How do flightless birds use their wings?

Flightless birds may use their wings in any of the following ways:
  • Balance
  • Temperature control, e.g. cooling in hot weather and warmth in cold weather
  • Protection of the ribcage during falls
  • Display during mating rituals
  • Defence: they may use them to scare predators
  • Sheltering for young chicks

In the case of some flightless birds, their wings serve no function whatsoever.