He pulse of aquatic environment can be ascertained by measuring options are nitrogen oxygen conductivity alkalinity?
One reason for measuring conductivity in seawater is to determine the salt content. Absolutely pure water is actually a pretty good insulator with low conductivity. As materials dissolve into it, the conductivity shoots up (water is an excellent solvent it seems). By measuring electrical and thermal conductivity of sea water you can quickly get a good handle on how much salt and other material is dissolved into it.
The equation relates the electrical conductivity to the diffusivity of its anion and cation constituents. While electrical conductivity is relatively simple to measure, diffusivity is a bit more complicated. Measuring the electrical conductivity of a solution or melt one can study materials properties and interaction.
Salinity can be measured by refractometry or conductivity, by measuring the specific gravity of a saline solution, using a salinometer. Saltiness can also be measured directly by evaporating a calibrated amount of water and measuring the mass of the remaining salt. One can also measure salinity by solvent extraction and by precipitation methods.
Pure water does not conduct electricity, because there are no free electrons. In salt water, the sodium chloride dissolves to form negatively charged chlorine atoms and positively charged sodium atoms, which WILL conduct electricity. So measuring the conductivity of the water will give you an indication of the amount of salt dissolved.
The long and short of measuring the electrical conductivity of elements involves little more than making a short piece of "wire" out of a given (pure) element and then applying a voltage and measuring the current. Take into account the external resistance, and the length, cross sectional area and temperature of the element and make some calculations. It's a little more involved with liquids, and tougher still with gaseous elements, but a conductor will "conduct"…
The objectives of cost accounting are ascertained of cost, fixation of selling price, proper recording and presentation of cost data to management for measuring efficiency and for cost control. The aim is to know the methods by which expenditure on materials, wages and overheads is recorded, classified and allocated so that the cost of products and services may be accurately ascertained; these costs may be related to sales and profitability may be determined. Yet with…