How did Jesus institute the seven sacraments?

Christ instituted some of the Seven Sacraments during His ministry while instructing the apostles in the others that would only become active when the saving grace of His redemptive death had come to pass. Evidence of the seven sacraments exists both in written and oral Tradition, which Catholics reference as the deposit of Faith. As well, the presence and use of all seven sacraments in the first centuries of the early Church are documented as well in writings of the Church fathers and Christian historians. Sacraments are external signs meant to confer grace. The external sign is called the matter and the formula or words that accompany the matter are called the form. Since man is a physical and spiritual beings, Christ instituted the sacraments in order that human beings could see the sign of the spiritual effect they wish to receive - it is Christ's way of assuring us that the spiritual reality has transpired. Many of these signs are arbitrary: there is nothing in these things which themselves or powerful, nor in the words. The only reason they have power is because Christ has granted them such power when used in a proper way, with the proper words and the proper minister. The following will address each sacrament and supply one quote to help indicate how it was done and the time period of it's institution.

"Going therefore teach ye all nations: baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." - St. Matthew 28:19
The proper sacrament of Baptism was instituted after Our Lord's resurrection and is here given to them as a mandate as well as His personal authority to go and preach in His Name. When Christ was baptized by John the Baptist - whose baptism was a sign of penance not a sacrament - it was an act of humility since Christ was without sin. By so doing, however, He sanctified water which already had a natural symbolism for cleansing and thus is easily understood by us in its sacramental use.

"When the apostles, who were in Jerusalem, had heard that Samaria had received the word of God; they sent unto them Peter and John. Who when they were come, prayed for them that might receive the Holy Ghost. For he was not yet come upon any of them: but they were only baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid hands upon them and they received the Holy Ghost." - Acts 8:14-17
The apostles had been confirmed in their Faith at Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Ghost upon them in the Cenacle in John 20 (this is also when they were given the power as ordained ministers to administer Confession); this is the first Confirmation, for Christ promised to send the Paraclete and does so in this manner. In the Acts of the Apostles, some of the early ministry of the Church is recorded and the above quote is an example of a Confirmation. Despite already receiving the Holy Ghost in baptism the rite is conferred as well as the imposition of the hands.

The Holy Eucharist
Christ first introduces the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist in John 6, causing many of His followers to become scandalized in Him by his literal emphasis. However, the sacrament is not properly instituted until the Last Supper, the evening before His death, which is celebrated as Maundy Thursday.
"While they were at supper, Jesus took bread and blessed, and broke: and gave to his disciples, and said: Take ye, and eat: this is my body. And taking the chalice he gave thanks: and gave to them, saying: Drink ye all of this. For this is my blood of the new testament which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins." - St. Matthew 26:26-28

Confession or the Sacrament of Penance
Upon being confirmed, the apostles were also authorized by Christ to be able to administer the sacrament of confession.
"As the Father hath sent me, I also send you. When he had said this, he breathed on them, and he said to them: Receive ye the Holy Ghost: Whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain they are retained." St. John 20: 21-23. Christ Himself, being God, knew the sins of those around Him and often forgave people, which much incensed the Pharisees who doubted His divine claim. The apostles and Church ministry were not guaranteed the ability to read minds, hence confession involves the humility of the sinner to freely confess to someone that has the authority to lose sins. In the quote above Christ grants that authority to His disciples at Pentecost, that they go and do so in His Name.

Marriage had already been instituted since Adam and Eve as a natural bond and vow. Christ, however, elevated it to the level of a sacrament. He declares how matrimony, which had suffered from permissions of polygamy and divorce, will now forever be:
"From the beginning of the creation, God made them male and female. For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother; and shall cleave to his wife. And they shall be in one flesh. Therefore now they are not two, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let no man put asunder." St. Mark 10: 6-9. The sacrament of matrimony is actually administered by the couple, not the priest, hence the institution is here given by Christ sometime during His active ministry. The sacramental quality of the sacrament of matrimony is described in 1 Peter 3:7-9, as he refers to marriage as both a calling (a vocation) and a blessing which the Church views as a means of personal sanctification to attain heaven.

Extreme Unction or the Sacrament of the Sick
The sacrament is one that is used to prepare the soul for the final pains of death as well as offering the chance of healing should it be God's Will. Christ already had his disciples administering this sacrament during His ministry, thus it was instituted early on:
"Going forth they preached that men should do penance: and they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them." - St. Mark 6:12
James 5 records a snippet of the apostolic ministry's application of this sacrament.

Holy Orders
Along with the Holy Eucharist, Holy Orders was instituted during the Last Supper on Maundy Thursday. Many theologians believe Judas to have been ordained before he left the supper, as well as also making a sacrilegious communion.
Holy Orders were instituted by Christ when He said, "Do this for a commemoration of me." - St. Luke 22.19. Here Christ gives them a mandate to preform the sacrament of the Mass, i.e. the Holy Eucharist. The priest is ordained primarily for this purpose: to celebrate the Eucharist, hence this is the mandate that enacts ordination. Although specific details of the ordination rite are not contained in the Last Supper narrative, further evidence later in the New Testament describes how the rite is administered:
"Neglect not the grace that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the imposition of the hands of the priesthood." - 1 Tim. 4:14. Further passages follow throughout Acts and Timothy referring to the priesthood as manifested in deacons, priests and bishops.

He did not. He instituted only 2 sacraments - 1. Holy Communion ('The Eucharist', 'The Lord's Supper', 'The Mass') when he broke bread on Maundy Thursday night at the Last Supper 2. Baptism - "Go and baptise in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit" was his great commission at the end of Matthew's Gospel. The other 5 'sacraments' (Confirmation, Ordination, Matrimony, Penance and Unction) are not true sacraments as they were not instigated by Our Lord, but introduced as doctrine by the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, and are not recognised by Protestant churches as sacraments because of this.