Did Australia start from prisoners from Australia?

Whilst the Dutch are credited with the discovery of Australia, they did not choose to colonise it. Seventeen years after English seaman James Cook named the eastern half of Australia "New South Wales" and claimed for England, the First Fleet of convicts departed from England.

So, no, Australia did not start from prisoners from Australia, it started with convicts from England, along with the officers and marines sent to guard the convicts and direct the new colony.