How are the sacraments related to jesus' paschal mystery?

In this answer, I assume you are referring to sacraments within the Roman Catholic tradition. The term "paschal mystery" refers to the suffering, death, resurrection, and glorification of Jesus Christ.
The main sacrament involved is the Eucharist. The last supper is where Jesus instituted the Eucharist, giving his body and blood to his disciples in the form of bread and wine.

Baptism is another main one. In baptism, we die to sin (by going under the water or having it symbolically poured on you) and come alive to new life in Christ, just as Christ died on the cross and was resurrected to new life.

The other sacraments, marriage, confirmation, penance, holy orders, and anointing of the sick, do not derive directly from the paschal mystery, but one has to remember that none of them would exist without Jesus' death and resurrection. Without that, Christianity itself would not exist.