- At the end of WWII Germany suffered a devastating defeat. In addition to everything else it was politically and morally bankrupt.
- Germany lost its eastern provinces - East Prussia, Silesia and most of Pommerania.
Most of the population, which was German, was brutally expelled to the Western Zones of Germany. The German-speaking population of the Sudetenland (in Bohemia and Moravia) was also expelled. An estimated 11.7 milion Germans were forcibly expelled, of whom at least 1 million perished.
- Prussia was dissolved and there is no likelihood of its being restored.
- As a result of the Cold War the country was split into East and West. Re-unification had to wait till 1990.
- The West German economy enjoyed a period of spectacular growth from about 1950 onwards.
- Democracy became firmly established in West Germany.
- In West German (and later Germany as a whole) there have been notable attempts to "confront the past".