years till Shabani Khan took it from him. His judgment and counsel were excellent; he was an unscrupulous and vicious person. Baqi Tarkhan was another, the son of Abdul Ali Tarkhan and Sultan Ahmed Mirza, his father died they gave him Bukhara. He grew in greatness under Sultan Ali Mirza his retainers numbering 5 or 6000. In the same year Sultan Ali Mirza fell out with Mohammad Mazid Tarkhan for the following reasons. The Tarkhan had risen to over much predominance and honour; Baqi Tarkhan had taken the whole revenue of the Bukhara government and gave not a half penny to any other else; Mohammad Mazid Tarkhan for his part, had controlled in Samarkand and took all his district for his sons and dependants a small sum only accepted, fixed by them, not a far thing from the town reached the Mirza by any channel. Sultan Mirza was a grown man; how was he to tolerate such conduct as theirs?I really took Samarkand a few days to meet. Those braves went, set their ladders up opposite the Lover's Cave got in without making any one aware, went to the gate, attacked Fazal Tarkhan, Chopped at him and his few retainers killed them, broke the lock with an axe and opened the gate. At that time I came up and went in. Abdul Qasim Kohbur himself had not come with us but had sent 30 or 40 of his retainers under his younger brother Ahmad-I-Qasim. No man of Ibrahim Tarkhan was with us, his younger brother Ahmad Tarkhan came with a few retainers, after I had entered the town and taken post in the Monastery. In the work for the coming battle I exerted myself greatly and took all precautions. Qamber Ali also did much. In Kesh lay Baqi Tarkhan with 1000 to 2000 man in a position to join us after a couple of days. Mirza dughlat bringing me 1000 to 2000 man from my Khan dada, he would have joined me at down; with matters in the position, we hurried on the fight. Our right was Ibrahim saru, Ibrahim Jani, Adul Qasim Kohbur and other Begs. Our left was Mohammad Mazid Tarkhan, Ibrahim Tarkhan and other Samarkandi begs, also Sultan Husain Arghun Kara (Black) Barlas, Pir Ahmed and Khwaja Husain. Qasim beg was (with me) in the centre and also several of my close circle and house hold.[86][87][88]Tarkhan and Arghun Dynasty of Sindh PakistanThe Arghun dynasty was a dynasty of either Mongol (davies P 627); Turkish or Turko-Mongol (boswrth, new Islamic dynasties P 329) ethnicity that ruled parts of Afghanistan in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, as well as the region of Sindh for most of the 16th century. The Arghuns can be divided into to branches, the Arghun branch of Dhul-Nul beg Arghun that ruled until 1554 and the Tarkhan branch of Mohammad Isa Tarkhan that ruled until 1591. Tarkhan Dynasty was established by Turkic Tarkhan and they ruled Sindh, Pakistan, from 1554 to 1591 AD. General Mirza Isa Beg founded the Tarkhan Dynasty in Sindh after the death of Shah Hassan Arghun of the Arghun Dynasty. Mughal emperor Akbar annexed Sindh after defeating the last Tarkhan ruler. The rulers of the Tarkhan dynasty of Sindh were:- Mirza Shah Beg Arghun Tarkhan (915-928), Mirza Shah Hasan Arghun Tarkhan (928-949), Mirza Isa Khan Tarkhan (949-974), Mirza Mohammad Baki Tarkhan (974-993), Mirza Painda Beg Tarkhan (993-993), Mirza Jani Tarkhan (993-1011), Mirza Ghazi Tarkhan (1011-1039) and Mirza Isa Tarkhan (second) (1039-1061). The Tarkhan of Sindh may have local historians assert be able to trace their origin to Eku-Timur, who as we have seen in the preceding note was the Grand son of Arghun Khan and was the member of the imperial family from the Arghuns also were descendants. The Arghun Khan was himself a Tarkhan. (History of Sindh by sir Elliot P303,497,499).[89] Tarkhan nama or Arghun nama these two are different names of the same work, The work is named after the Mughal families of Arghun and Tarkhan respectively, whose origin will be further noticed in the appendix. The author himself styled it Tarkhan nama only in compliment to his patron Mirza Mohammad Salih, who was of Tarkhan's family. Mirza Mohammad Salih, who is represented to have been endowed with every excellence, personal and intellectual, was the son of Mirza Isa Tarkhan, grand son of the more celebrated holder of the same name, who founded the Tarkhan dynasty of Sindh. It is related by Historians that Amir Zul-n-nun, son of Amir Bsri, one of the descendants of Arghun Khan Tarkhan, son of Abaka Khan, son of Hulagu Khan, son of Tuli Khan, son of Chingiz Khan, a soldier distinguished for courage and bravery among the warriors of his tribe was employed by Abu Saeed Mirza and on all occasions acted up to its farmer's character. By this conduct he became the great favourite of Sultan Abu Saeed. The honors and rewards he received subjected him to the anvy and jealous of his fallows, for his rank was elevated above that of all his relations. Shah beg entered sivi in triumph and make a short stay there during which time he build houses, laid out gardens, and raised a fort which he strongly garrisoned and having appointed Mirza Isa Tarkhan, one of the most distinguished of his nobles, to the governor he returned to Kandahar. In the same year, Shah Hasan Mirza having cruelled with his father, left him and went to the court of the emperor Babr and being by him received with hospitality and distinctions, he remained there two years. The emperor observe that his visit was not from any affection entertained towards himself by Shah Hasan, but in order that he might learn the art of governing rightly, and all the same time perfect himself in the ceremonies of the court. At length, Shah Hasan with the emperors permission returned to Kandahar. In AH 928(1522 AD) Shah beg left Payinda Mohammad Tarkhan incharge of Bhakar and advanced with a considerable army to the conquest of Guzerat. This being the state of the case, it was atlast agreed that, As the Arghuns could not choose on among themselves, in preference another, who might have honours and obeisances paid him. It was advisable therefore to select as their chief, one from out the Tarkhan tribe. The Mirza Isa Tarkhan governor of Fath Bagh being wise, Prudent, and of noble descent, was best qualified for the office and likely to accede to their request. They then invited the Mirza from Fath Bagh and informed him to his wishes. On his arrival, they showed him great hospitality and persisting in their request, obtained his consent. They than nominated him their chief and placed him at the head of the government of Thatta. They paid him royal respect and homage and having sworn allegiance placed themselves under his authority and made proclamation of his supremacy by beat of drums. The Mirza took Possession of the treasure and having lavish large sum amongst the army established hi power over the several districts and tribes of Sindh. Enraged at these occurrence, Mirza Shah Husain seized the Arghuns and Tarkhans who were in Bhakhar, such as Mirza Jani Beg Tarkhan, Mir Ahmed Tarkhan, Mir Hamza Beg Lar, Mir Murad Husain Beg Lar and others, and then marched at the head of a considerable army to Thatta to give battle to the arghuns and Tarkhans. Mirza Isa Tarkhan, son of Mirza Abdul Ali, son of Mirza Abdul Khaliq, son of Arghun Khan, son of Abagha Khan, son of Hulagu Khan, son of Chengiz Khan, secceeded to the thorn of Thatta after the death of Mirza Husain Arghun. Mirza Isa made Mirza Salih Tarkhan his heir, apparent and placed the reins of government in his hands, reserving to himself only the name of King.[90][91]

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