Supervisor's Note: there is no one thing that ALL Jews believe. Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and all other denominations teach that it is okay for Jews have an infinite number of opinions. The first answer was written by a Christian though, and contains some terminology mistakes that have been edited.
The following are all valid opinions.
No. Many Jews believe in the Old Testament Hebrew Bible or ("Tanakh") and that eventually all of the prophecies in it will be fulfilled, but they do not believe that all the prophesies have already been fulfilled.
The most obvious one is that Christians believe that Jesus came to fulfill the prophecies of the Old Testament Hebrew Bible. Some Jews are still waiting on the Saviour Messiah.
Clarification Regarding the previous answer, that which is "Saviour" to the Christian, is "Messiah" to the Jewish. Meaning of which is entirely different.
In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ) initially meant any person who was anointed to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. In English today, in religious contexts, it is used in two major contexts: the anticipated savior of the Jews, which has to come in the future to bring ultimate peace on earth; and secondly, the one who is anticipated as, regarded as, or professes to be a saviour or liberator. Jews, however, do not generally use the word "saviour" in reference to the messiah, primarily because of the Christian connotation of the word "saviour," and the sense in which that word is used by Christianity.
In Judaism, only God is the Saviour (not the Messiah).
Jewish Argument Against Jesus As Messiah (author unknown) quoted from John E. Remsberg The Christ, page 362
We do not find in the present comparatively imperfect stage of human progress the realization of that blessed condition of mankind which the prophet Isaiah associates with the era when Messiah is to appear. And as our Hebrew Scriptures speak of one Messianic advent only, and not of two advents; and as the inspired Book does not preach Messiah's kingdom as a matter of faith, but distinctly identifies it with matters of fact which are to be made evident to the senses, we cling to the plain inference to be drawn from the text of the Bible, and we deny that Messiah has yet appeared, and upon the following grounds: First, because of the three distinctive facts which the inspired seer of Judah inseparably connects with the advent of the Messiah, vis., (1) the cessation of war and the uninterrupted reign of peace, (2) the prevalence of a perfect concord of opinion on all matters bearing upon the worship of the one and only God, and (3) the ingathering of the remnant of Judah and of the dispersed ten tribes of Israel -- not one has, up to the present time, been accomplished. Second, we dissent from the proposition that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah announced by the prophets, because the church which he founded, and which his successors developed, has offered, during a succession of centuries, most singular contrast to what is described by the Hebrew scriptures as the immediate consequence of Messiah's advent, and of his glorious kingdom. The prophet Isaiah declares that when the Messiah appears, peace, love, and union will be permanently established; and every candid man must admit that the world has not realized the accomplishment of this prophecy. Again, in the days of Messiah, all men, as Scripture saith, "are to serve God with one accord"; and yet it is very certain that since the appearance of him whom Christians believe to be Messiah, mankind has been split into more hostile divisions on the ground of religious belief, and more antagonistic sects have sprung up, than in any historic age before Christianity was preached.
Reform, Reconstructionist, and the majority of Conservative Jews do not necessarily believe literally in prophecy or that the Messiah will be an actual person. Reform and Reconstructionist prayerbooks have removed messianic references. Conservative prayerbooks maintain these references, but allow for meaningful discussion on the topic.
While Jews believe that some of the Old Testament prophecies have been fulfilled (please see Expert Dan Galilee's list), these have been fulfilled through the passage of time and history. Judaism rejects the Christian claim that Jesus was the complete fulfillment of the law and prophecies of the Old Testament and further rejects that he was the fulfillment of any law or prophecy from the Old Testament.
All of them? Not yet. Many prophecies have been fulfilled. A few examples:
- The vast empires of the Caucasian peoples (Genesis 9:27), including the empires of Alexander, the Romans, Russia and America.
- The fact that Abraham is revered to this day, close to 4,000
years after his lifetime (Genesis 12:2).
- God having fulfilled his promise (Genesis 35:12) to give Israel (Canaan) to Jacob's descendants.
- The fact that the Arabs are very numerous (Genesis
- The Edumeans having been subjugated by the Israelites (see
Genesis 25:23 and 1 Kings 22:48).
- The fact that Edom (Petra) is today an uninhabited desert (Jeremiah 49:17-18).
- The existence of the Davidic dynasty (Genesis 49:8-10) and its
splitting (1 Kings 11:11-13).
- The destruction of the Temple (1 Kings 9:7).
- The scattering of the Jews (Deuteronomy 4:27).
- The destruction of Babylon (Isaiah 13:19).
- The hatred against the Jews, and the canards that have been
hurled at them (Deuteronomy 28:37).
- The fact that the Jews continue to exist despite their exile
- The fact that billions of people have come under the influence of the Abrahamic belief, with the Greek, Norse and Roman gods now long-defunct. This is an (as yet) partial fulfillment of Isaiah 2:18.
Other prophecies are being fulfilled even now. A couple of
examples are the mass return of Jews to Israel (Deuteronomy
30:3-5), and the fact that Israel is considered a significant force
in the Middle East, with a number of victories (see Micah
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