How come cupcake is not considered a mineral?
A cupcake is not a naturally-occurring substance, with a specific chemical composition and crystal structure; Therefore, it is not a mineral. Its natural ingredients are minerals, though.
Refer to the dictionary definition of a mineral below:
Definition of Mineral
-any of a class of substances occurring in nature, usually comprising inorganic substances, as quartz or feldspar, of definite chemical composition and usually of definite crystal structure, but sometimes also including rocks formed by these substances as well as certain natural products of organic origin, as asphalt or coal.
Actually- In accordance with the above definition-
Most of the ingredients in a cupcake are not minerals either- They are not "naturally occurring" nor do most of them follow the definition of a mineral.
Eggs, sugar, milk, flour, yeast... none of these are minerals
The definition of a mineral is an element or a compound that is normally solid and has been formed by geological processes. A cupcake, water, teeth and oxygen do not fit this definition. Oxygen is an element but a gas and not a solid. Cupcakes are not formed by geological processes (like coal). Teeth are not formed like coal either, they are biologically formed. Water is a compound but a liquid.
Why is the ice in a glacier considered a mineral but the water in a river in not considered a mineral?
Why is the ice in a glacier considered a mineral but the water in a river is not considered a mineral?
Ice in a glacier meets the requirements for being a mineral, because it is natural, homogeneous, solid and crystalline, and has a definite chemical fomula. River water is liquid and therefore also not crystalline, so it is not a mineral. If and when the river water freezes into ice (naturally), that ice is a mineral.