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With direct current, the charge flow is distributed throughout the cross-sectional area of a conductor. With alternating current, the charge flow tends to flow towards the surface of a conductor due to what is called the 'skin effect'. The higher the frequency, the greater the skin effect.

In fact, at microwave frequencies, pipes are used because no current would flow through the center of the conductor - these pipes are known as 'waveguides' the signal flows through the hollow center of the pipe as electromagnetic radiation and the pipe is used as a grounded shield only to prevent the escape.of this electromagnetic radiation.

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โˆ™ 2015-11-18 09:55:50
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